The Thompson House - Bagdad, Florida

rickvox79

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#1
I thought I'd post this small Civil War story because it has a local tie to me and from what I found out just last Friday a personal tie as well. Forgive me, it's kinda of lengthy for a small Civil War story but I thought I'd share it with the forum. Unless you live near NW Florida, most of you probably only know Baghdad, Iraq and not Bagdad, Florida. It's a small community close to Milton, Florida about 15-20 minutes from Pensacola. If you keep up with any golf at all you have probably heard of their most famous former citizen golfer Bubba Watson. I lived in Milton until I was 10 but the school district zone where I lived was for Bagdad Elementary, so I actually went to school there and was in the same class as Bubba until we moved 30 minutes away after my 4th grade year.

Before and after the Civil War, Bagdad was known for its lumber mills. During the Civil War many were burned down by retreating Confederate soldiers or occupied by Union troops when they took over the area. After the war the business boomed again and the town even rivaled Pensacola in terms of business and commerce. Times changed though and by 1939 the last lumber mill closed and many people from that area moved to Alabama or into Pensacola. My great-grandfather was one of those that was affected. He moved to Pensacola after the lumber mills closed down and many in the area lost their jobs.

Ok getting back to the Civil War aspect of this tale! There is a house in Bagdad known as the Thompson House.
thompson house.JPG


It was built in 1847 by Benjamin Woodson Thompson. The house is close to Bagdad Elementary School so when I was probably 8 or 9 we walked to it on a field trip. In the 1970's the new owner's of the home were scrubbing the old paint across the walls when they stumbled across graffiti left by Civil War soldiers in 1864. There caricatures scribbled on the walls, some legible and some not legible writing. The most famous legible writing is what appears to be a caricature and then "Bagdad Mr Tompson Spur's First Fla Cavalry camped in your house on the 26 of Oct 1864."

As a kid I thought it was really neat, and it is one of my first Civil War memories along with visiting the Cyclorama in Atlanta. What I didn't realize at the time was that I had a personal connection to it. For some reason last Friday I remembered the old house and taking a field trip there and decided to Google it to remind myself the story behind it because it had been so long since I had been. When I saw the message I was immediately struck by the "First Fla Cavalry" part of the message. Probably a year ago or so I tracked down a relative that was in the Union 1st FL Cavalry. I remember it well because I was in complete shock to have run across a relative from my paternal Grandmother's family since all of them were from southern Alabama and fought for the Confederacy. My GGG-grandfather William Thomas and my GGG-uncle Harvey Gatewood (his brother-in-law) were in the 1st FL Cavalry.

When I started doing my Civil War family research in 2011 my Dad had told me that his grandmother once told him that her grandmother remembered walking to Fort Barrancas in Pensacola from Wing, Alabama to visit her husband and bring him food while he was stationed there. I sort of chalked it up to hearsay or maybe wrong info passed over the years because the Confederates abandoned Barrancas and Pensacola in 1862. I had found no evidence of a Confederate ancestor that would have been there. My Dad also told me of speaking with a distant relative in the early 90's that told him that some of our ancestors fought for the Union and it caused a stir in the community. Again, I had found no evidence of that until I was looking through Findagrave.com and found my uncle Harvey Gatewood. He had a Civil War Soldier's tombstone and it said 1st Fl Cavalry. When I looked him up on the NPS site I couldn't find him. The problem was I was looking under Confederates. It wasn't until I found the document where his Civil War Veteran's tombstone said US 1st FL Cavalry that I realized he fought for the Union. I found that my GGG-grandfather was in the same unit shortly thereafter.
6401710851_1127b33960_z.jpg


I didn't understand it. Why would I have two relatives that fought for the Union when I had so many others fighting for the Confederacy. I remember when I asked the Ancestry forum on this site for more information, East Tennessee Roots explained to me how some people, even from the deep south, were put off with the Confederacy or more specifically Confederate soldiers for their burning, looting etc. I guess I never realized that the looting could go both ways. Interestingly in an article I found about the house in 2003 it states "Florida was a Confederate state, but many Panhandle residents had opposed secession and were alienated by retreating Confederates who burned homes, mills and businesses to keep them out of Yankee hands." So I don't know if that happened to my grandfather and relatives or if by early 1864 he decided the Union side was going to win and joined up with them.

