The Slave Trade, Where It All Began

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Diana9

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Let's start at the beginning.

The first slave ship to reach the Americas was called (believe it or not) "The Good Ship Jesus."

Yes. Sir John Hawkins had the dubious distinction of becoming the first slave-ship captain to bring Africans to the Americas. Hawkins was a religious gentleman who insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love another”. His ship, ironically called “the good ship Jesus,” left the shores of his native England for Africa in October 1562. He arrived at Sierra Leone, and in a short time he had three hundred blacks in his possession. Hawkins claimed to have acquired them “partly by sword and partly by other means.”


The Good Ship Jesus | The Beginning of the British Slave Trade

The Good Ship Jesus

What has come to be referred to as "The Good Ship Jesus" was in fact the "Jesus of Lubeck," a 700-ton ship purchased by King Henry VIII from the Hanseatic League, a merchant alliance between the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck in Germany. Twenty years after its purchase the ship, in disrepair, was leant to Sir John Hawkins by Queen Elizabeth.

Hawkins, a cousin of Sir Francis Drake, was granted permission from Queen Elizabeth for his first voyage in 1562. He was allowed to carry Africans to the Americas "with their own free consent" and he agreed to this condition. Hawkins had a reputation for being a religious man who required his crew to "serve God daily" and to love one another. Sir Francis Drake accompanied Hawkins on this voyage and subsequent others. Drake, was himself, devoutly religious. Services were held on board twice a day.

John Hawkins Coat of Arms
Hawkins_Crest.jpg

A bound slave adorns John Hawkins' coat of arms.

Off the coast of Africa, near Sierra Leone, Hawkins captured 300-500 slaves, mostly by plundering Portugese ships, but also through violence and subterfuge promising Africans free land and riches in the new world. He sold most of the slaves in what is now known as the Dominican Republic. He returned home with a profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Thus began the British slave trade.

On his return to England Queen Elizabeth, livid, assailed Hawkins charging that his endeavor, ", was detestable and would call down vengeance from heaven upon the undertakers." When Elizabeth became fully aware, however, of the profits to be made she joined in partnership with Hawkins and provided him with the "Jesus of Lubeck," a.k.a., "The Good Ship Jesus."

A later slaving expedition in 1567, consisting of five ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," met with resistance from the Spaniards at St Juan d'Ulloa in Mexico. Since the slave trade was illegal Spanish colonists usually required a charade of force from British ships, after which they would buy slaves at a discount. This time, however, the Spanish attacked the British ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," cumbersome and difficult to maneuver, was sunk and the crew slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with Drake on a smaller ship.

Hawkins, his piratic ambitions dashed, returned to England and remained there in the service of the Queen. He gained distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada and was knighted in 1588.

http://www.nairaland.com/241597/first-britsh-slave-ship-reach
 
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leftyhunter

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los angeles ca
Let's start at the beginning.

The first slave ship to reach the Americas was called (believe it or not) "The Good Ship Jesus."

Yes. Sir John Hawkins had the dubious distinction of becoming the first slave-ship captain to bring Africans to the Americas. Hawkins was a religious gentleman who insisted that his crew “serve God daily” and “love another”. His ship, ironically called “the good ship Jesus,” left the shores of his native England for Africa in October 1562. He arrived at Sierra Leone, and in a short time he had three hundred blacks in his possession. Hawkins claimed to have acquired them “partly by sword and partly by other means.”


The Good Ship Jesus | The Beginning of the British Slave Trade

The Good Ship Jesus

What has come to be referred to as "The Good Ship Jesus" was in fact the "Jesus of Lubeck," a 700-ton ship purchased by King Henry VIII from the Hanseatic League, a merchant alliance between the cities of Hamburg and Lubeck in Germany. Twenty years after its purchase the ship, in disrepair, was leant to Sir John Hawkins by Queen Elizabeth.

Hawkins, a cousin of Sir Francis Drake, was granted permission from Queen Elizabeth for his first voyage in 1562. He was allowed to carry Africans to the Americas "with their own free consent" and he agreed to this condition. Hawkins had a reputation for being a religious man who required his crew to "serve God daily" and to love one another. Sir Francis Drake accompanied Hawkins on this voyage and subsequent others. Drake, was himself, devoutly religious. Services were held on board twice a day.

John Hawkins Coat of Arms
Hawkins_Crest.jpg

A bound slave adorns John Hawkins' coat of arms.

