The 22nd Alabama Infantry Regiment


2nd Lieutenant
Honored Fallen Comrade

The 22nd Alabama Infantry Regiment

Field and Staff:

Zach C. Deas of Mobile; wounded at Shiloh; promoted.
John C. Marrast of Mobile; died in the service.
Benjamin R. Hart of Montgomery; killed near Atlanta.
Harry T. Toulmin of Mobile.

Lieutenant Colonels:
John C. Marrast; promoted.
John Weedon of Mobile; killed at Chickamauga.
Benjamin R. Hart; promoted.
Harry T. Toulmin; promoted.
E. Herbert Armstead of Mobile; killed at Franklin.

Robert Beverly Armstead of Mobile; killed at Shiloh.
John Weedon; promoted.
Benjamin R. Hart; wounded at Chickamauga; promoted.
H.T. Toulmin; promoted.
E. H. Armstead; promoted.
Thomas Mc. Prince, Jr. of Chocta; wounded at Franklin.

Elias F. Travis of Mobile; wounded at Shiloh; transferred.
Wm. G. Smith of Mobile; resigned.
J.L. Lockwood of Montgomery; wounded at Jonesboro.

Captains and Companies:
Co. "A" (Walker):
John Weedon (promoted to Major)
Isaac M. Whitney

Co. "B", Frank Lyon Rifles (Clarke):
James Deas Nott (KIA, Chickamauga)
Joseph R. Cowan (wounded, near Marietta)

Co. "C", Brownrigg Warriors (Choctaw):
Abner C. Gaines (KIA, Shiloh)
Thomas McCarroll Prince (wounded, Chickamauga; promoted to Major)
Joseph R. Cowan (wounded near Mobile)

Co. "D" (Cherokee):
Stephen R. Hood (resigned, 10 Jan 62)
Edward Herbert Armistead (promoted)
T. C. Hagood
Thomas M. Brindley (KIA, near Atlanta, July 64)

Co. "E" (Calhoun):
John R. Northcutt (resigned, 13 June 62)
Jacob G. Mordecai

Co. "F" (Randolph):
O. W. Shepherd (wounded, near Shiloh; resigned, 27 May 62)
James B. Martin; Hures Austill

Co. "G" (Randolph):
R. G. Roberts (dismissed, 25 June 63)
S. H. Pairs (deserted, 27 Oct 62)
Benjamin B. Little (KIA, Jonesboro)
William O. Baldwin (KIA, Franklin)

Co. "H", Sam Cooper Rifles (Mobile):
Wilton L. Young (promoted to Major, 10th Bn.)
Harry T. Toulmin (wounded, Shiloh; promoted to Major)
Simon Franklin Preston

Co. "I" (Pike):
Andrew P. Love (wounded, Shiloh; resigned, 1 July 62; transferred to Jeff Davis' Cavalry)
Willis C. Wood (wounded, Murfreesboro; resigned, 31 Oct 64)
Willis H. Henderson (wounded, Kinston)

Co. "K" (Montgomery and Pike):
Benjamin R. Hart (promoted to Major)
Hugh W. Henry


The 22nd Alabama Infantry Regiment was first organized at Montgomery on 6 October 1861, and was encamped at Mobile during that winter. Men were recruited from Calhoun, Cherokee, Choctaw, Clarke, Mobile, Montgomery, Pike, Randolph, and Walker counties. Ordered to west Tennessee, it was brigaded under Gen'l Adley Gladden of Louisiana.

The regiment was engaged at Shiloh, with heavy loss (reported 123 men fit for duty after). Later, Gen'l Frank Gardner was placed over the brigade (19th, 22nd, 25th, 26-50th, and 39th AL regiments) and led it into Kentucky.

It was present at Munfordville, and it skirmished at Perryville. It came back with the army and fought at Murfreesboro (94 casualties). Gen'l Zachariah Deas then assumed command of the brigade. The regiment was in the line of battle which moved to assault US Gen'l William Rosecrans at Chickamauga.


Alabama Valor Dixie Pride by Rick Reeves 22nd Alabama Infantry - Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia
It went into action with 31 officers and 340 men; aggregate 371. Killed: Officers, 5; enlisted men 39. Wounded: Officers 10; enlisted men, 151. Missing, none. Aggregate killed, wounded, and missing 205. (The 22nd lost 5 color bearers finally its colors on Snodgrass hill to the 121 Ohio Infantry)

["I remember witnessing a very pathetic seen early Sunday morning soon after the fight opened. Lt. Renefro of 22nd Alabama Regiment who some days before the fight had got leave of absence to visit his home at Jacksonville, Alabama (his father kept the hotel there at that time) and his father had brought him back to the army in a buggy arriving there on the evening before."

