I know that the Color Guard is attached to the left flank of 5th (or Right-of-Center) Company of the Battalion, and that it will follow its alignment and commands of its Commander (unless, of course, these commands somehow conflict with the duty of the Color Guard), but is the Color Guard truly considered to be integrated into 5th (RoC) Company? The Color Guard doesn't fight the enemy, or even bring their weapons from the Shoulder Arms carry, except in response to a DIRECT THREAT to the Colors. Therefore, if men are temporarily transferred from 5th (RoC) Company, as per the "Equalization of Strength of Companies of the Battalion" practice, then that is a loss of firepower of potentially 9 men to this Company. That seems to be particularly risky if this Company has more direct involvement in the protection of the Colors than do the other Companies of the Battalion. Is there anything that can absolutely clarify whether or not the Color Guard is really a part of 5th (RoC) Company during its formation, or is simply attached to this Company so that it is not an independent demi-unit within the Battalion?
the color company does not protect the colors. The Color guard itself does. The Sergeant and corporals of the Color guard are drawn from the several companies of the battalion/regiment. It forms as you mention on the left of the right-center company, which in the 10 company regiment is the 5th company.
When the battalion is dismissed, the color guard and color escort put away the colors, etc. Then when they break ranks the sergeant and corporals camp, etc. with their own companies... The commander of the regiment decides who is to act with the color guard, and there is no legal/permanent assignment to it.