But anyway, that's my long story on an extremely small slice Civil War history. Little did I know when I went on a field trip in elementary school to an old house, that two of my relatives camped there possibly and someone from that regiment left their mark that was still be there 150 years later.
 
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rickvox79

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#2
Here is an article from a Jacksonville Newspaper on the house. It is from 2003 but gives more detailed information on the house and the “Spur” from the message left by the soldier.

http://jacksonville.com/tu-online/apnews/stories/112703/D7V318R00.shtml



Thursday, November 27, 2003

U.S. Army occupied Bagdad 139 years ago during Civil War

By BILL KACZOR
Associated Press Writer

BAGDAD, Fla. - The public will get a chance next weekend to see an unusual graffiti calling card that the U.S. Army left when it captured Bagdad. It wasn't written when Army troops occupied Baghdad after the March invasion of Iraq but 139 years ago during the Civil War in the Florida Panhandle, where Bagdad is spelled without an "H."

Union troops scratched caricatures of mustached and bearded soldiers, drawings of U.S. flags and writing often impossible to decipher into the plaster walls of an antebellum mansion. The graffiti remained hidden under a thick coat of chalky calcimine paint for more than a century until Charles and Pat D'Asaro scrubbed it off after they bought the house in the mid-1970s.

"People told us there had been soldiers in this house, but not until we found that writing on the wall could we really verify it," Pat said. The graffiti will be a highlight of the Bagdad Village Preservation Association's annual holiday heritage tour Dec. 6-7. Civil War re-enactors and others will be in period costumes to bring the home's history alive.

The D'Asaros, both 64, keep the graffiti hidden under panels matching the repainted walls, removing them only for the tour, field trips by school children and other special occasions at the Thompson House. It was built by timber baron Benjamin Thompson in what was a bustling sawmill town and lumber port before and after the Civil War. The mill is long gone, and Bagdad today is a quiet bedroom community of 1,500 residents about 15 miles northeast of Pensacola.

The D'Asaros, who met when both were students at the University of Miami, at first dismissed the graffiti as the work of children until something caught Charles' eye one afternoon. "Sunlight was shining through the window on the wall and I noticed the date - 1864," Charles recalled. He used charcoal to darken the scratches and bring out the full message: "Bagdad Mr Tompson Spur's First Fla Cavalry camped in your house on the 26 of Oct 1864." Charles, who this year retired as a marine biology professor from the University of West Florida, did some research at the campus library in Pensacola.

He learned that Lt. Col. Andrew Barclay Spurling of the 2nd Maine Cavalry, later promoted to brigadier general, had led Union troops in the Pensacola area. Spurling undoubtedly was the "Spur" in the graffiti because dates in Army dispatches matched those etched into the walls. Florida was a Confederate state, but many Panhandle residents had opposed secession and were alienated by retreating Confederates who burned homes, mills and businesses to keep them out of Yankee hands. "It was pretty brutal," said Pensacola Junior College history professor Brian Rucker. "It was done very callously. There was no mercy."

The Thompson House somehow was spared, but Benjamin Thompson and most people in the Pensacola area fled to rebel-held Alabama. A few stayed, though, and some joined the Union army. "Wouldn't you want to be on the winning side?" asked Ida Dickey, 57, of Pensacola, whose great-great grandfather, Fletcher Wilkinson, switched to the Union Army. "That's probably what I would have done." Born and raised in Bagdad, Dickey recalled hearing stories of Union troops riding their horses up and down the Thompson House staircase, but there were few witnesses.

"Most of the towns and cities were ghost towns," Rucker said. "It was like a no-man's land across West Florida."That made occupying Bagdad in 1864 much easier than Baghdad in 2003. Union troops were based in Pensacola and probably spent only a few days at a time here, Rucker said. Both sides sent out patrols, and Confederates on shore would attack Union steamboats going up the Blackwater River in search of logs, Rucker said.

While Iraq sits atop a massive oil reserve, the Panhandle was prized for timber in the 19th Century. Bagdad is believed to have been named after Baghdad because it is wedged between the Blackwater and Pond Creek much the way Iraqi capital sits between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Charles D'Asaro's research disclosed Spurling was a crack shot and daring soldier. He would dress as a Confederate officer, ride into rebel camps and conduct inspections to find weaknesses before attacking, D'Asaro said.

