Uncertain Loyalties: Dual Enlistment in the Third and Fourth Arkansas Cavalry, USV.

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Just finished reading the article in the Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Winter 2013, Uncertain Loyalties: Dual Enlistment in the Third and Fourth Arkansas Cavalry, USV, by Georgena Duncan.

This is an interesting article on men who joined the Union Third and Fourth Arkansas Cavalry Regiments, who had prior service in the Confederate Army. These were not POWs who joined to escape prison, but recruits in Arkansas.

The article indicates that over 40% of the recruits of these two regiments had served in the Confederate Army. The total did not include common names which would make it difficult to insure they were the same man. Former Confederate Officers, NCOs and privates all joined the Union regiments, but the scale was tilted in favor of the NCOs. Most of the men claimed they had not served the Confederacy voluntary and were at heart Union men. Some claim they were part of the "Union League" which was present in many Confederate companies.

Not having studied this in depth I have not real explanation for this. President Lincoln believed these men had joined for patriotism, political bias, personal courage, love of adventure, want of employment and for convenience. Many of the dual loyalties men had deserted soon after enlisting in the Confederate Army and had been conscripted in 1863.

Regardless of the reasons why, the number of dual loyalty men in Arkansas was considerable. Any thoughts on this?
 

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There were organized Union regiments from every Confederate State except South Carolina and South Carolina men in other units.
You probably answered your own question when you wrote: "Many of the dual loyalties men had deserted soon after enlisting in the Confederate Army and had been conscripted in 1863." Like in my east Tennessee, there was a good deal of Union sentiment in n.w. Arkansas. I'll always believe forced conscription did more harm to the Confederate cause in the "upper south" and border States than any Union general and any defeat in battle. Those who believed strongly in the Confederate cause volunteered in 61-62. Most of those still home in 1863, were either Union men or at the least neutral. Being forced into the Confederate Army simply made them Union men

A line of my maternal ancestors in east Tennessee (Cox) migrated to Madison County in n.w. Arkansas and fought for the Union. This is part of the research done by one of their more direct descendants:

The Conscription
Sept – Oct 1862

In the fall of 1862, the Confederates began planning a counter attack aimed at pushing the Union out of Arkansas and back in to Missouri.
It is their preparations for this action that impacts the Cox family.
In late 1862 the Confederate Government called on all men under the age of 35 to enlist in their army. This gave Confederate Commanders the right to Conscript any man under the age of 35 into the Confederate Army, under pain of death.
In late September or early October of 1862 (reports are unclear) a unit of the 3d Arkansas Infantry (CSA)[1], approximately 100 hundred in strength, under the command of Col. Adams[2] descended on Madison County. Here, the 3d conscripted an unknown, but large, number of the men of the county to serve with them. The accounts vary, but it is clear that the conscription was involuntary. Some accounts say that to resist was death, others say that a “willing” conscript could chose his unit (friends) to serve with while the unwilling would be assigned to units and duties at the will of the commanders.

So many of the men of this unit were conscripts that the unofficial name of the unit became the “3d Conscript Regiment of Infantry CSA”.
After the war, Capt B. F Atkinson[3], Commander of Company B (or I?) who was in charge of the conscription action said that 90% of the men in the unit were conscripts and that he expected that nearly all of them would desert at the first opportunity.
Jacob’s son, Nathan H Cox’s, pension file contains his report of the conscription.
“A crowd of confederates was camped here (near Huntsville in Madison Co.) and they picked us up. They came to our houses and took us off… I was afraid not to go for fear of being shot.”
From the combined Cox pension files, many of close friends of the Coxes reported that they were similarly conscripted.
In this conscription effort, Michael Hopper (Margret’s son by her first marriage) and Nathan Cox, his half-brother, were taken into Capt. Atkinson’s Company of the 3d Arkansas Infantry (CSA). (Atkinson says CO I, the conscriptees say Co B, no unit records exist).
Samuel Hopper[4] (possibly Michael’s Cousin) and Nathan’s younger half-brother, Sinclair were also taken.
John Cox, Nathan and Sinclair's brother was a minister. On hearing that Nathan and Michael had been taken by the Confederates, he went to visit them to see what they might need.
Not surprisingly, when he showed up in the Confederate Camp to Minister to his kin, an officer wanted to know what he was doing there and when John told him, the office said, “then I will swear you in.” John submitted because he thought he would be killed if he did not.
Joshua’s pension file does not mention being conscripted, so it is assumed that he avoided the conscription, probably because he was (or thought he was?) over 35. He did join the 1st Arkansas Vol. Inf. USA on February 23, 1863 with the others.

