The 10th President of the United States of America; John Tyler`s Role in the Confederate States of America.

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Former United States President John Tyler`s Role in the Confederate States of America:

On April 17, 1861 after the attack on Fort Sumter, S.C. and President Abraham Lincoln's call for troops, Former President John Tyler organized the Peace Conference in Washington, but ultimately voted with the majority for secession. In complete support for secession he then headed a committee that negotiated the terms for Virginia's entry into the Confederate States of America and helped set the pay rate for military officers.

On June 14, 1861 Tyler signed the Ordinance of Secession, and one week later the convention unanimously elected him to the Provisional Confederate Congress. Tyler was seated in the Confederate Congress on August 1, 1861, and he served until just before his death on January 18, 1862. In November 1861, he was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives but he died in his room at the Ballard House hotel in Richmond just a few weeks before the first session could open in February 1862.

President John Tyler's death was the only one in presidential history not to be officially recognized in Washington, because of his allegiance to the Confederacy. He had requested a simple burial, but Confederate President Jefferson Davis devised a grand, politically pointed funeral, painting Tyler as a hero to the new nation. Accordingly, at his funeral, the coffin of the tenth president of the United States was draped with a Confederate Flag (First National Confederate Flag); he remains the only U.S. President ever laid to rest under a foreign flag.

The Funeral of the 10th President of the United States of America, John Tyler:

John Tyler served as the President of the United States from 1841 - 1845. At the end of his presidency, Tyler returned to his Virginia home at Sherwood Forest just outside of Richmond. He remained largely out of the political limelight until the secession crisis in 1861. Tyler, an advocate for states’ rights but not for war, worked to try to find a compromise to keep Virginia from seceding from the Union. Despite his best efforts prior to secession, he ultimately stood with his state and supported the Confederacy, even taking political office in the Confederate House of Representatives shortly before his death.

When he passed, Tyler achieved another unique death-related distinction: he became the only U.S. president whose death was not officially recognized in Washington due to his allegiance to the Confederacy. However, Jefferson Davis and the Confederate government made sure to give him a state funeral with all the pomp and circumstance afforded a president, paying homage to him as a hero to the Confederacy.

The funeral procession took Tyler’s body from the Confederate Capital (Richmond) to St. Paul’s church where Bishop Johns gave an eloquent sermon to a packed house of mourners. From there, the procession continued to Hollywood Cemetery, at what is known as the President’s Circle, where he was buried near the 5th President of the United States, James Monroe who served as President from 1817 - 1825. That being on a hill overlooking the James River rapids and Belle Isle. The long line of carriages contained a who’s who of the Confederate political establishment: Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet, members of the Confederate Congress and judiciary, Virginia’s governor, members of the state Senate and House of Delegates, all the way down to the mayor of Richmond. Many citizens also joined in to pay their last respects to the former President.

For the most part, Tyler’s presidency is regarded poorly mainly due to its uneventfulness. He notched few memorable accomplishments during a time of extreme national divide, which would eventually culminate in the Civil War, at which point he sided with the Confederacy.

President John Tyler’s 15 children and numerous grandchildren stood by his decisions. One of his Grandchildren commented the following during an interview back in 2017:

"He’s been maligned in some ways, because he was elected to the Confederate Congress, so people say he’s a traitor," Harrison said. "But actually, he should be known for his efforts as the organizer of the Peace Conference in Washington in 1861. He tried to get the uncommitted states to all agree on a program, and then get the other states to join in, and get everybody back together."

Here are some interesting facts about President John Tyler (1790 - 1862):

John Tyler was born in Charles City County, Virginia on March 29, 1790. He was one of seven Presidents from Virginia.

John attended William and Mary College.

Tyler served as a Captain in the military during the War of 1812.

President John Tyler was a member of the Whig Party.

He was on his knees playing marbles (as the sitting Vice-President) when informed that he had become president upon the death of the 9th President of the United States William Henry Harrison.

He had 15 children. The most of any President. He has two Grandsons who were still living in 2017, meaning just three generations of Tylers have managed to span 227 years and counting.

