Discussion Cleburne's Division: An Amateur Thread

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
I have much interest in the Army of Tennessee and Patrick Cleburne particularly. I decided I'd do a series of threads on the 5 principle divisions of the Army of Tennessee (including Withers'/Hindman's; Cheatham's/Brown's; Breckinridge's/Bate's; and McCown's/Stewart's/Clayton's). I may extend this to other divisions (Walker's; Stevenson's; etc) if I get through all the main ones. I'd post this on regimental histories but...yeah I feel this topic goes beyond the scope of that.
I'm gonna split each post into multiple "parts" so I can make sure I've cited everything correctly. So without further ado, let me start with the division I know most about: Patrick Cleburne's Division.


Part 1: Early Existence

The division began its existence under William Hardee. In early 1862, it was stationed in Bowling Green, Kentucky, as part of Albert Sidney Johnston's Army of Central Kentucky. It consisted of 3 brigades: Thomas Hindman's, S.A.M. Wood's, and (then Colonel) Patrick Cleburne's. These 3 brigades had a polyglot of units assigned to them at this time, many which would transfer out later, but these three brigades would form the core of the division.

After the debacles at Forts Henry and Donelson, the division joined Johnston's retreat to Corinth, where he formed up for an attack on Grant at Pittsburg Landing. Hardee's command, a single division, was designated as "Third Corps".

At Shiloh, the division saw success against Sherman's exposed camp. It is believed that it was a soldier from Cleburne's brigade responsible for wounding Sherman in the hand. However, the attack soon broke down. Cleburne's division was divided by a pond and was cut to pieces. Hindman, leading his and S.A.M. Wood's brigade as a demi-division, was involved in the fruitless assaults on the Hornet's Nest. After 2 days of combat, the division was battered. Cleburne's brigade went into battle with around 2750 men, and had lost around 1043 men [1].

After Shiloh, there was some reorganization; they became part of Hardee's "Wing" of the Army of Mississippi under Bragg; command of the division was given to MG Simon B. Buckner. Cleburne's brigade was breifly detached to form a provisional division to support Kirby Smith's Army of Kentucky, and fought at Richmond. Eventually, the troops were reunited, and at Perryville, the division went into combat with 4 brigades: in addition to Cleburne's, Wood's, and Hindman's (now St. John Liddell's) Brigades, they were joined by Bushrod Johnson's Tennessee Brigade. The division was heavily engaged, suffering 832 casualties (350 from Cleburne's Brigade alone). [2]

Citations:
[1] Symonds, Craig L. Stonewall of the West: Patrick Cleburne and the Civil War, 69-79
[2] Symonds 87, 95-97
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Part 2: Cleburne Takes Command

After the failure of the Kentucky Campaign, the newly renamed Army of Tennessee encamped in Middle Tennessee. In December, Buckner left the army, resulting in the promotion of Patrick Cleburne to command the division. His command tenure for the next 2 years will make the division the stand-out formation of the Army of Tennessee. [1]

At the Battle of Murfreesboro, Cleburne's division, 6000 strong, marched on the night of December 30th to get into position to attack General McCook's right wing. At 5 am the 31st, Cleburne launched his assault. In conjunction with McCown's division and Polk's Corps, Cleburne's men routed McCook's wing and nearly rolled up Rosecrans' army, if not for the stand of Philip Sheridan's Division holding up Polk's advance. Cleburne's division fought hard throughout the day, breaking the Union lines 5 times, before stopping near the Nashville Turnpike around 3pm, unable to advance further due to stiffened federal resistance and exhaustion from lack of sleep. Stopping there, the division would see no further action in the battle (as the focus moved to the Confederate right) aside from skirmishing with the federal line. At 11pm on the 3rd of January, 1863, Cleburne, following Bragg's decision to retreat from the field, pulled his division out of the line and began marching to Tullahoma. Though Murfreesboro was another defeat, it showed Cleburne's skill as a newly minted division commander, when other fast promotions often resulted in poorer performances than before. [2]

The Army of Tennessee moved south to Tullahoma to spend the winter and spring of 1863. Cleburne's division camped at Wartrace, where he took the time to train and drill his men according to his regimen. After Shiloh, Cleburne had organized proper sharpshooter units in his brigade. At Wartrace, Cleburne recieved 5 Whitworth rifles; in order to determine which men were worthy of using this priceless weapons, he conducted tests with his men, placing them at distances of 500 to 1000 yards apart, and had each man calculate the distance from one another to determine who had the knowledge to utilize such an accurate weapon. Cleburne's interest for accurate fire would pay dividends in future engagements [3].

In May, Johnson's Tennessee Brigade was transferred to Alexander Stewart's new division. To replace the brigade, Cleburne recieved Thomas Churchill's Arkansan and Texan Brigade, made up of men from the Arkansas Post Garrison. Due to their ignominious actions there, they were refused by every other division in the army, except for Cleburne. Captain Sam Foster of the 24th Texas would later write, "There was but one General that would have us -- Pat Cleburne said he was not afraid to try us". The brigade would make a name for themselves under Cleburne's eye. [4]

At the commencement of the Tullahoma Campaign, Cleburne's division was sent to guard Liberty Gap on June 24th, when they were pushed back by Union troops before being forced to withdraw when the other gaps had fallen to Union hands. Retreating through Tullahoma to Chattanooga, the army was forced from Chattanooga by the nimble moves of Rosecrans on the 5th of September. [

At the start of the Northern Georgia Campaign, Liddell's Arkansas Brigade was detached to form a provisional division. This left Cleburne with Lucius Polk's Arkansan and Tennessee Brigade, S.A.M. Wood's Alabama and Mississippi Brigade, and James Deshler's (Formerly Churchill's) Arkansan and Texas Brigade. His command numbered some 5000 men. On September 10th, Cleburne was to take part in Bragg's plan to bag a division of the 14th Corps at McLemore's Cove, but bickering by D. H. Hill and inaction by Thomas Hindman let the oppurtunity slip away. [6]

The division was then engaged at Chickamauga. Linking up with Liddell's division late on the 19th, as the sun was setting, Cleburne's division was committed to a risky night attack, taking some federal positions on the Brotherton Road before halting. The next morning, Cleburne was sent in a headlong assault against Thomas' center, being repulsed with heavy losses; amoung the casualties in this action was Brigadier Deshler. The 16th and 33rd Alabama lost 60 percent of their strength. At the end of the battle, the bloodiest in the theater, the division had lost 1743 men from the 5115 who went into action. Wood resigned soon after the battle, and command of his brigade, feeling reprimanded by his commander unfairly. [7]

Cleburne's men were reunited and would take part in the Siege of Chattanooga. During this time, Cleburne would recieve a series of brilliant brigadiers to lead his four brigades in future battles: Mark P. Lowrey, a Mississippian and a Southern Baptist preacher, took command of Wood's Brigade, and would become the division's unofficial chaplain; Daniel Govan, a Mississippi-born Arkansan planter who had proven his mettle leading the Arkansas Brigade at Chickamauga, replaced Liddell, who was sent West to remain closer to his home; replacing the deceased West Pointer Deshler, another West Pointer, the Tennessee-born James Argyle Smith, took command of the Texas Brigade (the 19th and 24th Arkansas was transferred to Govan's Brigade, replaced by Hiram Granbury's 7th Texas). The only brigade commander in his division whose rank predated Chickamauga was Lucius Polk, who one soldier noted, "was to Cleburne what Murat or the old guard was to Napoleon". [8]

On November 22nd, Cleburne's division was to be sent to join Longstreet near Knoxville, but the movement was cancelled when the engagement at Lookout Mountain unfolded. Cleburne's men returned to the line, holding the far right flank of the Confederate line on Missionary Ridge, upon Tunnel Hill. On the 25th of November, Cleburne's 4000 men, assisted by 3 other brigades, held off the poorly organized assault of General Sherman. Cleburne cleverly positioned his infantry and artillery, and coordinated a counterattack involving Alfred Cumming's reinforcing brigade and a regiment of Texans. Casualties were light, though Brigadier Smith was wounded and incapacitated for several months. Despite Cleburne's success, the rest of the line collapsed and the Army of Tennessee, for the first time in it's existence, routed from the field. [9]

November 27th, Cleburne's division, by that point the most cohessive division left in the army, was chosen to guard the rear of the army's retreat, and the vital wagon train. Cleburne set up a defense at Ringgold Gap. He placed John Murray's 5th/13th Arkansas and 2 Napoleon guns, hidden by shrubbery, at the mouth of the Gap, with the rest of Govan's brigade behind them; he placed the Texas Brigade, under Col. Hiram Granbury, on the heights to the north and right of the gap; the 16th Alabama from Lowrey's Brigade was placed to the south of the gap across South Chickamauga Creek. Polk's and the rest Lowrey's Brigade were placed in reserve. [10]

Only a few minutes after finishing his positions, the federals arrived on the field. At 8 am, they began their attack on the gap itself. Supervising the 5th/13th Arkansas itself, Cleburne had his men hold their fire until the enemy got to within 150 yards. Once they did, a devastating volley shattered the federal advance. On the Confederate right, Union troops began to push Granbury's Texans back, and Cleburne, seeing that the Federals wouldn't be trying to aim for the gap any time soon, sent Lowrey and Polk to extend the flank to prevent the Union left wing from outflanking Granbury. After a fierce firefight, the Federals gave way. A breif assault on the 16th Alabama was also repulsed easily. [11]

At noon, Cleburne recieved confirmation of the wagon train's escape, and Cleburne skillfully withdrew his men in front of the enemy, pulling back to Dalton. Cleburne's division, against a force 3 times his size, suffered a mere 20 killed and 190 wounded. It was his most lopsided victory of the war.