The native of Cranberry Isles, Maine, was awarded the Medal of Honor for single-handedly capturing three Confederate soldiers, wounding two of them in an exchange of gunfire, at Evergreen, Ala. He also played a key role in the Union victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay.

After the war, Spurling survived a wreck off Cape May, N.J., as a sea captain and then was elected sheriff of Hancock County, Maine. He later was a postal inspector in Chicago and became president of the Chicago Rawhide Manufacturing Co. He made and lost a fortune in real estate in Elgin, Ill., then returned to Chicago where he died at 73 in 1906.

Spurling probably never met his Bagdad host. Benjamin Thompson died here in 1876 at age 66. His descendants lived in the house, which was moved 700 feet in 1912 so the mill could expand, until the D'Asaros bought it. Benjamin Thompson's great-great granddaughter, Joan Thompson Steele, 62, of Enterprise, Ala., was born in the Bagdad house. Family members told tales about Union troops being there but she was unaware of the graffiti until the D'Asaros found it.

"That was something they just hushed up," Steele said, but she added, "It sort of blends in with all the other stories we heard about the Civil War."
 
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#6
I thought I'd post this small Civil War story because it has a local tie to me and from what I found out just last Friday a personal tie as well. Forgive me, it's kinda of lengthy for a small Civil War story but I thought I'd share it with the forum. Unless you live near NW Florida, most of you probably only know Baghdad, Iraq and not Bagdad, Florida. It's a small community close to Milton, Florida about 15-20 minutes from Pensacola.
There was quite a lot of fighting and skirmishing held in the small town of Milton during the Civil War. It is hard to find a lot of the recorded history regarding the fighting and skirmishing there, but if you dig deep enough there is some to be found. The 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry operated heavily in that area from 18 May 1862 to 5 Apr 1863, at which time they were ordered by Maj. General S. B. Buckner (Department of the Gulf, Mobile) to northern Mississippi to help oppose Grierson`s Spring 1863 raid from Lagrange to Baton Rouge, marching through the length of Mississippi.

The 2nd Regt. Alabama Cavalry was initially ordered from their Camp of Instruction (Stone) at Montgomery, AL on 8 May 1862 to assist Maj. General Samuel Jones with the evacuation of Pensacola. They began their march for Florida on 9 May 1862, and after a hard 3 day forced march, only briefly stopping to rest and feed, they arrived at Pensacola on 12 May 1862. At which time they were ordered to perform a rear guard action and cover the retreat of the Confederate army northward, delivering them safely to Pollard, AL on 18 May 1862. Then the 2nd Alabama turned back into Florida and established several camps and advance camps in numerous areas of the Panhandle for the purpose of opposing the Federals at Pensacola in an effort to contain them, keeping them from expanding outward and gaining control of more territory in the panhandle. From several of these camps the 2nd Alabama would send out daily scouts, specifically to Milton on the Blackwater river, and would often encounter Federal troops there who were making raids on the small town to confiscate lumber and other supplies, taking it all back to Pensacola. The Federals would send light gunboats, as well as side-wheel steamers, up the Blackwater river from Pensacola Bay (20 miles away) and pass through Bagdad there and back. Captain T. J. Myers` Florida Cavalry Battalion, would also patrol and make scouts to Milton and Bagdad, and would also engage Federal forces found at both towns.

Many people today think of Pensacola as being the primary town of the panhandle during the Civil War. However, during that time Milton and Bagdad were richer and better economically developed than Pensacola... or even Tallahassee the Capital. Santa Rosa was the richest county in Florida in the 1860 census with Milton and Bagdad having very diverse economies of trade, shipbuilding, lumber, textiles, and brick-making to name a few of their industries. At this time Milton was the most industrialized town in the Florida panhandle. When General`s Bragg and Jones began to withdraw the Confederate army from the panhandle in the spring of 1862, leaving troops in Pollard, AL to harass the Federals in Pensacola and try and keep the rest of the panhandle out of Federal control, both Milton and Bagdad were of strategical interest and value for both sides, even though being severely damaged by Bragg`s army as they evacuated the area, burning much of the commerce and industrial buildings to keep them from falling into Federal hands. That area was also very attractive to gangs of deserters and draft-dodgers that stole and plundered both towns during this time. It was not a backwater safe haven that many had presumed it to be.