Both of those living Grandson`s now in their eighties are the sons of Lyon Gardiner Tyler Sr., the president’s fourth son.

President John Tyler was never elected President as he was the first in History to "assume" the position of the President as the sitting Vice-President when the 9th President of the United States of America, William Henry Harrison suddenly died. This resulted in John Tyler being appointed first, "Vice-President in Charge" and soon there after he demanded to be sworn in as the 10th President of the United States of America leaving him with-out a Vice President of his own for the rest of his Presidency, from 1841 - 1845. The first and only to have done this. He did not win re-election so he was the only President to serve in that position with-out ever being elected to it. Gerald Ford did the same thing after Spiro Agnew and Richard M. Nixon resigned during Watergate and losing to Jimmy Carter in 1976.

John Tyler didn't have a Vice President. He had been William Henry Harrison's VP, and the position was not filled when Tyler assumed the presidency. He was the first Vice President to replace a President due to death.

John Tyler was the first President whose wife died while he was holding the office of the President.

Tyler was the first president to marry while in office (2nd wife).

President Tyler was the first president to have his veto overridden by Congress (March 3, 1845).

John Tyler's second wife started the tradition of having "Hail to the Chief" played when he appeared at state functions.

He joined the Confederacy when the Civil War started. Tyler was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives. He is the only President elected to the congress of another country.

When President John Tyler died, his death was pointedly ignored by the federal government as a sworn enemy of the U.S. He was 71 years and 295 days old.

Because the State of Virginia was part of the Confederate States of America at the time of his passing in 1862, John Tyler could be considered the only President not only to have died outside U. S. soil, but also to have been buried there. Additionally, Tyler was the only U.S. President to have a Confederate flag draped over his coffin (First National Confederate Flag). That being a foreign Flag.

Photo below: the 10th President of the United States of America, John Tyler (1790 - 1862).

President John Tyler (1861).jpg
 
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Announcement of John Tyler`s death as it ran in the Atlanta Newspaper on 19 Jan 1862:

John Tyler dies at 71: Was U. S. President, C.S.A. Solon:

Richmond, Va. - Mr. Tyler, 10th President of the United States and a member of the Confederate Congress, died yesterday. His age was 71.

Mr. Tyler elected as Vice-President on the Whig ticket in 1840, became President upon the death of William Henry Harrison on April 4, 1861, after but one month in office. Of the 16 Presidents that the United States has had (counting the present one / Lincoln) Mr. Tyler was the only one to succeed to the Chief Executive`s chair on account of that person`s death.

He was also the only President to marry in office (he wed Miss Julia Gardiner in 1844) and the only one against whom impeachment proceedings were brought (dissatisfied with him, Whigs in the House sought to oust him in 1843: he won out by a vote of 127 to 83).
Mr. Tyler was a member of the Peace Commission which sought to heal the breach between North and South last February. After Virginia joined the Confederacy, he was elected to its Congress, becoming that rare individual, a man who serves two national governments in his lifetime.


A Virginian and a Lawyer, he was a legislator, governor of his state and a Congressman before being elected President."

In the piece above it stated that John Tyler was the only one of 16 Presidents (at the time of the Article in 1862) "to succeed to the Chief Executive`s chair on account of that person`s death." When it also happened after the death of the 12th President of the United States, while also in office, that being Zachary Taylor who was succeeded by his Vice-President, Millard Fillmore who became the 13th President of the United States after Zachary Taylor died in office in 1850.

The first question asked above in the headline: "Was U. S. President, C.S.A. Solon" Solon was a word used to describe a statesman or lawmaker. Another definition of the word as a noun was used to describe a:"legislator" .
 
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Tyler was a native son of Virginia who felt a deep sense of loyalty to his own state at the time of the Civil War. This was typical of other Virginians during this time period.
To include Robert E. Lee who sided with his: "Country of Virginia" and resigned his commission with the U. S. Army and joined the Confederacy. Most people in the South during the Civil War first saw their "Country" as the State in which they were reared, raised and resided and then they recognized the Confederation of the United States of America (compact) second to that.
 