While it was a minor engagement, the Battle of Ringgold Gap made Cleburne and his men heroes for the Confederacy, at a low point following the disaster which had unfolded on the rest of the army at Missionary Ridge. He recieved praise from Bragg, and the Thanks of Congress; Robert E. Lee refered to Cleburne as "a meteor shining brightly from a clouded sky"; newspapers touted him as the "Stonewall of the West". Cleburne for his part would commend his 4 brigade commanders at this action. [12]

Citations:
[1] Symonds, 101-102
[2] Symonds, 107-115
[3] Symonds, 81-82, 120-127
[4] Symonds, 127-128; Brown, Norman D. One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samul T. Foster, Granbury's Texas Brigade, CSA, 43
[5] Symonds, 128-132, 135-137
[6] Symonds, 138-143
[7] Symonds, 143-157
[8] Symonds, 138-139, 159
[9] Symonds, 162-169
[10] Symonds, 170-173
[11] Symonds, 173-174
[12] Symonds, 158, 176-177
 
Last edited:

NedBaldwin

Major
Joined
Feb 19, 2011
Location
California
On the 24th of November...
What about the 25th?

Cleburne's 4000 men, assisted by 3 other brigades ...
In his report, Cleburne mentions the brigades of Cummings, Brown and Maney
He also mentions "a brigade sent by General Hardee to the foot of the ridge" and " General Hardee also sent a brigade to move north along the west face of the ridge to strike the enemy in flank", which was either Pettus or Wilson or maybe even both.
The brigades of Gist and Lewis were also in supporting positions to the rear of Cleburne and Wright's brigade off to the right.




Cleburne's division was the only one to have held out on the Ridge, whilst the rest of the Army routed. [9]
No so - the divisions of Stevenson and Walker (which had all been supporting Cleburne) as wellas Cheatham were not routed.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
What about the 25th?


In his report, Cleburne mentions the brigades of Cummings, Brown and Maney
He also mentions "a brigade sent by General Hardee to the foot of the ridge" and " General Hardee also sent a brigade to move north along the west face of the ridge to strike the enemy in flank", which was either Pettus or Wilson or maybe even both.
The brigades of Gist and Lewis were also in supporting positions to the rear of Cleburne and Wright's brigade off to the right.





No so - the divisions of Stevenson and Walker (which had all been supporting Cleburne) as wellas Cheatham were not routed.
Yeah, it seems I misread some notes. Just checked back through Symonds on that battle; he was given command of both Stevenson's and Gist's divisions following the collapse of Missionary Ridge.
My notes only have Cummings's, Maney's and Lewis's brigades listed. Maybe I missed something with Brown's brigade.
As for the date, I must have misread that too.
Edit: I went back to reedit the post, because yeah thats mostly all in the source I'm using (I need to get some books on Chattanooga and the other Western battles)
 
Last edited:

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Part 4: Dalton to Atlanta

For the Winter of 1863-1864, the Army of Tennessee encamped in Dalton. Most of the brigade and regiment commanders signed their names to Cleburne's memorial to arm slaves, though in the end it was silenced on order from Jefferson Davis. After that, Cleburne saw to it that his men, whose terms were expiring, had reenlisted en masse, and began further improving the training of his officers and men, setting up a primitive staff college near their encampment at Tunnel Hill. When Joe Johnston ended the tradition of Divisional Battleflags and replaced them with national flags, he allowed Cleburne's division to retain their Hardee Flags (the legendary Blue Moon flags], possibly out of respect for their brilliant performance at Missionary Ridge and Ringgold Gap. [1]

In February, in opposition to Sherman's Meridian Expedition, Cleburne's division was to be shipped to Middle Alabama to reinforce Leonidas Polk's small army. However, it was recalled when federal movement by George Thomas forced Joe Johnston, the new and popular commander of the Army of Tennessee, to shore up his command. When they arrived back at Dalton on the 25th, Granbury's Texas Brigade retook the vital Dug Gap from Union mounted infantry. [2]

A peculiar engagement occured on the 22nd of March. That morning, the men of the division awoke to see it had snowed during the night. Taking the oppurtunity to unwind, a massive brigade on brigade snowball fight took place between Lucius Polk's Brigade and now Brigadier Daniel Govan's Brigade. Cleburne took charge of Polk's Brigade, formerly his own, and led an assault upon Govan's campsite, Govan, apparently the better brigadier, counterattacked and pushed back Polk's men, capturing Cleburne, before paroling him. Govan's men then continued the attack, again pushing back Polk's Brigade, and again capturing Cleburne; the men of Govan's brigade, having seen their commander break the parole agreement, talked about handing out punishments, seemingly jokingly as most of them were methods Cleburne had used to discipline them. However, cooler heads prevailed, and Cleburne was let go. After the battle, Cleburne authorized a whiskey ration for the men. After another snowfall the next day, more snowball fights occured (though Symonds does not go into detail on this day as he did the previous). [3]

At the outset of the Georgia Campaign, Cleburne's division numbered some 5218 men. On May 8th was ordered to reinforce Dug Gap with Lowrey's and Granbury's Brigades. The gap was held by a force of dismounted Kentucky cavalry, and Granbury's men, coming upon their horses, decided to commandeer some of them to reach the Gap. The repulsed the limited engagements from the men of Hooker's 20th Corps (Hooker having been the Federal commander who lost to Cleburne at Ringgold Gap); however, it was soon realized that Sherman planned to march around the Confederate line and cut off their retreat at Resaca; at Midnight on May 9th/10th, Cleburne was ordered to march his command down to Resaca. However, this was countermanded after a false report from Hood saying Resaca was fine; eventually, Cleburne would recieve the same order, moving out at Sunrise the 11th, arriving around the battlelines around Late afternoon. [4]

Cleburne would see very little action at Resaca, but apparently was involved in a limited counterattack at Calhoun to screen the army's retreat, and was part of Hardee's stalling force at Cassville. Pulling back behind the Etowah River near Allatoona, the division spent May 20th-23rd in relative quite, before operations continued again. His men marched west to match Sherman's flanking maneuver, with Hood's Corps engaging Hooker's at New Hope Church on the afternoon of the 24th; Cleburne was sent to reinforce Hood on the 25th, deploying as a reserve behind Walker's Georgia Division. Granbury's Texas Brigade threatened to shoot the Georgians down themselves if they broke in the face of the enemy. [5]

It was here that Cleburne was ordered to extend the Confederate right near Pickett's Mill. Initially he held his men behind Hindman's Division, leaving only Polk's Brigade, a regiment from Govan's Brigade, and Major Thomas Hotchkiss' 12 gun artillery battalion to extend the flank. However, at Dawn the 27th, scouts reported Federals extending the front. Cleburne first sent the rest of Govan's brigade to extend the front, and then Granbury's brigade to do the same. John H. Kelly's Confederate Cavalry held the far flank, and Lowrey's brigade was held in reserve behind this new line. It was unentrenched, and his men would not have the time to prepare them before the Federals, men from Oliver Howard's 4th Corps, launched their attack. [6]

In Govan's front, the federals ran into a 30-foot deep sinkhole "filled with fallen trees, thick underbrush, and chinquapin bushes". This forced the federals to halt their charge, and thus a firefight ensued. Though Govan's men were not entrenched, their rifle training paid dividends. Some federals tried to advance through and around the Sinkhole. Granbury had his men halt firing in order to fix bayonets, in preparation for close quarters action. [7]

Granbury called for support from Govan, who sent him the 8th/19th Arkansas, along with 2 guns from Thomas Key's Helena Battery. While they marched into position on Granbury's far right flank, they ran into John Kelly, their former Colonel, who waved them on as their counterattacked a union push. Seeing Federal pressure on his right increasing, Cleburne sent in Lowrey's brigade to further extend and stiffen the flank. The firing lasted until just past sundown, when darkness started a short truce in which the Federals used to remove their dead and wounded. At 10pm, Granbury recieved permission to launch a counterattack, capturing 200 prisoners in the process. The battle ended, with Union losses reported at 1600 men (CLeburne claimed as many as 3000), while Cleburne, whose men were unentrenched, suffered only 85 killed and 363 wounded. [8]

A week later, Sherman and Johnston slowly moved their men in the rain back towards the railroad line; Johnston's army was enplaced upon a series of hills, with Cleburne's men holding Gilgal Church. It was here that Lucius Polk was badly wounded, his military career ended and with it his weak brigade, which was split between Govan's and Granbury's Brigade. Thus ended the history of Cleburne's Brigade, and thus the Division was reduced to a core of 3 veteran brigades. During this time as well, Granbury was sidelined as James A. Smith returned to command the Texas Brigade. [9]