"Sunday morning Lt. Renefro joined his command and went into the fight and was killed on the first charge. When I saw him, his father was carrying his body off the battlefield in the buggy in which they had come and my information was that he brought his body on to Jacksonville to be buried." - Captain Wiliam P. Howell - Company I 25th Alabama Infantry]

They lost lightly at Missionary Ridge and wintered at Dalton, GA, claiming 272 men and 171 arms. The regiment, under the command of Gen'l George D. Johnston of Perry County, participated in the campaign from Dalton to Atlanta, losing gradually by the constant fighting. At Atlanta, 22 and 28 July, the loss of the regiment was high, as it was at Jonesboro.

It moved into Tennessee with Gen'l John Bell Hood and suffered severely at Franklin, lightly at Nashville. The regiment was transferred beyond the Edisto and moved into North Carolina, skirmishing with the advance of US Gen'l George Thomas' army. The loss at Kinston and Bentonville was light, Col. Harry Toulmin leading the brigade.

The regiment was consolidated with the 25th Infantry in the field in early 1863; it was also consolidated with the 25th, 39th, and 26-50th at Smithfield, 9 April 1865, with H. T. Toulmin as Colonel, N. B. Rouse (Butler) as Lt. Col., and Robert Donald (Limestone) as Major, and then surrendered at Greenesboro, NC, on 26 April 1865.


2nd Lieutenant
Honored Fallen Comrade

1st Lt. Jeremiah Manasco, Company A, 22nd Alabama Infantry

He was mortally wounded at Shiloh on April 6th, a bullet shattered his left arm which necessitated amputation. He died on May 1st, 1862 and is buried in Townley, Walker County, Alabama.


Cpt. Hugh William Henry, Company K, 22nd Alabama Infantry (in the center) . This letter has been published, but I doubt it was been widely seen.

It was published as part of a regular journal by the Pintlala Historical Association. Just a local historical journal type thing for the association which held monthly meetings and published the journal for its members in Pintlala, Alabama.

Letter written by Cpt. Hugh William Henry, Company K, 22nd Alabama Infantry. (Battle of Shiloh)
Corinth, Miss., April 10, 1862 Dear Father and Mother, I received your letter yesterday, the day after we reached here from the battlefield of the Tennessee river. I would give anything could I be with you now, even for a few days. I have so much tot ell you, and such great cause of joining in expressions of gratitude to the merciful God who has preserved us through so many dangers, and I felt dear Mother, through all those two days of danger and suffering, that it was the Lord’s hand that sustained us, and his shield that was over us; and oh, when I think of the many I saw fall on my right and left, I could not but feel that the prayers of our good mothers at home had found a hearing with the Merciful Father of us all.

Just think of us then, Ben, Robert, and myself, being under perhaps the most terrible fire of musketry, rifles, boms, and rifled cannon, for two whole days, nearly the whole time, and that we escaped without harm. I assure you that we are not mindful of the gratitude we owe a Merciful Father, his protection and guidance. I wish I could give you an account of the battle. But forgive me if I pass over much of the horrible sufferings and dreadful scenes of the battlefield. The remembrance sickens me, and I know such things are not suited for you to hear of. I will try and give you some idea though of what we passed through, that you may know what great cause we have to return our thanks to the merciful God who has brought us out of it all unharmed.

Last Thursday our Brigade received orders to cook five days’ rations and to march to Monterey. Owing to a delay in getting up the rations we only got two day’s provisions cooked, and the balance was loaded on a wagon. The wagon overturned and we lost three days’ rations. Some days we eat but a mouthful or two, and that such as we picked up in the Yankee camp, crackers, and raw ham. Of course we were half famished, and weak as water.

The regiment marched out about four hundred strong. The first day we marched about twelve miles and camped beyond Monterey. That night it rained upon us all night nearly, and we were as wet and miserable as possible. The next morning it still rained, and we marched through the mud and water with a cold north wind blowing, only some three or four miles, and encamped on the side of the road in the mud. That night it hailed, rained and thundered all night long.

At three in the morning we formed for an advance, the rain pouring down in torrents, and so dark that you could not see the man in front of you. There we waited till daylight, when we took up the march at about 10 A.M. We formed a line of battle in front of the yankee camp, and endeavored to draw them out by skirmishers, but it was a no go. There was fighting all that day, Saturday, but our brigade was not in it. That night we lay on our arms. The next morning before breakfast, we advanced in line of battle on the enemy.