The 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry recorded quite a few skirmishes and fights against Federal raiding parties at Milton for the year that they were there, between 1862 - 1863, as well as skirmishes at Pensacola against Federal pickets and videttes posted along the approaches to Pensacola. Col. Fountain Winston Hunter, the Regimental Commander of the 2nd Alabama Cavalry with a few of his men was even ambushed at the Eagle Hotel at Milton at 2 a.m. on 15 Jun 1862, by the 6th Regiment, New York Infantry, Companies "B," "C," "E" and "H", which forced Col. F. W. Hunter and his men to bust through the doors and windows of the Eagle Hotel where they were quartered for the night and make their escape through the woods and swamps nearby, under the cloak of darkness. Many of the Troopers fled half dressed, with their hats in their hands, as they were sound asleep when the ambush commenced, and then were suddenly awoken with bullets whizzing past their heads. The ladies at the Eagle Hotel had tipped off the Federals that Col. F. W. Hunter and his men would be quartered there for the night, so the Federals sent a light gunboat up the Blackwater river, which ran aground at Bagdad about 1 a.m., they loaded themselves in scows which they had with them and continued up river to Milton, arriving there by 2 a.m., where they were led by their civilian guide, Mr. Wolfe, straight to the Eagle Hotel where they were informed that the Confederates would be quartered for the night, as well as going to the stables to retrieve their horses, then they surrounded the Eagle Hotel and opened fire.

A few hours later at Bluff Springs, the rest of the regiment heard of the ambush and at the sound of "Boots and saddles" on the morning of 15 Jun 1862, just before they were to attend Sunday Church services, they mounted their horses and hastily marched out of their main camp in force towards Milton to find their beloved Colonel Hunter, once they found him he led them back into Milton, which was early on 16 Jun 1862. By then the Federal Expedition had already left the area and had returned to Pensacola. The incident was covered in one of the local papers, detailing the action. When I search anything on the History of Milton and Bagdad the information that I find is very limited, if it offers anything at all. The majority of what I found to be very useful and informative was in old books from the late 1880`s, or from period journal entries and letters from the men of the 2nd Alabama Cavalry who were there during the time.

With you being from the area, I would love to hear any additional information that you may have regarding the fighting and skirmishing at Milton and Bagdad during the ACW, as well as Choctawhatchee Bay, out where Destin and Fort Walton Beach is today, as the 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry led scouts there as well, often from Milton.
 
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Below is the action carried out against Col. Fountain Winston Hunter and a portion of the 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry in the early morning hours of 15 Jun 1862, as is recorded in the Official Record (War of the Rebellion; SERIES I - VOLUME XV, pages 108 - 111)

June 14-15, 1862; Expedition from Pensacola to Milton, Fla.

Reports.

No. 1. - Brig. Gen. Lewis G. Arnold, U. S. Army, commanding Western District,
Department of the South.

No. 2. - Lieut. Col. Michael Cassidy, Sixth New York Infantry.

No. 3. - Capt. Charles E. Heuberer, Sixth Now York Infantry.

No. 1.

Report of Brig. Gen. Lewis G. Arnold, U. S. Army, commanding Western District, Department of the South. Hdqrs. Western District, Dept. of the South, Pensacola, Fla., June 16, 1862.

General: I have the honor to submit a report of Lieut. Col. Michael Cassidy, Sixth Regiment New York Volunteers, relative to an expedition to Milton, Fla., under his command, directed by Special Orders, No. 23, of June 14, from these headquarters.

It had been reported to me by some secret agents engaged in my service that a cavalry force of 100 men were in the town of Milton, some 30 miles from here, arresting some good Union men and impressing others into the rebel service. I ordered this command, under Lieutenant-Colonel Cassidy, to Milton, for the purpose of capturing this rebel force and to release all good Union men impressed on account of their opinions or loyalty to the United States. Unfortunately for Lieutenant Colonel Cassidy, who executed his orders to my satisfaction, and the troops under his command, he found but a small portion of the reported and expected rebel cavalry in Milton, they having been divided into several predatory bands for the purpose of arresting deserters from the rebel service and loyal Union citizens, and driving off cattle to feed the rebel force at Bluff Springs and Pollard, 38 and 48 miles from here, and, according to the best information I can obtain without having any cavalry under my command, numbering from 3,000 to 5,000 men, a portion of them badly armed.

