Uniforms When and how were "type II" Union forage caps issued to troops?

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privateflemming

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I have a question about "type I" and "type II" forage caps. I know the "type I" design was first produced in 1858 but when was the "type II" first produced and when was it issued to troops? Was it only issued to new recruits or as a replacement for the type I in some cases? Article about the differences: http://www.dirtybillyshats.com/federal_forage_caps.htm.html

In pictures of Union troops I often see what look like a mix of different styles, like in this photo of the 110th Pennsylvania Infantry after Fredericksburg in either December 1862 or May 1863:

Screen Shot 2019-09-14 at 11.33.18 PM.png

 

major bill

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Interesting site. Type I and Type II are modern classification and I am not sure they are terms were used during the Civil War. The need for large numbers of forage caps probably caused some differences from forage caps made by different manufactures. Dose anyone have documentation that the Quartermaster ever officially changed the details?
 

Package4

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I have a question about "type I" and "type II" forage caps. I know the "type I" design was first produced in 1858 but when was the "type II" first produced and when was it issued to troops? Was it only issued to new recruits or as a replacement for the type I in some cases? Article about the differences: http://www.dirtybillyshats.com/federal_forage_caps.htm.html

In pictures of Union troops I often see what look like a mix of different styles, like in this photo of the 110th Pennsylvania Infantry after Fredericksburg in either December 1862 or May 1863:

View attachment 325554
Unfortunately the only specification that we know of are the 1865 Quartermaster's Manual and the specification there are pretty much those of the 1858 cap. @major bill astutely points out that the Type I and Type II designations are modern and in no way reflect period assignation. Type I caps are far more common, particularly during the 1st three years of the war, though they are not as jaunty as their cousin and tend to stick up on top of the head. Due to the smaller disk, the sides of the cap naturally converge, narrowing as they near the disk, this creates an almost soft shako like appearance. The jaunty forward disk appearance of the Type II is almost impossible to create with the Type I. The brim of the Type I has a brim or visor "cut to slope", rather a convex or 1/3 moon appearance, while the Type II has a more flat visor. Absent a specification or order from the Quartermaster Department, I suspect that it was easier to create the mass production of the Type II and the Quartermaster's Department concurred. I doubt that the War Department deferred to the enlisted man's want of a jaunty cap.........

According to Edgar M Howell the Type I was a 2-1 over the Type II, though he only called them convex and straight brimmed caps, the Type I and Type II designations were not extant in 1975 when he wrote his wonderful "United States Army Headgear 1855-1902; Catalog of United States Army Uniforms in the Collections of the Smithsonian Institution, II"
 
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Package4

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I have a question about "type I" and "type II" forage caps. I know the "type I" design was first produced in 1858 but when was the "type II" first produced and when was it issued to troops? Was it only issued to new recruits or as a replacement for the type I in some cases? Article about the differences: http://www.dirtybillyshats.com/federal_forage_caps.htm.html

In pictures of Union troops I often see what look like a mix of different styles, like in this photo of the 110th Pennsylvania Infantry after Fredericksburg in either December 1862 or May 1863:

View attachment 325554
Due to the prevalence of Corps Badges this would appear to be the later date.
 
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