Our Brigade, under Gen. Gladden, advanced upon a camp of Ohio volunteers. Our company was forty-two men, with noncommissioned officers. We got within one hundred yards of them before they opened fire upon us. Our company was in an open space, and they seemed to concentrate their fire upon us. The bullets, bombs, and cannon shot flying round us thick as hail. We were under this fire for half an hour, and lost one of our company; six killed and seven wounded. Our General lost an arm, our Major, R. B. Armistead, was killed. Col. Adams, who was next in command of the brigade was killed, and our officers fall in every direction.

Our men waivered, of course, under such a severe fire, but soon rallied, silenced the enemy’s battery, and our artillery coming up and playing into them, we charged, drove them out of their camps, and a half a mile beyond. Here they planted some batteries and shelled us hotly, the shell frequently bursting within a few feet of us. We had formed a square, thinking their cavalry was about to charge us, but the shall soon made us deploy into line again. Our company was now thrown forward to reconnoitre. We went up near enough to see them very plainly, even to their trimmings. They fired on us and we returned it, with good effect, too, I think, as there was a gun left there with all the horses killed.

Our Brigade then advanced in line up the hill, the enemy retreating, but playing on us heavily with their cannon, the shell bursting all around us and the bullets cutting down our men now and then. We then were ordered to advance through an open field upon the enemy who were in an orchard and some old houses. We soon drove them out down into a bottom, we lay down along the fence and fired for half an hour, they returning the fire. We then charged down the hill into a bottom, and lay down under an awful fire, returning it as best we could until we were ordered to cease, as we were firing on our own men. This was a mistake, as the Yankees soon advanced and the regiments giving away on our left, we had to run for a hundred yards or more under a severe fire, many of our officers falling and losing many of our men.

We soon rallied, though, and a Tennessee regiment coming up on our right, we soon charged and drove the enemy through their camps and back to the river. When we had them completely routed, had taken all their camps, any quantity of forage, provisions and clothing, most of their artillery and five thousand prisoners. Gen. Breckenridge’s brigade then pursued them and drove them on their boats. The gunboats now opened upon us with shell and the cannonade was terrible. The shell fell all amongst us, and we had to file down the hollow to avoid the fire. We had one poor fellow in our company struck by a shell; he was badly wounded; we carried him that night about a mile to where we encamped. We camped in their tents; they were riddled with balls, and as it rained all night they were not of much use in keeping out the rain. The Yankees threw shells at us during the night, but we slept soundly in spite of them.

The next morning before we could get breakfast we were ordered to fall in; we formed and waited; the enemy opened on us with artillery, and our company was ordered forward to find their battery. We deployed and came near being surrounded and cut off by their cavalry; we retreated however to rejoin our regiment, but could not find it as it had been moved. A Lieutenant and two men who were sent off to show us the way back are either killed or taken. Our Colonel supposed that we were all taken.

We then fell in with a Tennessee regiment to support two batteries; we were lying directly between them; the rifled cannon shot, grape, and shell, which flew thick and fast within a foot or two of our heads as we lay down frequently falling amongst us. It was the most terrible cannonade I ever heard; the earth trembled, and the bushes and trees were swept all around us close to the ground. We were ordered to charge the enemy when their fire became so severe that we were ordered to lie down. We were unable to return it, and had to lie there for half an hour, under a fire that had we stood up we would not had a man left. I lay behind a log and I could not count the bullets as they struck it above me. The cannon balls, too, came now and them amongst us unpleasantly near.

After awhile the regiment on our right gave way and we were ordered to run. The enemy were then not more than forty yards from us, and I expected that we would all be killed, as we had to run down into a hollow and up a hill, the enemy firing at us all the time. Here we lost two men wounded and probably taken prisoners. We then returned and found another Tennessee regiment and engaged the enemy. (Next few lines cut out). Here it was that Gen. Breckenridge seized the colors of a Louisiana regiment and advanced at its head.

The enemy though, were too numerous and outflanked us all around. Our troops though, made a desperate stand and kept the enemy at bay until we had formed two lines of battle in the rea. They were exhausted and disorganized, and it was impossible for them to fight longer against the fresh troops the enemy were bringing in. The enemy though, seemed as well satisfied as they could be, and did not advance. This this last fight, Lieut. Myrick, our 2nd. Lieut, Capt. was badly wounded, and I took him to the rear. We had to go up a hill exposed to a very heavy fire, and I confess I had but little hopes of getting him or myself out either.

