Unit Strengths at the Battle of New Market, 15 May, 1864

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Nov 8, 2018
I picked up William C. Davis' book on the battle at the Library today. Flipped through it and, to my surprise, not only did it have an order of battle, but, better unit, numbers for the units' strengths going into battle. This has been bugging me for a while since I've been working on a project, and I got carried away with details. So, this is as much as help for me as I imagine it will be for others.
Davis divides unit strengths in 2 numbers: campaign strength, and engaged. As there are more numbers for the former, I will mainly use those, except where noted.
I shall order it thus:
Unit name: Commander (If applicable): Campaign Strength: Engaged Strength: notes

Union: MG Franz Sigel: 8940: 6275
-Infantry Division: BG Jeremiah C. Sullivan: 5245: 3745
--1st Brigade: Col. August Moor: 2550: 1050
---18th Connecticut Infantry: Maj. Henry Peale: 350: 700
---28th Ohio Infantry: Ltc. Gottfried Becker: 700: N/A: Not present at battle
---116th Ohio Infantry: Col. James Washburn: 800: N/A: Not Present
---123rd Ohio Infantry: Maj. Horace Kellogg: 700: 700
--2nd Brigade: Col. Joseph Thoburn: 2695: 2695
---1st West Virginia Infantry: Ltc. Jacob Weddle: 700: 700
---12th West Virginia Infantry: Col. William B. Curtis: 929: 929
---34th Massachusetts Infantry: Col. George D. Wells: 500: 566
---54th Pennsylvania Infantry: Col. Jacob M. Campbell: 566: 566
-Cavalry Division: MG Julius Stahel: 3035: 2000: Many units missing figures
--1st Brigade: Col. William B. Tibbitts: ?: ?
---1st New York (Veteran) Cavalry: Col. Robert F. Taylor: ?: ?
---1st New York (Lincoln) Cavalry: Ltc. Alonzo W. Adams: 750: 500
---1st Maryland Potomac Home Cavalry: 50: ?
---21st New York Cavalry: Maj. Charles C. Otis: ?: ?
---14th Pennsylvania Cavalry: Capt. Ashbell F. Duncan: 104: ?
--2nd Brigade: Col. John E. Wynkoop: ?: ?
---15th New York: Maj. H. Roessler: 130: 130
---20th Pennsylcania Cavalry: Maj. R. B. Douglas: 170: 170
---22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry: 1st Lt. Caleb McNulty: 88: ?
-Artillery: N/A: 660: 530: 22 Guns

Confederate: MG John C. Breckinridge:
-Infantry: N/A: 4249: 3746
--1st Brigade: BG John Echols: 1584: 1584
---22nd Virginia Infantry Regiment: Col. George S. Patton Sr.: 580: 580
---23rd Virginia Infantry Battalion: Ltc. Clarence Derrick: 579: 579
---26th Virginia Infantry Battalion: Ltc. George M. Edgar: 425: 425
--2nd Brigade: BG Gabriel C. Wharton: 1557: 1557
---51st Virginia Infantry Regiment: Ltc. John P. Wolfe: 700: 700
---62nd Virginia Infantry Regiment: Col. George H. Smith: 510: 510: Cavalry unit, dismounted fighting as infantry; Company A, 1st Missouri Cavalry, 62 men, attached and numbers included in count
---30th Battalion, Virginia Sharpshooters: Ltc. J. Lyle Clark: 347: 347
--Misc Attached commanded: N/A: 1108: 605
---Hart's Engineer Company: 37: 37: Fighting as infantry
---Augusta-Rockingham Reserves: Col. William Harman: 500: N/A: Not Engaged
---Davis' Company, Maryland Cavalry: Capt. T. S. Davis: 27: 27: Fought as infantry
---23rd Virginia Cavalry Regiment: Col. Robert White: 315: 315: Fought as infantry
---V.M.I. Cadet Battalion: Ltc. Scott Shipp: 229: 226: 3 left behind due to illness
-Cavalry: BG John Imboden: 735: N/A: Not engaged
--18th Virginia Cavlary Regiment: Col. George W. Imboden: 615: N/A
--2nd Maryland Cavalry Battalion: Maj. Harry Gilmer: 40: N/A
--McNeill's Company, Virginia Partisans: 60: N/A
--43rd Virginia Partisan Rangers Battalion: Ltc. John S. Mosby: 20: N/A
-Artillery: Maj. William McLaughlin: 341: 341: 18 Guns

