Discussion Today is Juneteenth....

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FedericoFCavada

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I am sorry. I frankly do not. AfriGeneas--African Ancestored Genealogy uses the image for the 33rd U.S. C.T. but I am frankly not sure where the original image is. The men look like they have received a lot of varied uniform and equipment, possibly occupation troops like those in Arkansas? :unsure:

Here is a celebration in 1913 at Corpus Christi, Texas
Emancipation_Day_1913_Corpus_Christi_Texas.jpg

Emancipation_Day_Celebration_CC_Texas_June_19_1913.jpg

Emancipation_Celebration_June_19_1913.jpg
 
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FedericoFCavada

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Wm. Dobak, Freedom By the Sword CMH book

From the AfriGeneas use of the illustration in question (I do not know if it is related at all...)

The following is a history and a listing of the soldiers from St. Augustine, FL who served in the 33rd USCT (1st South Carolina) Regiment.
"The 33rd USCT Regiment (or the 1st South Carolina Regiment) was filled with ex St. Augustine and St. Johns County slaves. The regiment was raised by General Hunter in May 1862. Col. James D. Fessenden was the staff officer and aide to General Hunter that was in charge of this early regiment. This was before approval from Lincoln and was abandoned. On August 10 the regiment was dissolved except for Company A. In November 1862, the 33rd, was reconstituted under Col Thomas Wentworth Higginson. The regiment consisted of ten companies of about 86 men each. On January 1st, 1863 at the Camp Saxton Emancipation Proclamation Celebration the regimental colors were given to the 33rd Regiment. The troops were official and paid.
Regiment Record
Before muster, 3 companies on Expedition along the coast of Georgia and Florida on during November 3-10, 1862. Spalding's, on Sapello River, GA, November 7 (Company "A"). Doboy River Island until March 1863. Expedition from Beaufort up the St. Mary's River in Georgia and Florida during January 23 - February 1. Skirmish at Township on January 26. Expedition from Beaufort to Jacksonville, FL, on March 23-31. Skirmish near Jacksonville on March 29. At Beaufort, SC, until January 1864. Expedition up South Edisto River during July 9-11, 1863. Action at Williston Bluff, Pon Pon River on July 10. Expedition to Pocotaligo, SC, during November 23-25 (Companies "E" & "K").
Skirmish near Cunningham's Bluff on November 24. (Companies "C" and "K" at Hilton Head, SC, until September, 1863, returning to Beaufort, SC; Companies "A" & "F" moved to Hilton Head, SC, during January, 1864. Expedition to Jacksonville, FL, during February 6-8.They were present at Township, Mill Town Bluff, Hall Island, Jacksonville and John's Island. Duty at Port Royal Island, S.C., District of Beaufort, S.C., till July, 1864. Expedition to James Island, S.C., June 30-July 10. James Island near Sessionville, July 2. Duty on Folly and Morris Islands operating against Charleston, S.C., to November. Demonstration on Charleston & Savannah Railroad December 6-9. Devaux's Neck, December 6. Tillifinny Station, December 9. Ordered to Folly Island, December 9. Near Pocotaligo Road, December 20. At Pocotaligo, S.C., till February, 1865. Occupation of Charleston till March 8. Moved to Savannah, Ga., March 8, and duty there till June 6. Moved to August, Ga. Duty there and at various points in the Dept. of the South till January, 1866. Mustered out January 31, 1866..
On February 8th 1864 the regiment became the 33rd USCT. The regiment was mustered out at Fort Wagner on February 9, 1866."
Roll of Soldiers: http://bit.ly/16lBdML
 

5fish

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What should be the official date for the end of slavery in America?

Jan. 1, 1863 the official date for the Emancipation Proclamation...

April 9, 1865, the day Lee and the AoNV surrendered...

June 19, 1865, when slavery ended in Texas...

Have Historians picked a date for this momentous day and moment in our national history?

It seems June 19, 1865, is becoming the day we celebrate this moment in our national history...

Why was not the end of slavery not celebrated before in our nation, until recently...
 
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FedericoFCavada

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Of course servitude was legally ended, but not for prisoners... And that loop-hole--so-to-speak--was exploited by the convict leasing system where people could be charged with "vagrancy" and bundled off to an insalubrious mine or chain gang at one or another work site, there to toil without wages and frequently die.