Capt. Hart returned to see about Robert and the company, and I carried the Lieut. to the hospital. There they told us to go on as it was unsafe. I had to lead him about two miles before we were out of danger, and before I could get him in a wagon. I finally got him in one, made him as comfortable as possible, and then went to get something to eat in a Yankee camp. While I was eating the wagon drove off and I was unable to find it again. My regiment coming along soon, I fell in that night, we marched through the mud knee deep, wading creeks and encamped at Monterey. We were unsheltered, and it poured down upon us all night, a most drenching rain which we had to lie and sleep in.

The next day, Tuesday, we marched in here over the worst cut up road, through creeks and bogs, the most completely exhausted set of men there ever was. Our cavalry and artillery covered our retreat, and we came back in good order considering the disorganized condition of our troops. Our cavalry and John C. Breckenridge’s brigade are now at Monterey, and the enemy as I can learn are not advancing beyond their old lines. If it had not been for their gunboats we would have killed or captured their whole force on this side. J. C. Breckenridge fought like a lion. He is a glorious man, brave and without fear. He was dressed in a grey hunting shirt, with a slouched hat and seemed everywhere.

Our Colonel distinguished himself; got two or three wounds and had two horses killed under him. Nearly all of our officers had their horses shot under them. Col. Deas was as cool as possible under the heaviest fire. He says it was much more terrible than Manassas. We fought Ohio, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa and Illinois troops altogether, and I assure you they fired terribly with their best kind of weapons.

The victory of Sunday cost us very dear; we have lost many a man of our most gallant officers. In our company, we lost, killed, Rabon Douglas, of Orion, J. H. Shaver, T. M. Greene, Fuller McLendon, W. H. Long, and Jas M. Wilson. Wounded, and come in, Henry Urquhart, David Gibson, B. S. Wilson, Hanibal McNeil, Joe Winters, Wm. Brown, Moses Dickey. Wounded and not brought in, A. J. Eilands, J. D. McLendon, Lieut. Myrick. Missing, George Athay and Sergeant S. A. Pilley. Our Company fought well, Capt. Hart made a hero of himself; Robert was as cool and calm as a man could be. Lieut. Myrick fought like a noble fellow—fell fighting bravely.

Goodbye, Dear Mother, may a merciful Father spare us all to meet once more, if not on earth in Heaven

Your affectionate Son,
H. W. H.

Cpt. William O. Baldwin, Company G, 22nd Alabama Infantry

William O. Baldwin was born in Nov. 23, 1845. After joining the fight for the southern cause he transferred to Company G of the 22nd Alabama Infantry.

He was Promoted Captain September 14, 1864 2 months 9 days before his 19th birthday.

On his 19th birthday day the 22nd Alabama camped on Granddaddy creek a few miles west of Lawrenceburg, Tennessee.

On Nov 30th 1864 in the Night attack at Franklin he led company G toward the works in the pitch darkness. Sometime during the charge he picked up the Colors of the 22nd scaled the works and planted them in the dirt, he was killed moments later. He is buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Montgomery, Alabama.



Ole Miss

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Regtl. Staff Shiloh 2020
Dec 9, 2017
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Below are the Official Reports of the 22nd Alabama's experience at the Battle of Shiloh. Colonel Deas took over Gladden's Brigade so Lieutenant-Colonel Marrast took over command of the 22nd Alabama.