The Division next saw action at Kennesaw Mountain. It had dug in on the slopes of Kennesaw Mountain, with Cheatham's Tennessee Brigade on its left, sitting upon the prominence of Cheatham's Hill. Cleburne's men were well dug in, and when the Federals assaulted his position on the 27th of June, they repulsed the Federals with an absurd casualties ration of 800 Federal casualties (300 killed and 500 wounded) to just 11 Confederate (2 Killed and 11 wounded). Of course, Cheatham's Division bore the brunt of the Federal assault, and too repulsed them with favorable losses. Following the end of the battle, Lt. Colonel William Martin of the 1st/15th Arkansas called a truced to deal with the dead and wounded. [10]

While Cleburne's division had done well in the campaign, 2 weeks of combat had reduced his command from 5218 men to 3855, and from 4 brigades to 3. Despite this morale remained high. After the victory of the 27th, Johnston, seeing his position outflanked by Sherman, pulled back to the Chattahoochee, where he was, once again, forced to retreat following another flanking march by Sherman. This was the end for Johnston, who seemed to never seen a line of retreat he didn't like, and was replaced by the seemingly more aggressive John Bell Hood. The Atlanta Campaign would soon enter its second phase, and Cleburne's division would take part in some of the most vital engagements of this period. [11]

Citations
[1] Symonds, 186, 194-195, 196; Castel, Albert. Decision in the West: The Atlanta Campaign of 1864, 36
[2] Symonds, 196-197
[3] Symonds, 199-200
[4] Symonds, 202-207
[5] Symonds, 207-211
[6] Symonds, 211-212
[7] Symonds, 212
[8] Symonds, 212-215
[9] Symonds, 215-216
[10] Symonds, 216-219
[11] Symonds, 219-220
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
(Note: Incomplete. Was typing this up when i accedentally hit enter and submitted the post as it is. I will edit it further and finish it hopefully before the editing window ends).

Part 5: Atlanta, Bald Hill, and Jonesborough

With the elevation of Hood to command, there was some consternation in the Confederate camps among the soldiers. However, this eventually died down, and soon, the division would be involved in the actions around Atlanta.

Firstly, the division was held in reserve at Peachtree Creek, the first of Hood's assaults, on July 20th. However, his division was not committed, and instead, Hood sent his men through the city to oppose the advance of James McPherson's column coming towards the city from the east. At Bald Hill the 21st, the division fought a little known delaying action, losing control of Bald Hill and his division exposed in shallow entrenchments to federal artillery. [2]

Pullling back to the city, Cleburne's men were now tasked with carrying out Hood's elaborate flank attack on Bald Hill. After a gruelling and confused night march, Cleburne's men launched their assault on the Federal line near Bald Hill at 12:45pm on the 22nd of July; Smith's Tennessee and Texas Brigade on the right, Govan's on the left, and Lowrey's Brigade in reserve. His men overran several union positions, Govan's men forcing the surrender of the first union defenders. Smith's Brigade, meanwhile, exploited the unguarded federal flank and turned the Federal position. A soldier of the 5th Confederate, formerly of Polk's brigade and now part of James A. Smith's brigade (Smith had been the unit's former colonel), was credited with killing James McPherson. [3]

However, by 2pm, Cleburne's attack already started to deterioate. His men had not slept for 2 days, and many passed out from exhaustion and heat stroke. Smith's brigade also had the added issue of processing captured union troops to the rear and many stopped to loot federal encampments of supplies. Still, most of Smith's Brigade continued in the advance. [4]

Cleburne, wanting to support Govan's assault against the next union line, sent orders to Lowrey to support Govan. However, the courier noticed that Cleburne's right flank was exposed, having drifted from Walker's division, and the Union could, if they had the reserves, could turn Cleburne's line. Delievering Cleburne's orders, the courier pointed out his worry to Lowrey. Lowrey proceeded to move to plug the gap. Cleburne accepted his subordinate's decision. [5]

Despite the lack of support of Lowrey, Cleburne instead utilized his artillery to support Govan's attack. When Smith's brigade came in from the federal's left, they broke to the third line, centered on Bald Hill. Here, despite support from Maney's (formerly Cheatham's) Tennessee Division, Cleburne's attack was repulsed after a bloody assault. His men pulled back to the 2nd line they had captured and began entrenching. It turned out this action would be the high point of the battle for the Confederates, as Bate's and Walker's divisions were repulsed in isolated assaults, and only Brown's Division performed against the Union right. Thus, July 22nd resulted in a Confederate defeat. [6]

Cleburne's division had performed admirably in the action, but at a heavy cost. Hardee in his report on his corps' performance, put Cleburne's casaulties at 1388 men, approximately a third of the men Cleburne went into battle with. Govan's brigade went into action with 1221 men, and lost 86 killed, 322 wounded, and 91 captured or missing, leaving his command with only 722 effectives. Lowrey had lost 578 men. Smith, for the second time since he became a brigadier, was again wounded and put out of action for months, with Granbury returning to command the brigade. John E. Murray, the boy Colonel of the 5th/13th Arkansas who had held Ringgold Gap was killed. Roger Q. Mills, Colonel of the 10th Texas and breifly commander of the Texas Brigade after Deshler's death at Chickamauga, was wounded and out of action for the rest of the war. [7]

Following the battle, Howard, now commanding McPherson's army, withdrew from the hardfought position to move to the western flank of the city. This allowed Cleburne and his men time to lick their wounds. In this time, it was decided that William Walker's division, after having lost their commander at Bald Hill the 22nd, would be split up between the three remaining divisions of Hardee's Corps. Thus, Cleburne's batter division received the Savannah Brigade of Hugh Mercer, who had left due to ill health and handed command over to the young Colonel Charles Olmstead. The new brigade did not mesh well with the rest of the command, being considered of lower quality (then men had only really seen major combat for the first time at the start of the North Georgia Campaign), and the soldiers of Cleburne's core brigades looked down upon their new arrivals. Cleburne himself did not think highly of Olmstead, of whom he wrote to Hardee, saying that if it was expected for the Savannah Brigade "to do any good, a brigade command is immediately necessary. Its present commander is not efficient". [8]

Despite this reinforcement, Cleburne's division numbered around only 3000 men. The division would spend most of the rest of July and August holding the line, not being heavily engaged. On August 29th, his pickets reported that Union troops in front of his position at East Point had decamped, signalling a movement. The next day, a column of union troops was reported opposite of Jonesborough. Hood swiftly redeployed Hardee's and Stephen Lee's Corps to halt the federal advance. Hood, unable to personally coordinate the battle due to his conditions, left command of this force to Hardee, who elevated Cleburne to command the Corps, and thus Mark Lowrey, the current senior brigadier of the division, took command of the division. [9]

The Battle of Jonesborough began with a Confederate attack by Cleburne's Corps on the 31st of August. Cleburne based his plan of attack on Hardee's at Murfreesboro, intending to swing his troops from the south the attack the enemy's flank en masse. However, Lowrey, misinterpreting his orders, focused his division upon Kilpatrick's cavalry harrying the flank, and thus the Confederate attack broke down. [10]

The next day, Lee's Corps was returned to the city, leaving Hardee to take command of his corps in the face of the Union troops. Cleburne returned to command his division, which formed the center of the Confederate line. However, Govan's Arkansans were in a terribly exposed salient with poor cover to defend, and when the Union assault began, the brigade was overrun, losing 600 men captured including Govan. Cleburne filled the gap with George Gordon's Tennessee Brigade, but the damage was done. Hardee ordered a retreat southward, thus leaving the last railroad line to Atlanta cut off, forcing Hood to abandon the city. Thus ended the Atlanta Campaign. [

Citations
[1] Symonds, 221-223
[2] Symonds, 223-225
[3] Symonds, 225-228
[4] Symonds, 228
[5] Symonds, 228-229
[6] Symonds, 229-230
[7] Symonds, 230; Sutherland, Daniel E. No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan, 294
[8] Symonds, 231
[9] Symonds, 232-236
[10] Symonds, 236-240
[11] Symonds, 240-241; Sutherland, 294-295
 
Last edited:

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Note for thread:
I intend to continue this further into the Franklin-Nashville Campaign and the Battle of Bentonville. However, at current, my literature regarding the campaign is very limited. Symonds' biography stops following the events of Franklin after Cleburne's death, and there is ditto on anything for the Battle of Nashville.
I DO have Winston Groom's Shrouds of Glory; however, for one, its been a long time since I've touched that work; for another, its more of a pop history affair than a detailed analysis of the Campaign. I believe the only mention of the division itself at Nashville is the part he talks about Broughton's 700-man brigade holding off the USCT at Granbury's Lunette. I don't remember him mentioning the division's actions on the left flank near Shy Hill. I have one source for Daniel Govan and his brigade at Nashville, which gives some incite as to the division's actions near Shy Hill.
As for Bentonville, I have nothing. Absolutely nothing. If I get to that, I may just have to glance over its operations there, unless someone sends me an article or something on their actions there.
I'd love to do more research, but right now, I am dealing with finals coming up, so I'd better focus on that first. I may be able to finish this thread by December 15th or 16th, the anneversary of Nashville.
With that said, I could do now what I planned to do later, and post the OoB's for the division over it's major battles and Campaigns. That will be relatively simple in comparison to what I've normally been doing.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Organization of Cleburne's Division, Part 1

I wish to detail the OoB and the command changes which occurred with the division since its "inception", starting with the Battle of Perryville (just before Cleburne got command of the division) through to Bentonville, before the division was disbanded and reorganized.