Rice University Fondren Library--Sugarland, Texas

Texas State Library and Archives--The 1860s: The Civil War and the End of Slavery

Texas State Library and Archives--1880s Convict Leasing

TSLA--Fear, Force, and Leather: The Texas Prison System's First Hundred Years 1848-1948
 

FedericoFCavada

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What should be the official date for the end of slavery in America?

Jan. 1, 1863 the official date for the Emancipation Proclamation...

April 9, 1865, the day Lee and the AoNV surrendered...

June 19, 1865, when slavery ended in Texas...

Have Historians picked a date for this momentous day and moment in our national history?

It seems June 19, 1865, is becoming the day we celebrate this moment in our national history...

Why was not the end of slavery not celebrated before in our nation, until recently...
Clearly, it was celebrated just not everywhere or by everyone. Something like 42 U.S. states recognize the Juneteenth Holiday. It has been a holiday in Texas since 1980, although clearly it was celebrated for a long time in the 19th and early 20th century. In San Antonio there were even two competing parades and sometimes a cannon fired a salute at Alamo Plaza!
 
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FedericoFCavada

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From the TSLA Fear, Force, and Leather: The Texas Prison System's First Hundred Years, 1848-1948 online exhibit:

"After the Civil War, Texas led the nation in murders. At least 900 people were murdered in Texas during 1869-70, almost 200 more than second-place Louisiana. Violent criminals were packed in with petty offenders and the young. A third of all prisoners were under 21 years of age, and the youngest was only seven.
Moreover, the prison was housing a number of disabled and elderly offenders, one of whom was 94 years old. These men were generally in prison on trumped-up charges to relieve their local communities of the burden of caring for them."

Douglas Blackmon's Pulitzer Prize-winning 2008 Slavery by Another Name: The Re-enslavement of Black Americans from the Civil War to World War II:
https://www.pulitzer.org/winners/douglas-blackmon
 
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5fish

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Of course servitude was legally ended, but not for prisoners... And that loop-hole--so-to-speak--was exploited by the convict leasing system where people could be charged with "vagrancy" and bundled off to an insalubrious mine or chain gang at one or another work site, there to toil without wages and frequently die.

Rice University Fondren Library--Sugarland, Texas

Texas State Library and Archives--The 1860s: The Civil War and the End of Slavery

Texas State Library and Archives--1880s Convict Leasing

TSLA--Fear, Force, and Leather: The Texas Prison System's First Hundred Years 1848-1948
I know after the war the southen states and other places in our great nation found creative ways to bring servitude back ...
 
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ForeverFree

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What should be the official date for the end of slavery in America?

Jan. 1, 1863 the official date for the Emancipation Proclamation...

April 9, 1865, the day Lee and the AoNV surrendered...

June 19, 1865, when slavery ended in Texas...

Have Historians picked a date for this momentous day and moment in our national history?

It seems June 19, 1865, is becoming the day we celebrate this moment in our national history...

Why was not the end of slavery not celebrated before in our nation, until recently...
Actually it was celebrated extensively after the war. For example:

041916-dc-emancipation-celebration-1866-1.png

Abolition/Emancipation Celebration in Washington DC, 1866. (April 16 is Emancipation Day in DC)

15th%2Bresults.jpg

This is an image of a parade held in Baltimore to celebrate the 15th Amendment and "the rise and progress of the African Race in America," May 19 1870.

This is a photograph of an Emancipation Day parade in Richmond, VA, circa 1905; I believe the day is April 3:
View attachment 261958
Description: In 1905 African Americans in Richmond celebrated the fortieth anniversary of the end of slavery.
Source: Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division (LC-DIG-det-4a12513 )


The following are Emancipation Day celebrations in Florida (May 20 in that state), from the 1920s:

pation-day-parade-lincolnville-florida-1920s-1-jpg.jpg

Emancipation Day Parade: Lincolnville, Florida (1920s). Lincolnville was community in St. Augustine, FL that was founded by former slaves after the Civil War.
Image Source:
FloridaMemory.com Blog, “Emancipation Day Celebrations in Florida”

-a-m-e-church-float-lincolnville-florida-1920s-jpg.jpg

St. Paul A.M.E Church float, Emancipation Day, Lincolnville, Florida (1920s)
Image Source:
FloridaMemory.com Blog, “Emancipation Day Celebrations in Florida”

queen-and-her-court-lincolnville-florida-1920s-jpg.jpg

The Queen and her court, Emancipation Day, Lincolnville, Florida (1920s)
Image Source:
FloridaMemory.com Blog, “Emancipation Day Celebrations in Florida”

These celebrations were commonplace in the first 30-50 years after the war.