Off the coast of Africa, near Sierra Leone, Hawkins captured 300-500 slaves, mostly by plundering Portugese ships, but also through violence and subterfuge promising Africans free land and riches in the new world. He sold most of the slaves in what is now known as the Dominican Republic. He returned home with a profit and ships laden with ivory, hides, and sugar. Thus began the British slave trade.

On his return to England Queen Elizabeth, livid, assailed Hawkins charging that his endeavor, ", was detestable and would call down vengeance from heaven upon the undertakers." When Elizabeth became fully aware, however, of the profits to be made she joined in partnership with Hawkins and provided him with the "Jesus of Lubeck," a.k.a., "The Good Ship Jesus."

A later slaving expedition in 1567, consisting of five ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," met with resistance from the Spaniards at St Juan d'Ulloa in Mexico. Since the slave trade was illegal Spanish colonists usually required a charade of force from British ships, after which they would buy slaves at a discount. This time, however, the Spanish attacked the British ships and the "Jesus of Lubeck," cumbersome and difficult to maneuver, was sunk and the crew slaughtered. Hawkins escaped with Drake on a smaller ship.

Hawkins, his piratic ambitions dashed, returned to England and remained there in the service of the Queen. He gained distinction for his pivotal role in defeating the Spanish Armada and was knighted in 1588.

http://www.nairaland.com/241597/first-britsh-slave-ship-reach
Thanks Diana I had no idea that Queen E was originally anti-slavery and the Spanish originally where anti-slavery has well. Of course one is entitled to a royal change of mind. There may very well have been more slaves in Spanish colonies vs the US but don't quote me there certainly where quite a few .
Leftyhunter
 

Diana9

2nd Lieutenant
Joined
Feb 25, 2012
Location
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Thanks Diana I had no idea that Queen E was originally anti-slavery and the Spanish originally where anti-slavery has well. Of course one is entitled to a royal change of mind. There may very well have been more slaves in Spanish colonies vs the US but don't quote me there certainly where quite a few .
Leftyhunter


The Queen was against it before she was for it. :wink:

"Wait. I can make money at this? Okeee nevermind."
 

AndyHall

Colonel
Joined
Dec 13, 2011
For further reading:

The Diligent: A Voyage Through the Worlds of the Slave Trade, by Robert Harms
The Slave Trade, by Hugh Thomas
Hanging Captain Gordon: The Life and Trial of an American Slave Trader, by Ron Soodalter
The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls, by Nick Hazelwood
Africa Squadron: The U.S. Navy and the Slave Trade, 1842-1861, by Donald L. Canney
The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker
Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution, by Simon Schama
Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Americas, ed. by Beverly C. McMillan
The Wanderer: The Last American Slave Ship and the Conspiracy That Set Its Sails, by Erik Calonius
River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom, by Walter Johnson
Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, by David Brion Davis
African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame, by Anne C. Bailey
The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas, ed. by Walter Johnson
The Deepest South: The United States, Brazil, and the African Slave Trade, by Gerland Horne
Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830, by Joseph C. Miller
Mutiny on the Amistad, by Howard Jones
Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, by Walter Johnson​
 
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Georgia Sixth

2nd Lieutenant
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Location
Texas
Most ironic coat of arms for someone who insisted that the slaves board his ship of their own free will.
Riiiiiiiiiight.

For grins, I checked the database at slaveyoyages.com. I called up all voyages of British ships between 1514 and 1570. Eighteen voyages showed up. The first listed was not Mr. Hawkins but one Capt. Hancock, who took the ship Negro in 1556, picking up his cargo in West Central Africa. There is no record of where he disembarked, but it almost certainly was in a Spanish region as all the other voyages listed ended somewhere in New Spain.

Don't despair on Capt. Hawkins, though -- he commanded 4 of the 18 slave voyages, twice in the Jesus of Lubeck. His first voyage was in 1563 when he took the Salomon from Sierra Leone to Santo Domingo.

Those 18 voyages under the Union Jack accounted for 1,666 Africans taken away from their homeland. 1,304 of them survived the voyage.

I would like to paste my findings but the file keeps being rejected regardless of what format I try.
 