Report of Col. Z. G. Leas, commanding Twenty-second Alabama Infantry.
Hdqrs. Twenty-second Ala. Regt., Prov. Army,
Corinth, Miss., April 11, 1862.
General: I have the honor to report that on the morning of the 6th instant, about 6 o’clock, nnder orders of General Gladden, I moved my regiment out of camp, numbering 404 rifles and 31 officers, and forming a part of General Gladden’s brigade.
Marching in line of battle, at about 7 o’clock we came upon the enemy, drawn up in front of their camp, where they opened fire upon us with their infantry and a battery of artillery, to which we responded. Robertson’s battery was brought into action, which soon silenced them, and shortly afterwards the enemy wavered, and we charged over their dismantled guns, driving them through their camps, where we halted to reform, and after a short time they again opened upon us with another battery, which was silenced by our batteries. We then moved forward a few hundred yards and halted in support. Here Colonel Adams, who was in command—General Gladden having been very seriously wounded by a cannon-ball in the first engagement—was seriously wounded, and the command of the brigade devolving upon me, Lieutenant-Colonel Marrast took command of my regiment, and will finish this report.
Maj. E. B. Armistead was mortally wounded in the first engagement, but he fell where every brave soldier should be found to fail—in the front rank, doing his whole duty and urging his men on to victory. In him his country has lost a most intelligent and gallant officer.
Verv respectfully, your obedient servant,
Z. C. DEAS, Colonel, Commanding.
No. 196.
Report of Lieut Col. J. C. Marrast, Twenty-second Alabama Infantry.
Hdqrs. Twenty-second Ala. Kegt., Prov. Army,
Corinth, Miss., April 12, 1862.
General: I have the honor to report that about 11.30 a. m. Sunday, April 6, the command of this regiment devolved upon me in consequence of the wounding of the gallant Colonel Adams, First Louisiana Begiment, and the succession of Colonel Deas to the command of the Gladden brigade. Colonel Adams fell at 11.30 o’clock, while the two regiments were under cover, the enemy firing upon us with artillery and infantry. We advanced from that position, through one of the enemy’s camps, into a hollow, from which point we discovered the enemy in houses on the hill beyond. Colonel Deas ordered me to send two companies to dislodge them, whereupon Capt. John Weedon, in command of his company (A) and Capt. J. D. Nott, of Company B, gallantly charged the enemy, and driving him before them, the regiment then closed upon the houses and occupied them as a cover for about one hour, and did the enemy much damage, who was throwing a heavy fire of artillery and infantry upon us. Our loss in this engagement was very severe. We then charged upon the enemy’s position, driving him before us about 400 or 500 yards, when he made another stand, pouring into us a heavy fire. We were then halted in support of our artillery, and kept as much as possible under cover; but our loss in this affair also was considerable. Capt. A. L. Gaines, of Company C, was here killed, gallantly leading his company. From this position the enemy were finally driven back, and retreated beyond their camps, when the regiment was halted and ordered into camp for the night.
On the morning of April 7 (Monday), at daylight, I formed my regiment, numbering 1 field and 18 company officers, and 124 non-commissioned officers and privates. This regiment, together with the First Louisiana, under command of Colonel Deas, was ordered to march and form on the extreme left of the line of battle then being formed, in which position it remained one hour. Orders being received to advance, the regiment moved forward about 300 yards in the direction of a point occupied by the enemy’s batteries, then playing without effect upon us; we then halted in a hollow, under cover. From this position 1 threw out a skirmishing party of 20 men, under command of Captain Hart, of Company K. A few minutes thereafter we were ordered to fall back. The skirmishers not hearing the call to return, Lieutenant Wood, of Company I, with 2 men, were ordered up the slope of the hill to warn them, which party has not since been heard from, and are supposed to be prisoners. Captain Hart’s party returned to the command all safe and reported not having seen them. The regiment was then, with the First Louisiana, placed under cover, in support of two of our batteries, where we lay for about two hours, when the whole fell back a distance of perhaps a half mile, when, the new line of battle being formed, my regiment again regained its position on the extreme left, and advanced towards the enemy’s position some 300 yards. When under cover of the timber we engaged the enemy for perhaps twenty-five minutes, having been left, with the First Louisiana Infantry, isolated and alone, the main line having fallen back to near the original place of formation.
In this affair our loss being severe, we were ordered by Colonel Deas to fall back to our position in the line, which was done in good order very soon thereafter. The second advance upon the enemy’s position was attempted, and after advancing about 200 yards was halted. Placing my men under cover of the timber we opened fire upon the enemy, which was sustained for only a few minutes, meeting with very heavy fire from the enemy. Our entire line at this time wavered and fell back again to the original position. Our lines being reformed, my regiment in its position on the left, we again advanced toward the enemy some 100 to 200 yards, and very soon fell back again under orders. At this time Colonel Deas was compelled, from loss of blood from wounds received hours before, to retire from the field, from which time my regiment was represented in every movement made toward the enemy, and never retired without an order, and did not leave the field until the horses and gunners were removed from the two pieces of Captain Ketchum’s battery, which had to be abandoned. Being informed by the officer in command of the battery that he had been deserted by the troops left for his support, I felt it my duty to volunteer the services of my regiment for his support. When my command left this position not a man of our army was in front of us. ,
I beg to mention the following officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, who were particularly conspicuous for soldierly bearing and bravery throughout the action of the two days:
Company A—Capt. John Weedon; Lieut. J. M. Whitney; Corps. Alexander Inman (killed), S. Y. Cain (wounded), and W. D. Sumner (wounded), and Privates J. L. Penly and J. J. Faught.
Company B—Capt. J. Deas Nott, and Privates Bartlett Anderson (wounded) and H. C. McMillan.
Company C—Capt. A. L. Gaines (killed), and Private Frank Allen.
Company H—Private William West. ✓
Company I—Capt. A. P. Love (wounded), and First Sergt. S. J. Skinner.
Company E—Capt. J. R, Northcott; Sergt. R. J. Moore (wounded), and Corp. James M. Tedder (wounded).
Company K—Capt. B. R. Hart, Second Lieut. R. L. Myrick (wounded), and Privates Aaron Coffey and Monroe Brown.
Company D—Capt. E. H. Armistead; Capt. R. J. Hill, assistant quartermaster (wounded); Adjt. E. F. Travis (wounded); Sergt. Maj. Nott, and Quartermaster-Sergt. C. I. Michailoffsky.
Yery respectfully, your obedient servant,
J. C. MARRAST, Lieutenant-Colonel Commanding.