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thomas aagaard

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This was typical of other Virginians during this time period.
Did not stop men like General Scott, General Thomas, Admiral Farragut and two of R.E.Lee's cousins from staying loyal to the union.
About 40% of serving officers from Virginia stayed loyal to the union.

So even if a majority joined their state, it do show that state loyalty was not as widespread as some people like to think. And the question did split families.
 

Bruce Vail

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Tyler was a native son of Virginia who felt a deep sense of loyalty to his own state at the time of the Civil War. This was typical of other Virginians during this time period.
Typical, but not universal by any means. Gen. Winfield Scott, for example, was a Virginian who held high government office and was a contemporary of Tyler. He remained staunchly loyal to the USA until his death in 1866.
 
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Bruce Vail

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David Farragut was originally from Tennessee and not Virginia. Winfield Scott was almost 75 years old and in ill health at the start of the Civil War and retired shortly after the war began.
Scott was indeed old, and I chose him as an example because he was old, just like Tyler.

Scott was also a Whig, like Tyler, and received the Whig nomination for President in 1852.

Scott also served in the Army through much of 1861, so he was acting in a high USA capacity at precisely the same time that Tyler was joining the Confederate cause
 
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Even the Scott Family was some what conflicted during the Civil War. Ann Scott Walker (1775 - 1872), the older sister of Lt. General Winfield Scott was living in the Mississippi Delta with some of her children, just south of Tupelo a few miles at Verona, Mississippi during the Civil War, where Nathan Bedford Forrest`s Headquarters was located in late 1863 and into 1864. When some of Sherman` Army raided her home the officer in charge saw a photo of Lt. General Winfield Scott placed upon the mantle of her fireplace and asked the old lady, who was close to 90 years old, what she was doing with a photo of "their beloved General?" She replied that it was a photo of her brother, and because of it the soldiers did not burn the town of Verona. Several of her Grandchildren were serving and fighting in the Confederate Army. Being the Great Nephews of Lt. General Winfield Scott.

Photo below: Ann Scott Walker (1775 - 1872); older sister of Lt. General Winfield Scott.

Ann Scott Waker (1775 - 1872)....jpg
 
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U. S. Presidents who were still living during the Civil War:

In addition to President Abraham Lincoln and President Andrew Johnson, there were five previous presidents whom were alive during the Civil War. They were Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan Jr. Below are their views on secession and the Civil War.

1)- Martin Van Buren was our eighth President and at the time of our Civil War he was the oldest surviving President. He served as President from 1837 - 1841. Van Buren had powerful anti-slavery views and after his term ended in 1841 he sought the Presidential chair in 1848 and was defeated. He strongly supported Abraham Lincoln but did not live to see Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation take effect. Van Buren died on July 24, 1862 at the age of 79.

2)- John Tyler was our tenth President and was a native southerner. He served as President from 1841 - 1845. He came to power after succeeding President William Henry Harrison, as his Vice-President, who was the first President to die while serving in office. He was a big-time supporter of states rights and many of his polices as President might have helped cause the Civil War. After his term ended in 1845, Tyler lived a relatively quiet life until the Civil War began. In 1861 he helped lead a compromise movement but his plans failed. He then turned to support his native Virginia and became a member of the Confederate House of Representatives. He even voted for Virginia to secede from the Union. However, weak and feeble, Tyler didn't serve the Confederacy for very long. As stated in the main article above, the former President died at his post at Richmond, Vriginia on January 18, 1862.

John Tyler was the only U.S. President to serve the Confederacy during the Civil War. After failing in his bid to lead a compromise movement after the first southern states seceded in 1861, the former U.S. President helped to create the Southern Confederacy.

3)- Millard Fillmore was our thirteenth President, who like Lincoln was a member of the Whig party. He served as President from 1850 - 1853. He came to power after succeeding President Zachary Taylor, as his Vice-President, who was the second President to die while serving in office. After his Presidency ended in 1853, Fillmore left the Whigs and became a member of the "Know Nothing Party". In 1856 his attempt at a Presidential election failed and Fillmore was sent into retirement. During the Civil War he opposed almost all of President Lincoln's policies but supported the Union and its cause during the War. Fillmore lived in Buffalo, New York during the war and was extremely active in civic affairs. After Lincoln's death Fillmore supported Andrew Johnsons reconstruction policies. Like Tyler, Fillmore was one of many Presidents who is blamed for the coming of the Civil War.