Michael Hoppers

Union Soldier Michael Hoppers .jpg


Michael Hopper Residence was not listed; 20 years old. Enlisted on 2/23/1863 at Fayetteville, AR as a Corporal. On 2/23/1863 he mustered into "B" Co. AR 1st Infantry He was discharged (date not stated) Other Information: died 11/4/1919 in Urbana, MO (Applied for a pension in 1890) Sources used by Historical Data Systems, Inc.: - Index to Compiled Military Service Records - 1st Arkansas Union Infantry - Arkansas Research (c) Historical Data Systems, Inc. @ www.civilwardata.com
 
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Just finished reading the article in the Arkansas Historical Quarterly, Winter 2013, Uncertain Loyalties: Dual Enlistment in the Third and Fourth Arkansas Cavalry, USV, by Georgena Duncan.

This is an interesting article on men who joined the Union Third and Fourth Arkansas Cavalry Regiments, who had prior service in the Confederate Army. These were not POWs who joined to escape prison, but recruits in Arkansas.

The article indicates that over 40% of the recruits of these two regiments had served in the Confederate Army. The total did not include common names which would make it difficult to insure they were the same man. Former Confederate Officers, NCOs and privates all joined the Union regiments, but the scale was tilted in favor of the NCOs. Most of the men claimed they had not served the Confederacy voluntary and were at heart Union men. Some claim they were part of the "Union League" which was present in many Confederate companies.

Not having studied this in depth I have not real explanation for this. President Lincoln believed these men had joined for patriotism, political bias, personal courage, love of adventure, want of employment and for convenience. Many of the dual loyalties men had deserted soon after enlisting in the Confederate Army and had been conscripted in 1863.

Regardless of the reasons why, the number of dual loyalty men in Arkansas was considerable. Any thoughts on this?
Third Arkansas Cavalry (Union)


From A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion

Regimental Histories
By Frederick H. Dyer

Organized at Little Rock, Arkansas, February 1864. Attached to
Post of Little Rock, Arkansas, 7th Army Corps, Department
Arkansas, to May 1864. 3rd Brigade, 2nd Division, 7th Army
Corps to September, 1864. 4th Brigade, Cavalry Division, 7th
Army Corps to February, 1865. Post of Lewisburg, Arkansas, 7th
Army Corps to August, 1865.

Service

Operations in Northwest Arkansas January 16-February 15, 1864.
Expedition from Batesville to near Searcy Landing January 30-
February 3 (Detachment). Dardanelle March 15-17. Steele's
Camden Expedition March 23-May 3. Skirmishes on Benton Road
March 23-24. Rockport and Dover March 25. Quitman March 26.
Arkadelphia March 29. Near Camden March 30. Spoonville and
Terre Noir Creek April 2. Okolona April 2-3. Elkin's Ferry,
Little Missouri River, April 3-4. Prairie D'Ann April 9-12.
Camden APril 15-18. Mark's Mills April 25. Jenkins' Ferry,
Saline River, April 30. Operations against Shelby North of
Arkansas River May 13-31. Cypress Creek May 13. Princeton May
27. At Lewisburg till September. Lewisburg June 10. Scout from
Lewisburg June 20-23. Operations against guerrillas in
Arkansas July 1-31. Searcy County, July 4. Petit Jean,
Arkansas River, July 10. Near Pine Bluff July 22 (Detachment).
Scout in Yell County July 25-August 11 (Detachment).
Operations in central Arkansas and skirmishes August 9-15.
Near Dardanelle August 30. near Beattie's Mill September 1.
Near Quitman September 2. Operations about Lewisburg
September 6-8. Norristown September 6. Point Remove
September 7-8. Glass Village September 8. Scout to Norristown
and Russellville September 9-12 (Co. D). Ordered to Little
Rock September 10, and duty there till February 1865.
Expedition from Little Rock to Fort Smith Septembei 25-October
13 (Detachment). Skirmishes at Clarksville September 28. White
Oak Creek September 29. Clarksville October 9. Reconnaissance
from Little Rock toward Monticello and Mt. Elba October 4-11.
Expedition to Fort Smith November 5-23. Near Cypress Creek,
Perry County, December 1 (Co. C). Perry County December 3.
Operations in Arkansas January 1-27, 1865. Dardanelle January
14. Ivey's Ford January 17. Boggs' Mills January 24. Duty at
Lewisburg and operations against guerrillas in that vicinity
till August. Near Lewisburg February 12. Scout from Lewisburg
into Yell and Searcy Counties March 12-23. Mustered out August
20, 1865.