In his book "The Southern Past: A Clash of Race and Memory," W. Fitzhugh Brundage writes

For all the efforts of Southern whites, especially white women, to enshrine their historical understanding of slavery, the Civil War, and black capacities, black celebrations made manifest a forceful and enduring understanding of their own. Postbellum blacks, no less than whites, appreciated the power that flowed from the recalled past.​
...During the half century after the war (blacks worked) to establish a commemorative tradition that made sense of the past and accorded them a central role in it...​
But whereas white southern women and their allies could and did marshal a full array of cultural forms to give voice to their collective memory, blacks had to make do with comparatively meager resources...​
Public celebrations emerged as the principal expression of black memory because of the harsh realities of the New South...​
Instead of the imposing monuments of stone and marble... Public observances like the 1883 San Antonio Juneteenth ceremonies better suited the ambitions and resources of black communities in the new South. Such celebrations demanded neither literacy nor large sums of money, and, most important, they ensured that the black sense of the past was accessible to more than just literate, elite, African Americans; the events had a unique capacity to involve the breadth of the black community, from the college-trained to preacher to the illiterate day labor, from the battle-scarred veteran to the impressionable schoolchild.​
Blacks understood that by entering public spaces and performing communal pageants, they were incorporating black history into the region's civic culture, thereby ending their historical exclusion from "ceremonial citizenship."​

- Alan
 
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ForeverFree

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A book about Emancipation Day celebrations:

Festivals of Freedom: Memory and Meaning in African American Emancipation Celebrations, 1808-1915
by Mitch Kachun

Book Description:

How the public commemoration of emancipation from slavery helped shape African American political culture

With the abolition of the transatlantic slave trade in 1808, many African Americans began calling for "a day of publick thanksgiving" to commemorate this important step toward freedom. During the ensuing century, black leaders built on this foundation and constructed a distinctive and vibrant tradition through their celebrations of the end of slavery in New York State, the British West Indies, and eventually the United States as a whole. In this revealing study, Mitch Kachun explores the multiple functions and contested meanings surrounding African American emancipation celebrations from the abolition of the slave trade to the fiftieth anniversary of U.S. emancipation.

Excluded from July Fourth and other American nationalist rituals for most of this period, black activists used these festivals of freedom to encourage community building and race uplift. Kachun demonstrates that, even as these annual rituals helped define African Americans as a people by fostering a sense of shared history, heritage, and identity, they were also sites of ambiguity and conflict. Freedom celebrations served as occasions for debate over black representations in the public sphere, struggles for group leadership, and contests over collective memory and its meaning.

Based on extensive research in African American newspapers and oration texts, this book retraces a vital if often overlooked tradition in African American political culture and addresses important issues about black participation in the public sphere. By illuminating the origins of black Americans' public commemorations, it also helps explain why there have been increasing calls in recent years to make the "Juneteenth" observance of emancipation an American—not just an African American—day of commemoration.

- Alan
 

ForeverFree

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What should be the official date for the end of slavery in America?

Jan. 1, 1863 the official date for the Emancipation Proclamation...

April 9, 1865, the day Lee and the AoNV surrendered...

June 19, 1865, when slavery ended in Texas...

Have Historians picked a date for this momentous day and moment in our national history?

It seems June 19, 1865, is becoming the day we celebrate this moment in our national history...

Why was not the end of slavery not celebrated before in our nation, until recently...
Many people are unaware of this, but there is an official national day to celebrate the end of slavery: National Freedom Day. It's discussed here. The day has nobody to champion it. It has faded into oblivion.

Juneteenth is hot, as in, currently popular. But I don't know that I like June 19 as being the day to celebrate emancipation nationally. Here in Washington DC we celebrate emancipation on April 16. This is the date that slavery was ended via compensated emancipation in the District. I think local celebrations should be based on local history.

If a particular place has never had a emancipation celebration, or a particular moment in time when the end of slavery was acknowledged, then Juneteenth is no worse than any other day, I suppose. But my preference is for people to look to their own local history first rather than using a date that is unique to Texas history.

- Alan
 
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