(This part will cover the period between the Battle of Perryville and the end of Chickamauga)

At the Battle of Perryville, the division was considered the Third Division of Hardee's Left Wing of the Army of Misssissippi. It was commanded by MG Simon B. Buckner, and consisted of 3 brigades. [1]
  • Third Division, Left Wing: MG Simon B. Buckner
    • 1st Brigade: BG St. John R. Liddell
      • 2nd Arkansas: Col. Daniel C. Govan
      • 5th Arkansas: Col. Lucius P. Featherston
      • 6th Arkansas: Col. Alexander T. Hawthorn (?)
      • 7th Arkansas: Col. David A. Gillespie
      • 8th Arkansas: Col. John H. Kelly
      • Swett's Mississippi Battery (4 12-lber Napoleons): 2nd Lt. Thomas Havern
    • 2nd Brigade (~800): BG Patrick Cleburne
      • 13th/15th Arkansas (~200): Col. Lucius E. Polk
      • 2nd Tennessee
      • 35th Tennessee: Col. Benjamin J. Hill
      • 48th Tennessee: Col. George H. Nixon
      • Helena Arkansas Battery (2 12-lber Howitzer; 2 6-lber Smoothbores): 2nd Lt. Thomas Key
    • 3rd Brigade: BG Bushrod Johnson
      • 5th Confederate: Col. James A. Smith
      • 17th Tennessee: Col. Albert Marks
      • 23rd Tennessee: Ltc. Richard H. Keeble
      • 25th Tennessee: Col. John M. Hughes
      • 37th Tennessee: Col. Moses White
      • 44th Tennessee: Col. John S. Fulton
      • Darden's Mississippi Battery (2 12-lber Howitzer; 2 6-lber Smoothbores): Capt. Putnam Darden
    • 4th Brigade: BG Sterling A. M. Wood (WIA)
      • 16th Alabama: Col. William B. Wood
      • 33rd Alabama: Col. Samuel Adams (WIA); Ltc. Robert F. Crittenden
      • 3rd Confederate: Ltc. Henry V. Keep
      • 32nd Mississippi: Col. Mark P. Lowrey (WIA)
      • 33rd Mississippi: Ltc. Richard Charlton
      • 15th Mississippi Battalion Sharpshooters: Capt. A. T. Hawkins
      • Semple's Alabama Battery (4 12-lber Napoleons; 2 6-lber M1841 Rifles): Capt. Henry C. Semple
At the Battle of Stones River, Cleburne's first battle in division command, he led a similarly organized division, with some changes. His command numbered around 6000 men.[2]
  • Cleburne's Division (~6000): MG Patrick R. Cleburne
    • 1st Brigade: BG Lucius Polk
      • 1st Arkansas: Col. John W. Colquitt
      • 13th/15th Arkansas: Maj. Charles H. Carlton (WIA); Maj. Robert A. Duncan (WIA)
      • 5th Confederate: Col. James A. Smith
      • 2nd Tennessee: Col. William D. Robison
      • 35th Tennessee: Col. Benjamin J. Hill
      • Helena Arkansas Battery: Lt. Thomas Key
    • 2nd Brigade: BG St. John R. Liddell
      • 2nd Arkansas: Col. Daniel C. Govan
      • 5th Arkansas: Ltc. John E. Murray
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Col. Samuel G. Smith (WIA); Ltc. F. J. Cameron (WIA); Maj. William F. Douglass
      • 8th Arkansas: Col. John H. Kelly (WIA); Ltc. George F. Baucum
      • Swett's Mississippi Battery: Lt. Harvey Shannon
    • 3rd Brigade: BG Bushrod Johnson
      • 17th Tennessee: Col. Albert Marks (WIA); Ltc. Watt W. Floyd
      • 23rd Tennessee: Ltc. Richard H. Keeble
      • 25th Tennessee: Col. John M. Hughs (WIA); Ltc. Samuel Davis
      • 37th Tennessee: Col. Moses White (WIA); Maj. Joseph T. McReynolds (KIA); Capt. Charles G. Jarnagin
      • 44th Tennessee: Col. John S. Fulton
      • Jefferson Mississippi Battery: Capt. Putnam Darden
    • 4th Brigade: BG Sterling A. M. Wood
      • 16th Alabama: Col. William B. Wood (WIA)
      • 33rd Alabama: Col. Samuel Adams
      • 3rd Confederate: Ltc. Henry V. Keep
      • 45th Mississippi: Ltc. Richard Charlton
      • 15th Mississippi Battalion Sharpshooters: Capt. A. T. Hawkins
      • Semple's Alabama Battery: Capt. Henry C. Semple
During the division's time at Tullahoma and Wartrace, Bushrod Johnson's Brigade was transferred to A. P. Stewart's division. In replacement came Thomas Churchill's Arkansas and Texas Brigade, which slotted in with the other brigades.; eventually Churchill will leave for the Transmississippi and leave command to Brigadier James Deshler. At the start of the Chickamauga Campaign, Liddell's excellent Arkansas Brigade was detached to form a provisional division, leaving Cleburne with 3 brigades, 5380 men and 12 artillery pieces. [3]
  • Cleburne's Division (5380 men; 12 guns): MG Patrick Cleburne
    • Escort
      • Sander's Tennessee Cavalry Company (51): Capt. C. F. Sanders
    • Deshler's Brigade (1693): BG James Deshler (KIA Sept 20); Col. Roger Q. Mills
      • 19th/24th Arkansas (226): Ltc. Augustus S. Hutchison
      • 6th/10th/15th Texas (700): Col. Roger Q. Mills; Ltc. T. Scott Anderson
      • 17th/18th/24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted] (767): Col. Francis C. Wilkes (WIA); Ltc. John T. Coit; Maj. William A. Taylor
    • Polk's Brigade (1390): BG Lucius Polk
      • 1st Arkansas (430): Col. John W. Colquitt
      • 3rd/5th Confederate (290): Col. James A. Smith
      • 2nd Tennessee (264): Col. William D. Robison
      • 35th Tennessee (236): Col. Benjamin J. Hill
      • 48th Tennessee (170): Col. George H. Nixon
    • Wood's Brigade (1982): BG Sterling A. M. Wood
      • 16th Alabama (414): Maj. John H. McGaughy (WIA); Capt. Frederick A. Ashford
      • 33rd Alabama (459): Col. Samuel Adams
      • 45th Alabama (423): Col. Ephraim B. Breedlove
      • 18th Alabama Battalion (87): Maj. John H. Gibson
      • 32nd/45th Mississippi (541): Col. Mark P. Lowrey
      • 15th Mississippi Battalion Sharpshooter (58): Maj. A. T. Hawkins (MWIA); Capt. David Coleman
    • Division Artillery (264 men; 12 guns): Maj. Thomas R. Hotchkiss (WIA); Capt. Henry C. Semple
      • Helena Arkansas Battery (87 men; 4 guns): Lt. Thomas Key
      • Douglas' Texas Battery (90 men; 4 guns): Capt. James P. Douglas
      • Semple's Alabama Battery (87 men; 4 guns): Capt. Henry C. Semple
The Division suffered, according to David Powell's calculations, 1849 battle casualties at Chickamauga; amoung the dead was James Deshler, killed in the morning attack on Thomas' center. Roger Q. Mills of the 10th Texas took command of the brigade, before James Argyle Smith of the 5th Confederate was promoted to command the brigade. [4]

Meanwhile, Colonel Daniel Govan's Arkansas, operating under Liddell's division, went through hell. Going into battle with (according to Powell's calculations) 1975 men, it lost 73 men killed, 502 wounded, and 283 missing or captured, for 858 casualties; It suffered some of the highest total casaulties of the entire battle. [5]
  • Govan's Brigade [Liddell's Division, Reserve Corps] (1975): Col. Daniel C. Govan
    • 2nd/15th Arkansas (349): Ltc. Reuben F. Harvey (MWIA); Capt. A. T. Meek
    • 5th/13th Arkansas (450): Col. Lucius Featherston (KIA); Ltc. John E. Murray
    • 6th/7th Arkansas (388): Col. David A. Gillespie (MWIA); Ltc. Peter Snyder
    • 8th Arkansas (387): Ltc. George F. Baucum (WIA); Maj. A. Watkins
    • 1st Louisiana Regulars (401): Ltc. George F. Baucum (WIA); Maj. A. Watkins
Citations:
[1] Wikipedia, Perryville COnfederate Order of Battle; Symonds, 93, 96
[2] Wikipedia, Stones River Confederate Order of Battle; Symonds, 107
[3] Powell, David A. The Chickamauga Campaign: A Mad Irregular Battle: From the Crossing of the Tennessee River Through the Second Day, August 22 - September 19, 1864, 646-647; Powell, David A. The Chickamauga Campaign: A Barren Victory..., 231-232 ; Symonds, 127-128, 138-139
[4] Powell, A Mad Irregular Battle..., 646-647; Symonds, 149-150, 152-153, 159
[5] Powell, A Barren Victory..., 222, 234-235
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Organization of Cleburne's Division, Part 2

(This part will cover the organization of the division from the Chattanooga Campaign to Jonesborough)