4)- Franklin Pierce was our fourteenth President and held the office during the most crucial time period before the onset of the Civil War. He served as President from 1853 - 1857. His secretary of war, Jefferson Davis was the future and only President of the Confederacy. Despite being a native to New Hampshire, Pierce supported many pro-slavery legislations throughout his political life. He believed that the Constitution supported states rights issues and slavery itself. Like Fillmore he was deeply opposed to Lincoln and his administration. He was greatly disliked in the North for his displeasure with the Union cause. Calling the war a failure because he felt that it was a "butchery of white men" for the sake of "inflicting" freedom on the black race who didn't want it, Pierce was widely hated for his beliefs. His last public speech voiced his displeasure with the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed the slaves in those areas still controlled by the Confederacy.

5)- James Buchanan Jr. was our fifteenth President and will forever be known as the man who failed to keep the Union together during his Presidency. He served as President from 1857 - 1861. He was President of the United States when the Southern States seceded and formed the Confederate States of America. After leaving office his parting words to Congress were: "to amend the Constitution on the subject of slavery before it caused a national conflict." During the war he supported Lincoln's policies and administration while living in retirement in Lancaster, PA. He even published a book defending his actions during his administration. A fierce Unionist who predicted that the Confederacy would fail, Buchanan wrote the following to his son in 1861. "The Confederate States have deliberately commenced the civil war, & God knows where it may end. They were repeatedly warned by my administration that an assault on Fort Sumter would be Civil War & they would be responsible for the consequences."

As a note of interest, his Vice-President John C. Breckinridge, right after the Inauguration of President Abraham Lincoln won a seat in the Senate and served in that capacity for about 6 mos. at which time he joined the Confederate cause and entered service in the Confederate States Army as a Brigadier General, his first action was leading his men into Battle at Shiloh, Tennessee. By April 1862 he was promoted to the rank of Maj. General as he was fighting in Baton Rouge and New Orleans and by January 1865 he was appointed the fifth and last Confederate Secretary of War and was Captured with Confederate President Jefferson Davis just four months later, on May 10, 1865 at Irwinville, Georgia which brought the Civil War to an end. This being the man that was the Vice-President of the United States of America from 1857 - 1861, up until the day that Lincoln was sworn in as the 16th President of the United States on 4 Mar 1861.
 
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uaskme

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Farragut was from upper East Tennessee. Which was extremely Unionist. Distinctively different from the rest of Tennessee. So, essential he went with his State. The part where he lived anyway.
 
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Andrew Johnson was also from upper East Tennessee. He was the only U.S. Senator from the south to remain loyal to the Union during the Civil War.
Reluctantly so... I am thankful that he did as we really have him to thank for our nation coming back together after the War. He was the voice of reason that we desperately needed to heal the breach between North and South during the Military Reconstruction era from 1865 - 1877. Johnson was the only Southern Senator who did not resign from the Senate when War broke across the nation. The main reason that Lincoln ditched Hamlin as his Vice-President when he was seeking his second term and chose Johnson in 1864 was because of this fact. He felt that by choosing a southern Democrat as Vice-President he may be able to bring the War to a close sooner with out even more blood needlessly being spilled.

If it had been left to the Whig`s and Republican`s in Congress along with a "President" Hannibal Hamlin who had succeeded President Lincoln after his assassination, the South would have never been able to rejoin the Union. So at the very least, for that we owe Johnson a lot of Gratitude.
 
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Bruce Vail

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Reluctantly so... I am thankful that he did as we really have him to thank for our nation coming back together after the War. He was the voice of reason that we desperately needed to heal the breach between North and South during the Military Reconstruction era from 1865 - 1877. Johnson was the only Southern Senator who did not resign from the Senate when War broke across the nation. The main reason that Lincoln ditched Hamlin as his Vice-President when he was seeking his second term and chose Johnson in 1864 was because of this fact. He felt that by choosing a southern Democrat as Vice-President he may be able to bring the War to a close sooner with out even more blood needlessly being spilled.