(Page 571-574)

Ole Miss

Forum Host
Silver Patron
Regtl. Staff Shiloh 2020
Dec 9, 2017
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Please @scone do not take my comments in an offensive manner as they are but suggestions for researching your ancestors and their unit history
The web sites listed below have many documents pertaining to the 22nd Alabama that might be of interest to you. Of course it goes without saying (a stupid phrase!), the Alabama Department of Archives and History would be a treasure trove of documents I am sure.
Since the 22nd fought many battles in Tennessee the Tennessee State Library and Archives would be a valuable source as well.
If you are looking for assistance in how research our own @Championhilz is an archivist at the Mississippi Department of Archives and History would be a good man to seek assistance from on how to do long range research as well.
@TomP is a National Park Ranger in charge of the Corinth Civil War Interpretive Center is an excellent source for information for all the activities surrounding Corinth and Shiloh, was he as Park Ranger as well.
I highly recommend securing a CD of Confederate Veteran Magazine form Amazon as it is rich source of anything Confederate.
Good luck with your project.
Sep 28, 2013
Southwest Mississippi
7th MS couldn't share
William was killed at Shiloh on 6 April 1862. Samuel died 18 April 1863 in Rome, Georgia due to disease.

View attachment 308018

Oh yes . . . I do plan to share this image, but in my brief snapshot of the 7th Mississippi (as this date). . . my guys have are just now leaving the Mississippi Gulf Coast on their way to Shiloh.


2nd Lieutenant
Honored Fallen Comrade
Please @scone do not take my comments in an offensive manner as they are but suggestions for researching your ancestors and their unit history
Not at I thank you.. If visited a few places Battlefields and searched for markers most are for the brigade never really letters although I have one from right after Shiloh … I have few more things I will have to look for I will share in this thread. Thanks' again


2nd Lieutenant
Honored Fallen Comrade
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2nd Lieutenant
Honored Fallen Comrade
Letters To Josie: April 11-12 1862 by James Horatio Wiley 22nd Alabama Infantry
The following two letters were written shortly after the Battle Of Shiloh by James Horatio Wiley (acting commissary) 22nd Alabama Infantry - Gladdden's Brigade: to his beloved Josie
Corinth, Miss. April the 11th 1862

My Dear Josie;

I know you are anxious to hear from me as my last was written on the eve of my departure to the battle ground, & I have been unable to write again till now.

It is impossible for me to give you any correct idea of what I have seen or endured for the last 4 or 5 days, so will not undertake it only so far as I was concerned --- I did not get off on Sunday as I expected on ac't of the late hour when I got my pass, but left early on Monday with 32 others whom I had collected in the camp & walked steadily nearly all day till we got within two miles of the battle ground when we were met by a great many of our troops on full retreat, who told us that the day was lost & we had better turn back, but I could not believe it & I was disposed to push on. I soon met a man who told us to go on as we were much needed, but could tell me nothing of the glorious 22nd or Gladden's Brigade but that they were litteraly cut to pieces, as they had opened the batl. on Sunday mor'g at daylight & had maintained the advance during the whole of the two days. I was then satisfied 'twould be folly for me to undertake to find them, but all who were with me pledged themselves to follow where ever I would lead, & we again pushed on toward the sound of the musketry?. After a walk of about 2 miles we came up with our rear lines who were just leaving the field, the enemy also retiring & both firing slowly, I could hear an occasional ball whistle by me. So I did not have the pleasure of engaging in the most bloody & desperate battle of the war, nor did I get on the battle field proper, but only on the outskirts.

Sunday's battle was a complete victory for us, but Monday I think can hardly be called a victory, altho' we had possession of the field. Our loss in killed & wounded was great, the slaughtered was immense, much heavier than on Sunday. Our men were completely worn out from the fatiguing march of Thursday & Friday, the scouting & occasional skirmishes of Saturday & the hard battle of Sunday, together with the vastly superior force with which they had to contend, & could not stand so hard work as if they had been fresh as were the enemy on Monday. They had been reinforced on Sunday night by Buel with some 40,000 to 50,000 men, while our force consised of not more than 60,000 men on Sunday & 40,000 on Monday & the same troops fought both days. If we could have been reinforced on Sunday night or even on Monday mor'g by 10,000 men, we would have had a most complete victory, & a Yankee would never have been seen again on the Tenn. River. But I think 'tis not over yet, for I've no doubt we will attack them again as soon as our army is rested & reinforced, the wounded moved & attended to, or they will attack us here; in which case they will be the worst whiped (sic) of any army either of modern or ancient times. All our wounded who are at all able to travel are receiving furloughs on 30, 40, 50 & 60 days according to the nature & severity of their wounds.