Following the Battle at Chickamauga, Cleburne's division was reunited. However, the command situation had change dramatically. Col. James Argyle Smith was promoted to command the Texas Brigade from the deceased Deshler. Col. Mark P. Lowrey of the 32nd Mississippi was promoted to command Wood's brigade, after Wood resigned due to command friction over Cleburne's actions on September 20th. Liddell's division was disolved and the Arkansas Brigade returned to the division, but Liddell did not return to command (eventually he would transfer to the Transmississippi theater); thus, command devolved, at least temporarily, to senior Colonel Daniel C. Govan of the 2nd Arkansas. Only Lucius Polk retained his command. [1]

During the Chattanooga Campaign, the division saw action at Missionary Ridge on November 25th, and at Ringgold Gap on the 27th. The only major casualty of the former engagement was J. A. Smith, wounded and replaced by Colonel Hiram Granbury of the 7th Texas. As of the October 31st returns, his division numbered 5218 men; as of the December 10th returns, 4817 men: [2]
  • Cleburne's Division (~5000 men): MG Patrick Cleburne
    • Liddell's Arkansas Brigade: Col. Daniel C. Govan
      • 2nd/15th/24th Arkansas: Maj. Elisha Warfield
      • 5th/13th Arkansas: Col. John E. Murray
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Ltc. Peter Snyder
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Ltc. Augustus S. Hutchison
    • J. A. Smith's Texas Brigade: BG James A. Smith (WIA Nov 25th); Col. Hiram Granbury
      • 6th/10th/15th Texas: Col. Roger Q. Mills (WIA); Capt. John R. Kennard
      • 7th Texas: Col. Hiram Granbury; Capt. Charles E. Talley
      • 17th/18th/24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Maj. William A. Taylor
    • Polk's Brigade: BG Lucius Polk
      • 1st Arkansas: Col. John W. Colquitt; Ltc. William H. Martin (WIA)
      • 3rd/5th Confederate: Ltc. James C. Cole (WIA); Capt. W. A. Brown; Capt. Mumford H. Dixon
      • 2nd Tennessee: Col. William D. Robison (WIA); Maj. William J. Hale
      • 35th/48th Tennessee:
    • Lowrey's Brigade: BG Mark P. Lowrey
      • 16th Alabama: Maj. Frederick A. Ashford
      • 33rd Alabama: Col. Samuel Adams
      • 45th Alabama: Ltc. Harris D. Lampley
      • 32nd/45th Mississippi: Col. Aaron B. Hardcastle
      • 15th Mississippi Battalion Sharpshooters: Capt. Thomas M. Steger
    • Division Artillery: Maj. Thomas Hotchkiss; Capt. James P. Douglas
      • Helena Arkansas Battery: Lt. Thomas Key
      • Douglas' Texas Battery: Capt. James P. Douglas; Lt. John H. Bingham
      • Semple's Alabama Battery: Lt. Richard W. Goldwaite
      • Swett's Mississippi Battery: Lt. Harvey Shannon (WIA); Lt. Joseph Ashton (MWIA); Cpl. F. M. Williams
Following the actions at Missionary Ridge, Daniel Govan and Hiram Granbury were promoted to brigadier. At the onset of the Atlanta Campaign, the Division numbered 5218 men (ETP). [3]
  • Cleburne's Division (5218 men): MG Patrick Cleburne
    • Polk's Brigade: BG Lucius Polk
      • 1st/15th Arkansas: Ltc. William H. Martin
      • 5th Confederate: Capt. W. A. Brown
      • 2nd Tennessee: Col. William D. Robison
      • 35th Tennessee: Col. Benjamin J. Hill
      • 48th Tennessee: Capt. Henry G. Evans
    • Govan's Arkansas Brigade: BG Daniel C. Govan
      • 2nd/24th Arkansas: Col. Elisha Warfield
      • 5th/13th Arkansas: Col. John E. Murray
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Col. Samuel G. Smith
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Col. George F. Baucum
      • 3rd Confederate: Capt. Mumford H. Dixon
    • Lowrey's Brigade: BG Mark P. Lowrey
      • 16th Alabama: Ltc. Frederick A. Ashford
      • 33rd Alabama: Col. Samuel Adams
      • 45th Alabama: Ltc. Harris D. Lampley
      • 32nd Mississippi: Col. William H. H. Tison
      • 45th Mississippi: Col. Aaron B. Hardcastle
    • Granbury's Texas Brigade: BG Hiram Granbury
      • 6th/15th Texas: Capt. Rhoads Fisher
      • 7th Texas: Capt. J. H. Collett
      • 10th Texas: Col. Roger Q. Mills
      • 17th/18th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Capt. George D. Manion
      • 24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Col. Franklin C. Wilkes
On 15th June, Lucius Polk, the senior brigade commander, lost his leg to an artillery shell at Gilgal Church, and was incapacitated from command; his brigade was dispersed to other commands (2nd Tennessee going to Tyler's/T. B. Smith's Brigade of Bate's division; 1st/15th Arkansas to Govan's Brigade; and the remaining 3 Tennessee "regiments" to Granbury's Brigade). Also in this timeframe, James A. Smith returned to command the Texas Brigade, Granbury taking sick leave. As of July 10th, just before Hood succeded to command and the Battles for Atlanta began the division numbered 3743 men, with around 1221 men in Govan's brigade: [4]

  • Cleburne's Division (3743 men): MG Patrick Cleburne
    • Govan's Arkansas Brigade (1221 men): BG Daniel C. Govan
      • 1st/15th Arkansas: Ltc. William H. Martin (WIA); Capt. Felix G. Lusk
      • 2nd/24th Arkansas: Col. Elisha Warfield (WIA); Ltc. Eldridge G. Brasher (WIA); Maj. Amza T. Meek
      • 5th/13th Arkansas: Col. John E. Murray (KIA); Col. Peter V. Green
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Col. Samuel G. Smith (WIA); Ltc. Fester J. Cameron (WIA); Maj. William F. Douglass (WIA); Capt.
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Col. George F. Baucum (WIA); Ltc. Anderson Watkins (WIA); Ltc. Augustus S. Hutchison (WIA); Maj. David H. Hamiter
      • 3rd Confederate: Capt. Mumford H. Dixon
    • Lowrey's Brigade: BG Mark P. Lowrey
      • 16th Alabama: Ltc. Frederick A. Ashford
      • 33rd Alabama: Ltc. Robert F. Crittenden
      • 45th Alabama: Col. Harris D. Lampley (W&CIA); Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie
      • 32nd Mississippi: Col. William H. H. Tison (WIA)
      • 3rd Mississippi Battalion: Ltc. John D. Williams (CIA); Capt. Thomas P. Connor
    • Granbury's Texas Brigade: BG James A. Smith (WIA); Ltc. Robert B. Young
      • 5th Confederate: Maj. Richard J. Person (CIA); Capt. Aaron A. Cox
      • 35th/48th Tennessee (?): Col. Benjamin J. Hill (I believe this was detached to the Provost Guard)
      • 6th/15th Texas: Capt. Steven E. Rice (CIA); Lt. Thomas L. Flynt
      • 7th Texas: Capt. J. William Brown
      • 10th Texas: Col. Roger Q. Mills (WIA); Ltc. Robert B. Young; Capt. John A. Formwalt
      • 17th/18th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Capt. George D. Manion (WIA); Capt. William H. Perry
      • 24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Maj. William A. Taylor
Following the battle of Atlanta, Govan's brigade lost 86 killed, 322 wounded, and 91 wounded or captured, leaving only 722 men in the ranks; Lowrey's brigade "of just over a thousand men" lost 588; Total casualties for Cleburne's division, according to Hardee's report, numbered 1388. Following the engagement, Granbury returned to command the Texas Brigade. Also, the large but relatively green Georgian brigade of Charles Olmstead joined the division, though they were thought of quite lowly by the men of the division. Thus, when the division next went into battle oon August 31st, Cleburne's division numbered 4319 men: [5]
  • Cleburne's Division (3743 men): MG Patrick Cleburne
    • Govan's Arkansas Brigade (~700 men): BG Daniel C. Govan (CIA September 1st, along with 600 of his men)
      • 1st/15th Arkansas: Capt. Felix G. Lusk
      • 2nd/24th Arkansas: Maj. Amza T. Meek
      • 5th/13th Arkansas: Col. Peter V. Green
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Col. Samuel G. Smith
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Maj. David H. Hamiter
      • 3rd Confederate: Capt. Mumford H. Dixon
    • Lowrey's Brigade: BG Mark P. Lowrey
      • 16th Alabama: Col. Frederick A. Ashford
      • 33rd Alabama: Ltc. Robert F. Crittenden
      • 45th Alabama: Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie
      • 5th/3rd Mississippi: Col. John Weir
      • 8th/32nd Mississippi: Capt. Andrew E. Moody
    • Granbury's Texas Brigade: BG Hiram Granbury
      • 5th Confederate: Capt. Aaron A. Cox
      • 35th/48th Tennessee: Col. Benjamin J. Hill
      • 6th/15th Texas: Capt. M. M. Houston
      • 7th Texas: Capt. John W. Brown
      • 10th Texas: Ltc. Robert B. Young
      • 17th/18th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Capt. William H. Perry
      • 24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Maj. William A. Taylor
    • Olmstead's Brigade: Col. Charles Olmstead
      • 1st Georgia Volunteers: Maj. Martin J. Ford
      • 54th Georgia: Ltc. Morgan Rawls
      • 57th Georgia: Ltc. Cincinnatus S. Guyton
      • 63rd Georgia: Capt. James T. Buckner
At the Battle of Jonesborough, most of Govan's Brigade was overrun, resulting in the brigadier and 600 of his men being Prisoners. A week later, in a rare exchange, they were quickly returned to Cleburne's division; this brought the division strength up to 3290 "effectives". J. A. Smith also returned to take command of Olmstead's Brigade. [6]

Citations
[1] Symonds, 159
[2] Wikipedia, Chattanooga-Ringgold Campaign Confederate Order of Battle; Wikipedia, Battle of Ringgold Gap; O.R., Series 1, Volume 31, Part 2, 656-657
[3] O.R., Series 1, Volume 38, Part 3, 639, 675-676
[4] O.R., Series 1, Volume 38, Part 3, 654-655, 679; Sutherland, Daniel E. No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan, 294; Symonds, 216; Wikipedia, Atlanta Confederate Order of Battle
[5] O.R. Series 1, Volume 38, Part 3, 682; Sutherland, Daniel E. No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan, 294; Symonds, 231; Wikipedia, Jonesborough Confederate Order of Battle
[6] Sutherland, Daniel E. No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan, 294-296; Symonds, 240-243.
 