I'd go into detail on artillery, but this was already enough. There is also a casualty list but that is even more lengthy.
Citation: William C. Davis, The Battle of New Market, pg. 188-192

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Nov 8, 2018
Have gotten Charles Knight's Valley Thunder, (as a Christmas gift). It seems he gives slightly different numbers.
(note, gonna use shorthand for unit names. IR= Infantry Regiment; IB = Infantry Battalion; CR = Cavalry Regiment, etc. Otherwise, keeping to Knight's ordering)
Also, not gonna list casualties.

Confederate Army: MG John C. Breckinridge (5313 men, 18 guns)
-Echols' Brigade: BG John Echols (1499)
--22nd Virginia IR: Col. George S. Patton, Sr. (550)
--23rd Virginia IB: Ltc. Clarence Derrick (472)
--26th Virginia IB: Ltc. George M. Edgar (477)
-Wharton's Brigade: BG Gabriel Wharton (986)
--30th Virginia IB: Ltc. J. Lyle Clark (306)
--51st Virginia IR: Ltc. John P. Wolfe (680)
-Unattached Commands (771)
--VMI Cadet Battalion: Ltc. Scott Ship (sic) (227)
--3rd Confederate Engineers: 1st Lt. W. M. Long (44)
--Rockingham/Augusta Reserves: Col. William Harman (500)
-Cavalry: BG John Imboden (1700)
--18th Virginia CR: Col. George W. Imboden (600)
--23rd Virginia CR: Col. Robert White (315)
--62nd Virginia Mounted IR: Col. George H. Smith (510)
--1st Missouri CR, Company A: Capt. Charles Woodson (62)
--Davis' Maryland Cavalry: Capt. T. Sturgis Davis (26)
--2nd Maryland CB: Maj. Harry Gilmor (40)
--McNeill's Rangers: Capt. John H. McNeill (60)
--3rd Battalion Virginia Mounted Reserves, Company A: Capt. George Chrisman (87)
-Artillery: Maj. William McLaughlin (18 guns, 357 men)
--Chapman's Battery: Capt. George B. Chapman (6 guns, 135 men)
--Jackson's Battery: 1st Lt. Randolph H. Blain (4 guns, 94 men)
--McClanahan's Battery: Capt. John McClanahan (6 guns, 93 men)
--VMI Artillery Section: Cadet Capt. Collier H. Minge (2 guns, 35 men)

Comparing the Confederate numbers here,they are ever so slightly off. Davis' total (including troops not present on the field) would be 5325 (4087 present on the field), while Knight places it at 5313. Knight does not detach Woodson's Missouri Company from 62nd Virginia's count, and places them with the Cavalry, while Davis puts them with Wharton's infantry. Also, between Davis and Knight, several regiments lose or gain men depending. For example, 22nd Virginia numbers 580 men in Davis' count, while Knight's number 550.
Looking at Knight's footnotes sheds lights on these discrepancies. He notes that he takes his numbers from a report dating from 21st of May, and adding back the casualties sustained at New Market. He notes that Ltc. Edgar reported 26th Virginia Battalion mustering 425 men (same as Davis' numbers), but points out it "was written several months after the battle".
Also, it seems Knight himself cites Davis for his numbers for Harman's Reserves.

Sourced from Charles R. Knight, Valley Thunder: The Battle of New Market and the Opening of the Shenandoah Valley Campaign, May 1864. Appendix 1. Kindle version, so no page numbers, sadly.

I have also recieve Patchan's book on the Battle of Piedmont. May make a new thread compiling at least the Confederate unit strengths for the opening phases of the Valley Campaign. (Patchan does not break down the Union strengths).