Diana9

2nd Lieutenant
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Feb 25, 2012
Location
Southern California
People were crowded together, usually forced to lie on their backs with their heads between the legs of others. This meant they often had to lie in each other's feces, urine, and, in the case of dysentery, even blood. In such cramped quarters, diseases such as smallpox and yellow fever spread like wildfire. The diseased were sometimes thrown overboard to prevent wholesale epidemics. Because a small crew had to control so many, cruel measures such as iron muzzles and whippings were used to control slaves.
1bark0130s.jpg


Over the centuries, between one and two million persons died in the crossing. This meant that the living were often chained to the dead until ship surgeons such as Alexander Falconbridge had the corpses thrown overboard.


Many went mad in these barbaric conditions; others chose to jump to their watery deaths rather than endure.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/1narr4.html
 
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jgoodguy

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Lets keep this focused on antebellum slavery to the greatest extent. This is a Civil War Forum remember.
Focus it on the American Civil War.
 

Diana9

2nd Lieutenant
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Location
Southern California
Reading this stuff one gets a real sense of how truly "different" people were back then. From a modern perspective they seem quite insane. Maybe they really were crazy, maybe conditions of the times drove people mad -- constant wars, plagues, diseases, women dying in childbirth, children dying of childhood diseases, abject poverty, harsh working conditions, all this could drive anyone insane. And then there were those who were ready and willing to take advantage of these deplorable conditions for pure profit. Crazy times.
 

Diana9

2nd Lieutenant
Joined
Feb 25, 2012
Location
Southern California
For further reading:

The Diligent: A Voyage Through the Worlds of the Slave Trade, by Robert Harms
The Slave Trade, by Hugh Thomas
Hanging Captain Gordon: The Life and Trial of an American Slave Trader, by Ron Soodalter
The Queen's Slave Trader: John Hawkyns, Elizabeth I, and the Trafficking in Human Souls, by Nick Hazelwood
Africa Squadron: The U.S. Navy and the Slave Trade, 1842-1861, by Donald L. Canney
The Slave Ship: A Human History, by Marcus Rediker
Rough Crossings: Britain, the Slaves and the American Revolution, by Simon Schama
Captive Passage: The Transatlantic Slave Trade and the Making of the Americas, ed. by Beverly C. McMillan
The Wanderer: The Last American Slave Ship and the Conspiracy That Set Its Sails, by Erik Calonius
River of Dark Dreams: Slavery and Empire in the Cotton Kingdom, by Walter Johnson
Inhuman Bondage: The Rise and Fall of Slavery in the New World, by David Brion Davis
African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade: Beyond the Silence and the Shame, by Anne C. Bailey
The Chattel Principle: Internal Slave Trades in the Americas, ed. by Walter Johnson
The Deepest South: The United States, Brazil, and the African Slave Trade, by Gerland Horne
Way of Death: Merchant Capitalism and the Angolan Slave Trade, 1730-1830, by Joseph C. Miller
Mutiny on the Amistad, by Howard Jones
Soul by Soul: Life Inside the Antebellum Slave Market, by Walter Johnson​

Great list. Thank you.
 

Diana9

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Feb 25, 2012
Location
Southern California
Rather hard to talk about the Civil War without talking about slavery,.
But we are not allowed to talk about the history of slavery?
To be specific the African slave trade?
I posted the same information over a year ago and no moderator responded,
Now it is verboten ?

http://www.doctrineofdiscovery.org/dumdiversas.htm

The Dum Diversas (odd sounding name) is not surprising but still shocking, and really, really dum. It's also very instructive, showing the collusion between the Church and the Aristocracy, and setting the stage for religious justifications that would extend all the way to the Civil War (how do you like the way I tied that in, jgoodguy. Pretty slick, eh? lol).

.
 

jgoodguy

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Sorry, didn't see before I posted.

Though it all leads up to it, doesn't it?

Rather hard to talk about the Civil War without talking about slavery,.
But we are not allowed to talk about the history of slavery?
To be specific the African slave trade?
I posted the same information over a year ago and no moderator responded,
Now it is verboten ?

http://www.doctrineofdiscovery.org/dumdiversas.htm

Just keep it pointed toward and related to the ACW.
 

jgoodguy

Banished Forever
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is a terrible thing...
Don’t feed the Mime
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The Dum Diversas (odd sounding name) is not surprising but still shocking, and really, really dum. It's also very instructive, showing the collusion between the Church and the Aristocracy, and setting the stage for religious justifications that would extend all the way to the Civil War (how do you like the way I tied that in, jgoodguy lol).

.

I have fresh memories of the Notes on Northern Slavery thread so I appreciate 1860 as a target rather than 1560.
 
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