I am sorry to be forced to say that a great many of our troops acted shamefully & cowardly: As I went out on Monday I met hundreds of men coming away with their knapsacks filled with clothing & other articles they had taken from the Yankee camp on Sunday + Sunday night & when I would ask them if they were wounded, their answer would be "No! I'm sick" & yet they were carrying a load on their backs which I would not carry if I were perfectly well. Others were without guns, accouterments, or knapsacks, & frequently hatless, apparently frightened out of their senses. And ask them a question about the battle & they were unable to give the least information or satisfaction but on the contrary led me to the believ (sic) that all was going against us. Of these two classes I am happy to say that not a man answered "The 22nd. Ala" on my asking him to what Reg't he belonged.

There were also hundreds too, walking & riding who were wounded; some slightly & others seriously. Of these a great many belonged to the 22nd Ala. for as I told you they were for the two days in the thickets & hottest of the fight with 21st & 25th Ala. & the 1st Louisianna (sic) Reg't (Gladden's Brigade) the last charge they made was done on 10,000 Hessians with a lot more than 150 men in either Co & not more than 90 in the 22nd & even this charge the Yankees could not stand the 22nd Ala. & the 1st La. took every battery there was taken except one & that was taken by the 25th Ala. & yet the 21st claims the honor of all this & has so stated it in a communication to one of the Mobile papers, but the truth will come out yet. The 21st Ala. & the 1st La. suffered more than any other Reg't engaged. Gen. Gladden's left arm was taken off about the first fire & Col. Adams of the 1st La. took com'd. Soon afterwards Maj. Armstead fell by a grape shot thro' his bowell (sic). In a few minutes more Col. Deas rec'd a slight wound in his left hand. Then Col. Adams had his horse shot from under him while leading a charge. He soon rec'd a severe wound in the head & Col. Deas took command of the brigade & not long afterwards had his horse killed & rec'd a wound in his -- arm & one, I beleive (sic), in his hip, tho' neither of them at all serious. On both sides the slaughter was heavy until the Com'd to charge was given & as soon as our columns began to move the enemy fled & our forces took possession of their camp. Here was a perfect curiosity shop. Every thing in the eating & wearing line, in fact every tent told of high & extravagant living.

While the Confederate troops are lying on the bare ground with one or two blankets & eating fat pork & pickled beef, they have their matresses & feather beds, blankets, quilts, & comforts, every thing that one's appetite could crave to eat & with stoves to cook on in their tents. All this fell into our hands & as we could not move them the greater part of them were destroyed. There were 5 or 6 camps like this - the first 5 or 6 miles from the river where the gun boats lay - one every mile or sometimes nearer. We drove them thro' all of their camps on to their gun boats this was on Sunday, but on Monday they got their almost ruined camps back again but had to leave them again before night.

I expected our losses in killed & wounded are nearly equal, with a small number in our favor, tho' we have I think at least 5000 prisoners, with a small addition to these every day, for Gen. Breckenridge is still there with his com'd of 40,000 men & he picks them up prety (sic) rapidly. The Yankees took possession of a house for a hospital on Tuesday & placed a guard of fifty men over it, & had a number of our wounded prisoners: On Wednesday night Breckenridge sent a reg't down & took the 50 men prisoners & brought our wounded away. He learned from their prisoners that Buell would send a large force up on the following mor'g to carry all at the hospital down to the gun boats. So he formed a line of battle in a convenient place to recieve (sis) them. I have not heard of the result.

We have quite a number of wounded in our Co. & 2 at the hospital I fear mortally. Capt. Love rec'd an ugly wound in the left breast tho' not a serious one I think. Lt. Cooper was slightly wounded in the left shoulder. He left for home today. Lt. Wood with 4 privates are missing & we can not learn whether they are killed or taken prisoners.