Lieutenant - Colonel Cassidy and the officers and soldiers under his command are deserving of approbation for their good conduct displayed. He doubtless would have much greater and more favorable results to report if he had been opposed by the anticipated numbers and had met with the resistance expected when he received his orders.

I desire to express my thanks and acknowledgments to Lieutenant Commander Madigan, U. S. N., commanding sloop-of-war Vincennes, lying off Pensacola, cooperating with me in the defense of the city, for his ready and valuable assistance in furnishing for the expedition 3 launches and 3 guns, 1 officer and 40 sailors, and 1 officer and 17 marines.

I will take this occasion to repeat what I have expressed in former communications, that a regiment of cavalry is very necessary here to give protection to loyal citizens, for scouts, and for the purpose of making military reconnaissance`s, and to rid the surrounding country of the rebel cavalry that are constantly hovering about.

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

L. G. ARNOLD,
Brigadier- General, U. S. Volunteers, Commanding.
To: Brig. Gen. Lorenzo Thomas,
Adjutant- General U. S. Army, Washington, D. C.

No. 2.

Report of Lieut. Col. Michael Cassidy, Sixth New York Infantry. Camp Jackson, Pensacola, Fla., June 16, 1862:

General : I have the honor to report that, in compliance with Special Orders, No. 23, of the 14th instant, from these headquarters, and also special instructions which I received from yon verbally, I proceeded with four companies of the Sixth Regiment New York Volunteers, comprising a force of 220 officers and men, which had been detailed by Colonel Wilson, down to the wharf, and embarked on board the steamer General Meigs.

We left the wharf at 7.30 p. m. on the 14th instant, and arrived at Bagdad on the 15th instant at 1 a. m. or little after. In consequence of the steamer having run aground I directed the troops to go in the scows which we brought with us, and the same to be towed ashore by the boats of the Vincennes, all of which was executed in a quiet and orderly manner. We started on our march from Bagdad in the following order: Company "C", Captain Hazeltine commanding; Company "E", Lieutenant Roddy commanding ; Company "B", Lieutenant Denslow commanding, and Company "H". Captain Heuberer commanding. I detailed Lieutenant Hanham and 12 men to proceed 200 or 300 yards in advance as skirmishers to guard against surprise, and they performed their duty well.

We arrived at Milton about 2 a. m. My plan was, Companies "C" and "B" and myself to take a street which would lead us directly in front of the Eagle Hotel, the house where the rebels were; Company "B" to take a street which would bring them to the right of the hotel, and Company "H", a street which would bring them to the left, and all arrived at the proper places in proper time with the exception of Company "H". How they made the mistake I cannot tell, nor did I know that a mistake had been made until after the rebels had fled, taking the very road where Company "H" should have been. Just before we reached the hotel I was satisfied that they had become alarmed. I then ordered the two companies with me to take the double-quick, and on arriving in front of the hotel I commanded the rebels to surrender. They immediately fired upon us and we fired two or three rounds in return, when they fled, some going through the house and some running up the street where I supposed Company "H" was.

I directed the firing to cease and immediately after took 1 prisoner. I then directed squads to go in the hotel and stables to ascertain if any rebels had hid themselves, but only two were found by Lieutenant Hanham, who delivered them to me; then squads brought out the horses, saddles, &c. I was then told that some Union prisoners were in the jail, and I detailed Lieutenant Denslow, with his company, to go and liberate them. They found the building very strong, and were unable to gain admittance until Lieutenant Green and a detachment of sailors from the Vincennes went to their assistance with axes and sledge hammers, who after working at the doors for nearly an hour succeeded in getting in. They found, however, only two negroes, whom we brought with us. Three citizens were brought to me and I deemed it my duty to take them with us. I offered to take their families, but they declined.

To Mr. Wolfe, the guide, I attribute a good share of the success of our expedition.

To Major Babcock and Captain Dwight, of the Seventy-fifth Regiment New York Volunteers, I return my thanks for the advice and assistance they rendered.

Surgeon Pease, of the Sixth Regiment New York Volunteers, also rendered great assistance and was very active.

Only one man on our side was wounded, Patrick Doyle, of Company C; his wound is slight.

Lieutenant Kaufman, of the Sixth Regiment, acted as adjutant for the battalion and deserves thanks.