Last edited:

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Organization of Cleburne's Division, Part 3

(Going from the end of the Atlanta Campaign, through the Tennessee Campaign, and hopefully on to Bentonville, if I can find proper numbers in the O.R.s)

As mentioned at the end of the previous part, Govan and his brigade were exchanged September 9th and returned to Cleburne's command. Also, James A. Smith returned and put in command of Olmstead's Brigade (finally fulfilling Cleburne's wish for a proper commander for that brigade). The division, with the return of Govan, numbered 3620 men. However, by the 6th of November, shortly before the start of the Tennessee Campaign, the division numbered 3962 men, possibly from returned wounded and stragglers. [1]
At the Battle of Spring Hill and Franklin, the division would have been organized thusly:
  • Cleburne's Division (3962 men): MG Patrick Cleburne (KIA Nov 30th, Franklin); BG James A. Smith
    • Lowrey's Brigade: BG Mark P. Lowrey (reassigned to command Brown's division);Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie
      • 16th Alabama: Col. Frederick A. Ashford (KIA)
      • 33rd Alabama: Col. Robert F. Crittenden (MIA)
      • 45th Alabama: Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie (WIA but returned to action)
      • 5th/3rd Mississippi: Col. John Weir (WIA); Capt. Francis M. Woodward
      • 8th/32nd Mississippi: Col. William H. H. Tison (WIA); Maj. Andrew E. Moody
    • Govan's Arkansas Brigade: BG Daniel C. Govan
      • 1st/2nd/5th/13th/15th/24th/3rd Arkansas: Col. Peter V. Green (?); Maj. Amza T. Meek (KIA); Capt. Mordecai P. Garrett (KIA); Capt. Mumford H. Dixon (MIA)
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Ltc. Peter Snyder
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Maj. David H. Hamiter
    • Granbury's Texas Brigade: BG Hiram Granbury (KIA Nov 30th, Franklin); Capt. Edward T. Broughton
      • 35th/5th Tennessee: Capt. Aaron A. Cox (MIA)
      • 6th/15th Texas: Maj. Rhoads Fisher (MIA)
      • 7th Texas: Capt. Edward T. Broughton; Capt. James W. Brown (MIA)
      • 10th Texas: Ltc. Robert B. Young (KIA)
      • 17th/18th/24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Maj. William A. Taylor (MIA)
      • Nutt's Louisiana Cavalry Company [Dismounted]: Capt. Leroy M. Nutt
    • Smith's Georgia Brigade [detached duty]: BG James A. Smith; Col. Charles Olmstead
      • 1st Georgia Volunteer: Col. Charles Olmstead; Maj. Martin J. Ford
      • 54th Georgia: Capt. George W. Moody
      • 57th Georgia: Capt. Lucius C. Bryan
      • 63rd Georgia: Capt. Elijah J. Craven
The battle of Franklin decimated the division. Patrick Cleburne and Hiram Granbury were killed. Granbury's Brigade was reduced to 350 men and all officers above the rank of Captain are killed, wounded or captured; Capt. Edward T. Broughton took command of the brigade. Lowrey was assigned to command Brown's decimated division, leaving command to Ltc. Robert Abercrombie. James A. Smith, not present at the battle, took command of the division, which as of December 13th number just 2350 men (580 in Lowrey's Brigade; 534 in Govan's brigade, 344 in Granbury's Brigade; and 892 in Smith's/Olmstead's Brigade). However, Smith's Brigade was again detached to support Forrest at Murfreesboro, leaving the command with just 1458 men when the Battle of Nashville broke out. [2]
  • Cleburne's Division (2350 men total; 1458 men present at Nashville): BG James A. Smith
    • Smith's Brigade [detached at Murfreesboro] (892 men): Col. Charles Olmstead
      • 1st Georgia Volunteer: Col. Charles Olmstead; Maj. Martin J. Ford
      • 54th Georgia: Capt. George W. Moody
      • 57th Georgia: Capt. Lucius C. Bryan
      • 63rd Georgia: Capt. Elijah J. Craven
    • Govan's Brigade (534): BG Daniel C. Govan (WIA Dec 16th); Col. Peter V. Green
      • 1st/2nd/5th/13th/15th/24th/3rd Arkansas: Col. Peter V. Green
      • 6th/7th Arkansas: Ltc. Peter Snyder
      • 8th/19th Arkansas: Maj. David H. Hamiter
    • Lowrey's Brigade (580): Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie
      • 16th/33rd/45th Alabama: Ltc. Robert H. Abercrombie
      • 5th/3rd Mississippi: Capt. Francis M. Woodward
      • 8th/32nd Mississippi: Maj. Andrew E. Moody
    • Granbury's Brigade (344): Capt. Edward T. Broughton
      • 35th/5th Tennessee: Lt. William E. Smith
      • 6th/15th Texas: Capt. Benjamin R. Tyus
      • 7th Texas: Capt. Orren P. Forrest
      • 10th Texas: Capt. Reuben D. Kennedy
      • 17th/18th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Capt. Felix L. McKnight
      • 24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]: Capt. John F. Matthews
      • Nutt's Louisiana Cavalry Company [Dismounted]: Capt. Leroy M. Nutt
The remnants of the division (possibly less than 1000 men by this point) went with Stewart to North Carolina. It fought its last battle as a division at Bentonville. [3]
  • Cleburne's/Smith's Division: BG James A. Smith
    • Govan's Brigade: Col. Peter V. Green
      • 1st/2nd/5th/13th/15th/24th/3rd Arkansas
      • 6th/7th Arkansas
      • 8th/19th Arkansas
    • Smith's Brigade: Capt. John R. Bonner
      • 1st Georgia Volunteers
      • 54th Georgia
      • 57th Georgia
      • 63rd Georgia
    • Granbury's Brigade: Ltc. William A. Ryan
      • 35th/5th Tennessee
      • 6th/15th Texas
      • 7th Texas
      • 10th Texas
      • 17th/18th/24th/25th Texas Cavalry [Dismounted]:
      • Nutt's Louisiana Cavalry Company [Dismounted]
    • Lowrey's Brigade: Ltc. John F. Smith
      • 16th/33rd/45th Alabama
      • 5th/3rd Mississippi
      • 8th/32nd Mississippi
On April 9th, Johnston reorganized his army one final time, essentially disbanding Cleburne's division. His regiments were consolidated and organized with men from Bate's old division, and commanded by John Brown. [4]

  • Brown's Division: MG John C. Brown
    • Smith's Brigade: BG James A. Smith
      • 1st Florida Consolidated (1st/3rd/4th/6th/7th/1st[Cavalry] Florida): Ltc. Elisha Mashburn
      • 1st Georgia Consolidated (1st/57th/63rd Georgia): Col. Charles H. Olmstead
      • 54th Georgia Consolidated (37th/54th/4th[Sharpshooter] Georgia): Col. Theodore D. Caswell
    • Govan's Brigade: BG Daniel C. Govan
      • 1st Arkansas Consolidated (1st/2nd/3rd/5th/6th/7th/8th/13th/15th/19th/24th/3rd Arkansas): Col. Edward A. Howell
      • 1st Texas Consolidated (6th/7th/10th/15th/17th/18th/24th/25th Texas): Ltc. William A. Ryan

Citations
[1] O.R., Series 1, Volume 39, Part 2, 850; O.R., Series 1, Part 45, Part 1, 678; Sutherland, Daniel E. No Better Officer in the Confederacy: The Wartime Career of Daniel C. Govan, 294-296; Symonds, 240-243; Wikipedia, Battle of Franklin (1864) Confederate Order of Battle
[2] O.R., Series 1, Volume 45, Part 1, 678-679, 680; Wikipedia, Nashville Confederate Order of Battle
[3] O.R., Series 1, Volume 47, Part 1, 1058-1060; Wikipedia, Bentonville Confederate Order of Battle. The numbers I've come across does not include anything regarding Cleburne's old Division, aside from a list of losses at Bentonville (8 killed, 96 wounded, and 8 missing or captured, for a total of 112 men). Cheatham's "Corps" (actually commanded by Bate), using numbers from March 23rd and adding back casualties from Bentonville, puts the infantry strength of his "Corps" at 2248 effectives and 2845 present total.
[4] O.R., Series 1, Volume 47, Part 1, 1061; Wikipedia, Carolinas Campaign Confederate Order of Battle
 