We have had almost constant rain for more than a week & several very heavy showers & this is really a mudier (sic) country than the prairaer (sic) is tho' the mud is not so stiff. During our trip we were in the mud all the while from an inch to 1 1/2 feet deep, besides wading creeks & branches from 6 in. to 3 feet deep. On Monday night I lay & stood in the rain all night. I fully expected an attack of pneumonia, but I feel as well as ever did except that I am a little sore. My supper that night was a piece of broiled fat back & a hard cracker. My breakfast next morning the same with a cup of coffee made on the plan I have given you before, without sugar. My dinner a hard cracker - a hard cracker is "Pilot Bread" neither lard, butter or soda. I think I shall be well able to appreciate good eating if I live to get home. Brother Walt came over to see me yesterday eve'g. He is looking very badly & has suffered greatly from exposure & from constant duty for more than a week. He went safe (sic) thro' the battle of Sunday & Monday, besides several skirmishes on Friday, Saturday & Tuesday. His Co. suffered a serious loss from killed & wounded. I expect he left for the country today to recruit himself & horse a little, so as to be ready for the next battle. He spoke of doing so on yesterday, & as he has not been over today I judge he may --- gone.

I heard that a great battle came off in Va. on Sunday, resulting in another victory for us & in which we took five thousand prisoners. If this is true I expect Ned, Jule & Bro. Walter were in that battle. If so, God grant they are all safe, & well.

Should peace be proclaimed soon you may look for me in the shortest possible time thereafter in which I could reach P. G. (Pleasant Grove- mine) for that is the first dear spot I shall wish to visit. Or should we have an other battle here, - and I am satisfied we will - & I am wounded & am able to travel I shall place my self under your special care for treatment. As soon as it is possible for me to reach you.

I rec'd a letter from sister C - yesterday. All well but Pa. He was suffering from a severe cold. No news from Walter for 2 or 3 weeks. I also received a letter from Emily, sister R-'s oldest daughter. Her father expects to go to the war in a short time. It distresses sister very much.

Josie I have never rec'd your letter addressed to Ft. Pillow, & fear I shall not, as 'tis not likely any one there knows where the 22nd Ala. is.

I have not been able to meet Capt. Borden tho' the 10th Miss. is here. I have been constantly on the look out for John, but I do not think he is here unless he has arrived very recently. I should be most happy to meet him.

I have had but few opportunities of getting away from camp lately, as I am now & have been for some time Acting Commissary & my duties confine me very closely to my post. We returned to camp on Tuesday night & now 'tis Friday, & this is the first opportunity I have had of writing to you & I have been called off at least a dozen times to issue rations or to fill orders for officers, since I commenced this, (letter - mine) I have now to write to Pa for the first time in 10 days & I shall have to abridge this letter.

I look forward Josie with a great deal of anxiety & many fond anticipations to the time when I

shall see you again, & every day increasing in anxiety. Surely our meeting will be a happy one after so long & painful a seperation (sic). I do not speak idly when I say it seams at least five years since I saw you. An yet time seems to have passed very rapidly. I often wonder where you are & what doing. What your thoughts are & where. In fact Josie there is not an hour during the day but that you are the subject of a greater part of my thoughts. I need not ask my darling if this is not the case with her, for I am satisfied it it (sic) is, & this belief makes me happy. The Confederate States owes me over 3 months pay as a private & near 1 months pay as acting com'y & I would freely give it all & as much more for the pleasure of one hour with you.

But I must leave you now - my own precious one, with many kisses & heartfelt wishes for your health & happiness.

My love to all & believe me, my Darling Josie
Your ever devoted


Saturday, April 12th 1862

My Darling Pet.

I could not find an opportunity of sending my letter to the post on yesterday as it was raining all day. It is still raining & from the prospects I think will continue thro' the day. I had the pleasure of meeting last night with Joe Atkins Dr. Tinker, Mr. Brame + Dr. Hindon from New Bern. I was truly rejoiced to see them, as we so seldom meet with old familiar faces. They had heard of the battle of Sunday, on Monday Night, & started on Tuesday mor'g & arrived on Friday Eve'g. To offer their services to the surgeons in assisting in their duty of administrating to the hundreds of wounded soldiers who fill almost every house - public & private in Corinth. Truly is a noble deed & most worthy of Imitation. We have but few of the citizens of Corinth - 2 ladies - who have acted thus nobly, tho' many have given up their houses, while others have been taken possession of by order of the Genl's.

I had forgotten to tell you, or rather, I had not learned positively till last night that Gen. Buell (sic) was killed in the battle of Monday [1] & that 'twas done by a "Texas Ranger." Also that Gen's Prentiss & Seigles with a greater part of their commands were in our hands besides other Genl's, Col's & C. (?)

We heard last night that the enemy had taken possession of Huntsville, but learn this mor'g that 'twas only a small body of cavalry who had run in, in all probability to reconnoiter & to tear up the Rail Road.

Yours Devotedly