To the officers and men of the Vincennes I return my thanks, and will say that they did all they could to render the expedition successful. Their not partaking in the attack was owing to our troops being obliged to hurry matters after finding that we were discovered.

In relation to the force of the rebels I have no means of knowing correctly, but I think it fell short of what we expected to find.
I turned, in pursuance with your orders, in to Capt. A. N. Shipley, quartermaster, 9 horses, 14 saddles, 7 bridles, and 2 saddles incomplete; also to Major Babcock, provost-marshal, 3 soldiers of the rebel cavalry, 3 citizens of Milton, and 2 negroes.
I should state that we left Milton about sunrise and arrived at Pensacola at 11 a. m. on the 15th instant.

I have no knowledge of the amount of arms, &c, taken or found by our troops. If they have any they have kept them in their possession.

Of the companies that formed my command I will say that they were exceedingly quiet and orderly, and I think that we all did our duty, and hope that our actions will meet your approbation.

I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

MICHAEL CASSIDY,
Lieut. Col. Sixth Regt. N. Y. Vols., Comdg. Expedition.
To; Brig. Gen. Lewis G. Arnold,
Comdg. West. Dist., Department of the South, Pensacola, Fla.

NO. 3.

Report of Capt. Charles E. Heuberer, Sixth New York Infantry. Camp Jackson, Pensacola, Fla., June 18, 1862.

Sir: I see by your official report that I might he censured for not carrying out your instructions. The cause of my not being in the spot directed for me was on account of the guide becoming very much alarmed and excited, so that he could not inform me definitely where I was to remain. I then heard firing in your direction, and thinking you had been attacked by a large force (as the guide had previously informed me that he thought there was nearly 500 cavalry there) I hastened up to your assistance. In the mean time I was fired upon from a fence, which was immediately returned by me. When I came up to you I was ordered to left wheel into position, which I did, and there remained for further orders.

Hoping this explanation may prove perfectly satisfactory, I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

CHARLES E. HEUBERER,
Captain, Sixth New York Vols., Comdg. Company "H".
Lieut Col. M. Cassidy, Sixth N. Y. Vols., Camp Jackson, Fla.

The three Troopers who were captured of the 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry were: Pvt. Andrew I. Smith, Pvt. James Carr and Pvt. Hugh McLane.
 
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Below is a transcribed Newspaper account of the action:

June 19, 1862, Augusta Chronicle, Georgia:

Correspondence of the Mobile Register & Advertiser,
On Alabama and Florida Railroad,
Monday, June 16, 1862:


"As ????rtic statements have just come to hand announcing that the enemy are extending their operations inland from Pensacola. Their first considerable venture beyond the range of the men in their entrenchments at that place, which may have already turned into a fortified camp, was met with a success, at once encouraging to them and discreditable to our arms.

On Saturday last it was known in Milton, at the head of Blackwater, and some twenty odd miles above Pensacola, that Col. Winston Hunter, of an Alabama Cavalry Regiment - the 2d, Is believed would visit that town in the evening, on a scouting expedition with a portion of his command. The enemy also knew this, of course, through treachery.

A few ladies at Milton prepared an entertainment for the gallant and unsuspicious Colonel of the Regiment, and the enemy did likewise. They came up the bay in a light gunboat, and after Col. Hunter`s men, who were a portion or the whole of Capt. Bill Allen`s Company, had eaten the supper provided by the ladies and gone comfortably to bed, they surrounded the houses where they were quartered and opened fire from all sides, the consequence was a stampede of the Confederates from their beds and a 'sauve qui peut' rush for the woods.

Col. Hunter narrowly escaped with his hat and horse, and fifteen men, including Capt. Allen, and as many horses are missing. How many of them are killed or wounded is not known. The enemy disembarked below the town and then marched up without the alarm being raised. They selected the very houses where the Cavalrymen were, and simultaneously opened fire on the stable in which their horses were, showing that they were guided by some well posted spy. It is said that the Gunboat also opened fire.

More anon, X"


The French phrase: 'sauve qui peut' used in the article above, is literally translated as "save himself who can", which in time came to mean "every man for himself" . The article closed with "More anon" and was signed with an "X". This term is very old English, still used in 1862 Florida at the time of the article, meaning "More soon".

Col. Fountain Winston Hunter, Charges, 2nd Alabama Cavalry Regiment (3b) 19 Jun 1862 Augusta, ...jpg
 

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