Dave DuBrucq

Corporal
Joined
Oct 28, 2020
Location
Tennessee
Note for thread:
I intend to continue this further into the Franklin-Nashville Campaign and the Battle of Bentonville. However, at current, my literature regarding the campaign is very limited. Symonds' biography stops following the events of Franklin after Cleburne's death, and there is ditto on anything for the Battle of Nashville.
I DO have Winston Groom's Shrouds of Glory; however, for one, its been a long time since I've touched that work; for another, its more of a pop history affair than a detailed analysis of the Campaign. I believe the only mention of the division itself at Nashville is the part he talks about Broughton's 700-man brigade holding off the USCT at Granbury's Lunette. I don't remember him mentioning the division's actions on the left flank near Shy Hill. I have one source for Daniel Govan and his brigade at Nashville, which gives some incite as to the division's actions near Shy Hill.
As for Bentonville, I have nothing. Absolutely nothing. If I get to that, I may just have to glance over its operations there, unless someone sends me an article or something on their actions there.
I'd love to do more research, but right now, I am dealing with finals coming up, so I'd better focus on that first. I may be able to finish this thread by December 15th or 16th, the anneversary of Nashville.
With that said, I could do now what I planned to do later, and post the OoB's for the division over it's major battles and Campaigns. That will be relatively simple in comparison to what I've normally been doing.
A good resource regarding the Battle of Franklin is Let Us Die Like Men by William Lee White
 

James N.

Colonel
Forum Host
Annual Winner
Featured Book Reviewer
Joined
Feb 23, 2013
Location
East Texas

On April 9th, Johnston reorganized his army one final time, essentially disbanding Cleburne's division. His regiments were consolidated and organized with men from Bate's old division, and commanded by John Brown. [4]

  • Brown's Division: MG John C. Brown
    • Smith's Brigade: BG James A. Smith
      • 1st Florida Consolidated (1st/3rd/4th/6th/7th/1st[Cavalry] Florida): Ltc. Elisha Mashburn
      • 1st Georgia Consolidated (1st/57th/63rd Georgia): Col. Charles H. Olmstead
      • 54th Georgia Consolidated (37th/54th/4th[Sharpshooter] Georgia): Col. Theodore D. Caswell
    • Govan's Brigade: BG Daniel C. Govan
      • 1st Arkansas Consolidated (1st/2nd/3rd/5th/6th/7th/8th/13th/15th/19th/24th/3rd Arkansas): Col. Edward A. Howell
      • 1st Texas Consolidated (6th/7th/10th/15th/17th/18th/24th/25th Texas): Ltc. William A. Ryan
I know there was a similar grotesque amalgamation of the Alabama regiments that had belonged to Lowrey's Brigade into what was known as the 1st Alabama Consolidated but I don't know to which division it was assigned prior to the surrender.

On an unrelated note, I have a copy of an interesting self-published unit history of the 33d Alabama that is available from its author on Amazon.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
I know there was a similar grotesque amalgamation of the Alabama regiments that had belonged to Lowrey's Brigade into what was known as the 1st Alabama Consolidated but I don't know to which division it was assigned prior to the surrender.

On an unrelated note, I have a copy of an interesting self-published unit history of the 33d Alabama that is available from its author on Amazon.
Looking at the wikipedia page for the Carolinas Campaign (which is structured on the April 9th O.R. report), it was part of Shelley's Brigade, Loring's Division, Stewart's Corps
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
The Army of Tennessee as it was at Bentonville was a sad thing. Cheatham's "Corps" wasn't even a large brigade. 3 of the "Divisions" were led by Colonels, 11 of the brigades were commanded by men less than the rank of Colonel.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
The one thing that surprised me in my research, going through the O.R.s, I was surprised to find brigade strength tables for the Battle of Nashville (or just a few days prior) for Stewart's and Cheatham's Corps. Most often you get just division or (at worst) Corps field returns, but here we get more details.
O.R., Series 1, Part 45, Part 1, 679-680
1606935871640.png

1606935879206.png

1606935887834.png
 
Last edited:

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
(Well, my exams are over, I'm home for the holidays, and so I guess I'll continue this as best I can. I expect to get more thorough books on the Frankiln-Nashville Campaign for Christmas; until then, I'm going to be using what I have: Symonds' biography of Cleburne, which ends at exactly his death; Winston Groom's coffee table reader Shrouds of Glory, certainly not the most thoroughly researched work on the subject, but its the best I got; Sam Foster's diary and Norman Brown's notes; and Sigh Wikipedia for pretty much everything involving the Carolina Campaign)
Part 6: From Georgia to Franklin

After Jonesboro, Cleburne's division, with the rest of Hardee's Corps, fell back to Lovejoy Station, where the men finally got respite from the months of constant fighting with Union troops, either in direct combat or skirmishing. They soon returned to Jonesboro, as Sherman had moved his men to occupy Atlanta; it was at Jonesboro that the army reunited. In this time, Govan and his 600 captured men were exchanged and returned to the division, bringing up the strength of the division to 3620 effective men, as of September 20th. [1]

After a day of prayer and fasting on September 15th, in which Mark Lowrey served as the division's minister, the army broke camp and marched to Palmetto, where, on the 20th, they were visited by Jefferson Davis, on a morale raising mission. It worked somewhat, though there is an incident in which Govan's Brigade mistook Davis' and Hood's riding parties for the return of Joe Johnston, and shouted his name; they were informed later to refrain from such behavior, as it had upset Hood. In addition, Hardee gave an ultimatum to Davis to remove Hood or he'd resign; Davis let Hardee resign. Cleburne apparently wanted to resign to join Hardee; only his loyalty to his men kept him from doing such an action. Benjamin Cheatham, a Tennessee militiaman with a mixed reputation for indulging in alcohol prior to battle (most infamously at Murfreesboro), took command of the Corps. [2]

On October 3rd, the army began marching north to launch a campaign against the Atlantic & Western Railroad. Along the way, men of Govan's brigade were caught stealing from an apple orchard. Cleburne had the men pile up the apples stolen, had them given to Granbury's brigade as they marched up, and had the apple pickers perform his customary punishment of carrying a fence post for a mile before rejoining the division. The men then reached just south of Dalton, where they went to work tearing up the railroad tracks. [3]

The Division then moved onto Dalton, which was held by 750 men under Colonel Lewis Johnson. Hood himself sent a flag of truce to induce the post to surrender. However, Johnson was concerned his 600 black troops from the 44th USCT would be mistreated and replaced in chains rather than be treated as proper prisoners of war. He asked for assurances of fair treatment, which did not come. Eventually, he realized he could not negotiate much longer, and eventually surrendered his garrison. His fears of mistreatment were well founded; Granbury's Texans and Tennesseans were itching for a fight with the black troops. When the Union troops had surrendered and began stacking arms, the Texans began robbing them of their equipment, including shoes; some threatened to kill the black troops, who began grovelling for their life, which amused the Texans. According to Symonds, Cleburne did nothing to stop this harrassment, but eventually turned the captured me over to the engineers to work on tearing up tracks towards Tunnel Hill. Winston Groom notes the irony of the situation: at the start of the year, General Cleburne had proposed to arm the South's slave for "the cause" in exchange for emancipation; now, he was holding his division back from slaughtering captured USCT and forcing them to work as slave labor. [4]

The army marched through the gaps of Rocky Face Ridge towards Lafayette, then to the town of Alpine on the Alabama border, then to Sand Mountain, Alabama, before engaging the federal garrison at Decatur the 28th. Hood decided to bypass the garrison and moved to Tuscumbia on the 31st of October. Here, Hood began construction of a pontoon bridge across the Tennessee, which Cleburne's men crossed November 13th, encamping in Florence. On the 20th of November, leaving behind J. A. Smith's Brigade (that formerly commanded by Olmstead at Jonesboro) to guard the river crossing, Cleburne's division marched north into Tennessee. According to the November 6th Returns, Cleburne's division numbered some 3962 effectives; subtracting J. A. Smith's Brigade left behind, this gave Cleburne around 3100 men for his last campaign. [5]

On the 22nd of November, Cleburne's division reached Waynesboro, containing the homes of the Polk family. Here, Cleburne and his men would have reunited with Lucius Polk, retired from service due to his leg wound. Following this, the army marched to Columbia, where they faced General Schofield's scratch Army of the Cumberland across the Duck River. Hood decided to leave S. D. Lee's Corps and most of the artillery in front of Schofield to hold him in place, while he sent Forrest's Cavalry and Cheatham's and Stewart's Corps across the river to flank Schofield and cut him off from Nashville along the Columbia Pike. Cleburne's division would take the lead of this advance. [6]

Cleburne's men were aroused in the early morning of November 29th, and marched towards Davis Ford. Lowrey's Brigade crossed the river at 7am, followed by Govan's and Granbury's Brigades. General Hood and Tennesse Governor Isham Harris were apparently with Cleburne's division, and urged aggresiveness. The men encountered Chalmer's division of Forrest's cavalry having engaged Federals at Spring Hill. Here, Cleburne formed his division for attack. Hood ordered him to deploy his brigade in echelon, with Lowrey's brigade on the far right somewhat advanced. At 4pm, after forming his division and conferring with Forrest for support, Cleburne ordered "Forward echelon!", starting his attack. [7]

Cleburne's men faced Luther Bradley's Illinios Brigade of George Wagner's Division. These 2000 men made much noise, causing concern from Lowrey, who expected them to charge; he was reassured by Cleburne that they would not. Cleburne ordered Govan's brigade to swing to the right, to link up with Lowrey's brigade. Thus, when the division struck Wagner's line, his men were struck on their flank and routed; Bradley was wounded in this engagement. Cleburne pushed him men to pursue, with the men ending up in a creekbed where the federals poured in a hard crossfire of artillery. Two napoleon guns, exposed on the Pike, were charged by Granbury's brigade, which had not engaged Bradley; the two guns were limbered and pulled away before Granbury's men could reach them. Cleburne, however, had to withdraw his men behind the creekbed, to escape the enemy's fire. Another union brigade under John Q. Lane soon came into the fray. Cleburne was ordered Granbury's brigade to move behind a rail fence to face the new brigade.[8].

