As individual ships the raiders created problems. But those problems arose in 1862, and the solution was for the American owners to sell their ships to British owners. As for the recovered dominance of British ship building, after 1861 there was an ongoing search for fuel efficiency, and iron hulls were replacing wooden hulls, an obvious advantage for the British.Off topic, but you may be forgetting the Confederate privateers. Wikipedia states that the impact of the privateers was so great that "the American flag virtually disappeared from international waters". Maine's shipping was decimated by the privateers (Maine had substantial shipping operations at the time); some writers hold that Maine's shipping has never really recovered.
Steamships ca 1861 were not very fuel efficient. The US had to establish coaling stations and retain the forts at Key West and in the Dry Tortugas. They did.