If it had been left to the Whig`s and Republican`s in Congress along with a "President" Hannibal Hamlin who had succeeded President Lincoln after his assassination, the South would have never been able to rejoin the Union. So at the very least, for that we owe Johnson a lot of Gratitude.
This is startling. I don't think I have ever read a defense of Johnson like this. I doubt there is a single commenter on CWT who will agree...
 
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This is startling. I don't think I have ever read a defense of Johnson like this. I doubt there is a single commenter on CWT who will agree...
As a southerner myself I understand why you may be confused by this statement. Reconstruction was very hard on all of my family but in my opinion that is how I perceive Johnson to be based on my research. If Hannibal Hamlin had been on the ticket as Vice-President in 1864 with Lincoln, instead of Johnson there is no doubt in my mind that the South would have never been returned to the union, for 50 years or more, give or take a few years. Johnson was the only one who at the close of the War was at least thinking that the South should be rejoined sooner rather than later to the Union, if we were to heal as a nation. Whereas one Whig and Republican Senator and Representative after the other were very demanding that the South should not immediately be returned, if ever, but rather left to suffer the consequences of seceding from the Union in the first place and then fighting a War against the government for 4 agonizing years.

I am no fan of Johnson, and no fan of the 12 years of Military Reconstruction that he set upon the Southern States after the War, but choosing between two evils, so to speak, between a President Andrew Johnson and a possible "President" Hannibal Hamlin, I will choose Johnson every time.
 
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Potomac Pride

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As a southerner myself I understand why you may be confused by this statement. Reconstruction was very hard on all of my family but in my opinion that is how I perceive Johnson to be based on my research. If Hannibal Hamlin had been on the ticket as Vice-President in 1864 with Lincoln, instead of Johnson there is no doubt in my mind that the South would have never been returned to the union, for 50 years or more, give or take a few years. Johnson was the only one who at the close of the War was at least thinking that the South should be rejoined sooner rather than later to the Union, if we were to heal as a nation. Whereas one Whig and Republican Senator and Representative after the other were very demanding that the South should not immediately be returned, if ever, but rather left to suffer the consequences of seceding from the Union in the first place and then fighting a War against the government for 4 agonizing years.

I am no fan of Johnson, and no fan of the 12 years of Military Reconstruction that he set upon the Southern States after the War, but choosing between two evils, so to speak, between a President Andrew Johnson and a possible "President" Hannibal Hamlin, I will choose Johnson every time.
One of the reasons Congress tried to impeach Johnson was because they considered his Reconstruction Policy to be too lenient towards the South.
 

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Aside from the shooting part, in the South weren't there people (3/5ths or therebouts) that had been doing those things FOR them?
This is startling. I don't think I have ever read a defense of Johnson like this. I doubt there is a single commenter on CWT who will agree...
Actually, I am somewhat sympathetic to Andrew Johnson myself and think he had some mighty big shoes to fill and did the best that he could to make reconciliation between North and South go as peacefully as it could. Johnson certainly could and should done more to insure the rights of the freedmen who were making the transition between slavery and freedom but he did try to live up to Lincoln's desire to have the South rejoin the union in the spirit of this statement in his Second Inauguration Address "With malice toward none with charity for all". Johnson's lack of public persona and charm and the fierce opposition of the Radical Republicans who were much more vindictive towards the South in attitude doomed any chances for more positive results to come out of his term as President.
 
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Drew

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A good example of my pet theory that Americans mostly chose sides in the Civil War based on their social class affiliations, not political or constitutional issues.
Bruce, my father graduated from high school in 1944, aged 16. Young men in that position at that time were getting all expense-paid trips to either Germany or Japan.

My Dad joined the Navy and explained to me as a boy that that is what you did, in his neighborhood at that time. Youngsters from other neighborhoods, close by, joined the Marines or the Army.

His point was, young men did what their communities expected of them; High Politics was not part of the equation.
 
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