At around 5 o'clock, Cleburne went to confer with John C. Brown, commanding Cheatham's old division, to coordinate an attack. Around this time, Cheatham came to them and ordered that they would connect their divisions, then Brown would launch a renewed assault on the town of Spring Hill. The 2 men proceeded to carry out this order. However, Brown never launched his assault, for reasons not fully understood. No further action would be taken by the Confederate here, despite Hood's insistence on aggressive action. Thus, during the night, the Federal army marched north along the Pike, just across from Confederate encampments, and escaped unopposed by the Confederates. It was one of the worst blunders of the war for the Confederacy. Hood was appoplectic; he accused the army of cowardice and timidity. Thus, on the 30th of November, the Army would get on the Pike and march to chase the Army of the Cumberland to Franklin. [9]

The Army of Tennessee marched up the Columbia Pike, reaching the town of Franklin, where Schofield had entrenched his men. Hood, surveying the field, saw that Wagner had deployed his division in advance of the mainline, exposed to being flanked and providing him an oppurtunity to break through the Federal line. Hood thus decided to attack, here and now, with 2 of his Corps on the field. Cleburne's division would be in the center of the assault, and he and Brown's men would strike Wagner's division. Cleburne formed his division facing north; Lowrey formed on the right, Govan the Center, and Granbury the Left. Having gotten in position, at 4pm, Cleburne would lead his division for the last time. [10]

The signal for the assault was a flag signal from Winstead Hill, delieved at 4pm. Cleburne ordered "Forward!" and, on his horse, trotted at pace with his men. The brigade bands began to play as they marched across the field. It was the first time the brigade bands would play in combat...and it would be the only time. 20,000 men, with a hundred battle flags waving, marched across a mile and a half long field towards the federal entrenchments. It dwarved the more famous Pickett's Charge in terms of scale. And the result would be the same as that disasterous day. [11]

Federal artillery, with an open field of fire and no Confederate counterbattery to fear, tore holes in the advancing lines, though the Confederactes merely closed ranks and pressed forwards. Eventually, they got in range of Wagner's line, and Bradley's Brigade, now commanded by Col. Joseph Conrad, fired a volley into the division. Granbury's men, who recieved the brunt of the volley, proceeded the charge the enemy line. Wagner's division, exposed in the open to the Confederate advance, broke and ran for the town, through the main line. These men would cause hell for the defenders, who surely would not fire on the advancing Confederates for fear of shooting their own men. Brown, shouting over the din of battle, told his men, "We will go into the works with them!"; Cleburne, in response, gave probably his last order: "Go into the works with them!". Thus, Cleburne's and Brown's men managed to break through the Union center, near the Carter House, and nearly broke the Federal line. Victory seemed imminent for the desperate Confederates. [12]

However, it wasn't so easy. The Yankee defenders, antsy of being over run, gave fire through the retreating men. Cleburne, mounted on a horse, had his mount shot out from under him. He requested another horse from an aid, but that was shot with a cannon ball, covering the Irishman in blood. Cleburne then charged into the smoke of battle on foot, never to be seen alive again. He would be found after the battle, a bullet through his body just below his heart, in front of the enemy works, his body looted of shoes and saber. According to Govan, his body "was found within twenty yards of where I last saw him waving his cap". [13]

Granbury's and Govan's brigades had breached the line, and were in the process of turning cannons around when they were counterattacked by Emerson Opdycke's Brigade, which had been held in reserve behind the line. These men, nicknamed "Opdycke's Tigers" for their intensity, pushed the Confederates back to the foot of the fortifications. The Confederates would not get any further that day. The 2 sides would fight from their sides of the entrenchment, some foolhardy rebels trying to go over the top getting killed instantly. However, some of the Arkansans awaited the arrival of Cleburne to give them the command to go over all at once; however, as time passed, with no sign of their commander, they soon realized he would not be come back. It would not be until 10pm that both sides would fall back from one another. One federal wrote of the position Cleburne's men held that day, "I never saw men put in such a terrible position as Cleburne's division was for a few minutes. The wonder is that any of them escaped death or capture". [14]

Franklin was a collosal disaster for the Confederates. They had routed Wagner's division and nearly pushed through the Union center. But this was worthless in the face of the losses the Confederates had suffered. Some 7000 confederates became casualties on the field; 1750 were dead. They were irreplacable at this point in the war. Among the dead were 6 generals. Cockrell's Missouri Brigade was all but destroyed. Brown's Division had no generals by the end of the battle; Brown was wounded, 3 of his brigade commanders were killed, and the 4th was captured. Cleburne's division itself had gone through hell. Of about 3070 men who went into battle that day, only 1458 remained. Cleburne was dead, and so was Brigadier Granbury, killed in the fight with Opdycke. Granbury's Brigade was now commanded by Captain Edward Broughton, and numbered a mere 344 men. Govan's and Lowrey's Brigades had also suffered, having only 534 and 580 effectives remaining in their respective brigades. The division was devastated. But it would not be their last fight. [15]

Citations:
[1] Symonds, 242-243; O.R., Series 1, Volume 39, Part 2, 850
[2] Symonds, 243-244
[3] Symonds, 245-246; Norman Brown, 137, 139-140
[4] Groom, Winston, Shrouds of Glory, 88-93; Symonds, 246-247.
[5] Symonds, 247-248; O.R., Series 1, Part 45, Part 1, 678
[6] Symonds, 248-249
[7] Symonds, 249-251
[8] Symonds, 250-252
[9] Symonds, 252-255
[10] Symonds, 255-256
[11] Symonds, 256-258
[12] Symonds, 258-259; Groom, 213-214
[13] Symonds, 259-260; Groom, 217-218, 242
[14] Symonds, 259-260; Groom, 218-223, 237
[15] O.R., Series 1, Part 45, Part 1, 678, 680; Groom, 222, 239, 257
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
I have decided that, with my lack of sources available for the subject matter at hand, I shall have to hold off making the final part of this main threadline on the history of the division. As I had books on the subject at the top of my wishlist, I hope to start reading after Christmas, and get back to making this thread as soon as I feel I have the requisite information regarding the subject.
For now, I intend to make a post for December 15th (tomorrow) on Sam Foster's account of the action at Granbury's Lunette. I would also like to say a post will be made regarding Sam Foster and choice quotes of his regarding the division.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Sam Foster's Account of the engagement at Granbury's Lunette, Battle of Nashville, Dec. 15th 1864

Sam Foster was a Captain servering in the 24th Texas Dismounted Cavalry (consolidated with the 17th, 18th, and 25th Texas Dismounted Cavalry), part of Granbury's Texas Brigade since Arkansas Post. He had fought with the division at Chickamauga, Chattanooga, Ringgold Gap (where he was presumably wounded), Pickett's Mill, Bald Hill, Jonesboro, and Franklin. He would fight in his last battle of the war here on December 15th. According to his account, he suffered a bullet wound to the leg around 3 hours into the engagement, and went back to the field hospital to recieve treatment. He'd soon have to make a desperate trek south after the disaster of the following day left much of the wounded stranded behind the Federal advance. He would return to his unit, but he would see no major action for the rest of the conflict (he would have been present at Bentonville, but his brigade arrived after the AoT's assault on Day 1 and took no action; it seems it was so insignificant to Foster that he does not even record it in his diary).
His diary entry for December 13th (actually the 15th; for some reason he was off a few days in his writings):
"I am on picket today as Brigade officer of the day. The Yanks have been fighting our picket line with negroes, for nearly a week, and we have killed several so close that they can't get them. So they remain where they fell froze as hard as a log.
About One O'Clock they send a skirmish line out to fight us. About 4 O'Clock PM I am wounded in my right leg about 6 inches above the knee, the ball going in, in the front side of my leg, passing out the back side to the right of the bone without touching it."
Source: Brown, Norman. One of Cleburne's Command: The Civil War Reminiscences and Diary of Capt. Samuel T. Foster, Granbury's Texas Brigade, CSA. 153-154
 

Similar threads

Top