********************************************************


Fourth Arkansas Union Cavalry

Historical Memoranda

From Report of the Adjutant General of the State of Arkansas
by Albert W. Bishop, Adjutant General of Arkansas, 1867

The raising of the 4th regiment Arkansas cavalry volunteers
was begun in November, 1863, and completed on the muster in of
Lafayette Gregg as colonel, December 29, 1864. Meantime
companies of the regiment, as rapidly as organized, were
placed on active duty and experienced the usual vicissitues of
the service.

The following communication, received shortly before the
muster out of the regiment (June 30, 1865,) gives an account
of its organization and services:

To: A. W. Bishop, Adjutant General, State of Arkansas

Headquarters Fourth Regiment Arkansas Cavalry
Little Rock, Arkansas June 8, 1865

SIR: In reply to your communication of today requesting a
history of this regiment I have the honor to state: The
organization of the regiment was commenced under the direction
of William M. Fishback in the month of November, 1863. The
first battalion was mustered in for one year or during the
war, but the muster was declared invalid by the Adjutant
General of the army, and in the month of December that
battalion was disabled, and the regiment commenced
reorganizing as a three years' organization. The regiment
filled up quite rapidly until the disastrous expedition of
General Steele in the month of March, 1864, which discouraged
enlistments, and the organization of the regiment was not
completed till December 29, 1864.

The following is a statement of the completion of the
organization of each company: 'A' Company was organized by
Captain Joel Brown on the 12th day of December, 1863, at
Little Rock, Arkansas; 'B' Company by Captain James R.
Lafferry on the 9th day of January, 1864, at Little Rock,
Arkansas; 'C' Company by Captain Henry Wood on the 28th day of
January, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'D' Company by
Captain George H. Hand, on the 5th day of March, 1864, at
Little Rock, Arkansas; 'E' Company by Captain George W. Smith,
on the 29th day of March, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'F'
Company by Captain William H. Warner, on the 7th day of April,
1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'G' Company by Captain William
J. Green, on the 29th day of April, 1864, at Little Rock,
Arkansas; 'H' Company by Captain John F. Sanders, on the 7th
day of May, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'I' Company by
Captain Emory E. Knowlton, on the 16th day of October, 1864,
at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'K' Company by Captain Joseph
Bennett, on the 18th day of June, 1864, at Little Rock,
Arkansas; 'L' Company by Captain James S. Clark, on the 15th
day of July, 1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas; 'M' Company by
Captain Frederick F. Burlock, on the 31st day of December,
1864, at Little Rock, Arkansas.

Although the regiment as such, has never been in any general
engagements, detachments of it have been in several skirmishes
and fights. A portion of company G was in a fight at Mount
Elba, Arkansas, on the 30th day of March, 1864. Companies A,
B, C, E and K were in a fight at Dardanelle, Arkansas, when
that place was attacked by the rebel General Shelby's command
on the 16th day of May, 1864. The regiment also had a severe
skirmish with the enemy on Saline River, Arkansas, on the 16th
day of July, 1864, in which the brave Captain Hugh Quin was
killed.

Portions of the regiment have also been in several other
skirmishes at different times, and a large number of
bushwhackers have at various times been captured by it.

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant.

HORACE L. MOORE
Lieutenant Colonel Commanding Regiment

The regiment was mustered out at Little Rock, Arkansas, on the
30th day of June, 1865.
 


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