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ole

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
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Besides Wiley's book, try "Five Tragic Hours," McDonough. McDonough doesn't has Sword's facility for smooth reading but he does pay attention to substantiated detail. It's a small book almost exclusively on Franklin, but worth having. Check abebooks.com. Guarantee you'll have several hundred to pick from.
 

william42

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Thanks Ole. I get bogged down when I'm reading the detailed minute by minute accounts of battles, such as Sword's on Shiloh, and Priest's on Antietam, but I still read them because I get so much more of the feel of the battle. In fact I search them out, so I will look for Mr. McDonough's book as well. It's more of a strain on my mind to work out the scenery descriptions, artillery and troop movements, and picture them in my head, to correspond with the detail. Basically I guess I don't want to work that hard, and I feel like I'm laboring through it, but it's worth it in the end. After I've finally finished it I feel like I've learned something. It's actually easier for me to read McPherson's one volume "Battle Cry of Freedom", than it is to read a one-battle book, but you don't get the real picture of a single battle from a one-volume history of the war. Thanks again Ole.

Terry
 

scone

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Ole & Terry,

Reason for me leaving out "Five Tragic Hours" was that Swords "Confederacy Last Hurrah" cover the whole Campaign instead of just one battle.

You really cant understand the Battle of Franklin with out covering the Battle of Spring hill.

And the new Spring hill covers the battle very well and sheds some new light on the subject.

Regards, steven
 

william42

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Steve, thanks. I was kind of looking for something that would help explain the whole campaign as you mentioned. Because right now it's sort of confusing for me concerning the whole Nashville, Franklin, Spring Hill geography and troop movements, and on what days they occurred for each location, so something on the entire campaign would be great for me. Thanks again.

Terry
 

larry_cockerham

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I'm collecting material on the day by day activity of the campaign here in TN. I could post a few excerpts with dates if you folks are interested.
 

larry_cockerham

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Northern Alabama Nov 1864

The following was gleaned from an internet-published report on the Lauderdale County, Alabama website. It had been published in the Times Daily of Florence, Alabama on Thursday, February 25, 1999, written by Harry E. Wallace as part of a series HISTORY OF THE SHOALS:

“Another daring episode occurred in late summer of 1864 when Gen. Joseph Wheeler's 1st Tennessee Cavalry raided into middle Tennessee and were hotly pursued by Union cavalry as they entered Lauderdale County. Wheeler sent riders ahead to find a guide for the ford location at the Bainbridge Ferry crossing at the mouth of Shoal Creek. With no guide available and the river flooded, Wheeler sent two riders into the water to find the ford. Working under the handicap of darkness and a mile wide current, the riders found the crossing and Wheeler's men rode between them to safety without losing a
man.”

“In September 1864, the legendary Gen. Forrest and his "Critter Company" crossed the river at Colbert Shoal and rode through Florence via the Huntsville Road. After capturing a Union garrison at Athens and wrecking the Nashville-and-Chattanooga Railroad in middle Tennessee that furnished supplies to Sherman's Army, he marched through Georgia. “
“Next, Forrest's cavalry re-entered Alabama with Col. W. H. Morgan's Union cavalry in hot pursuit. Forrest hoped to cross at the Bainbridge Crossing but the river was flooded. After locating a barge, his troops began a two-day process of transporting men and swimming the horses. The last regiment of Confederates was left to harass the Federals and told to meet the main body on Seven-Mile Island in two days. The two cold days on the island were spent without fires, fearing enemy detection. Incidents such as this only increased the myths and legends surrounding Forrest and his men.”
While Hood was preparing his army to enter Tennessee, General Forrest was causing considerable difficulty with Federal supplies in West Tennessee. On Oct 28, 1864 he was reported in camp at Fort Heiman on the Tennessee River. By November 3 he was on point at Johnsonville and on November 4 opened fire on that fair city which he shelled again on November 5 before leaving for Corinth, Mississippi. Damage at Johnsonville as the result of Forrest’s raid is estimated at over six million dollars in Federal supplies.

Hood in Alabama

October 22, 1864
The Army of Tennessee under Hood left Gadsden and headed for Guntersville, Alabama before being warned of Union gunboats on the Tennessee River. Hood diverted the march towards Decatur.

October 28, 1864
A skirmish with Union troops guarding the river cost the Army of Tennessee 125 men. They moved on towards Bainbridge, another known crossing possibility. The army actually arrived at Tuscumbia still some twelve miles from the eastern end of the railroad from Corinth and the only source of supplies.

November 2, 1864
On this day the corps of Gen. Stephen D. Lee crossed the river on pontoons starting an event known as the second battle of Florence.

November 3, 1864
Hood ordered Forrest’s cavalry to Bainbridge. Forrest was “busy” at Johnsonville and managed to do some “good” while General Hood was making up his mind. On this day General Pierre Gustave Toutant Beauregard met with Hood at Tuscumbia and the decision was made to ‘invade” Tennessee. Just as is the case in 2004, the weather in November in north Alabama and Tennessee was horrible. The rains arrived right on schedule accompanied by bitter cold. Wagons were sliding off muddy roads making supplies a very precious commodity.

November 9, 1864
The pontoon bridge was knocked out by rising water and could not be repaired until the 12th when Gen. Frank Cheatham’s corps prepared to cross in the 13th.

November 14, 1864
General Forrest’s cavalry began arriving in Florence just as the rains began again with great gusto.

November 20, 1864
A. P. Stewart’s corps finally was able to cross the river via the shaky pontoon bridge completing the crossing of Hood’s army. The invasion of Tennessee was about to begin in earnest.

“After the loss of Atlanta in September 1864, Confederate Gen. John Bell Hood marched the Army of Tennessee into North Alabama in preparation for an invasion to recapture Tennessee and Kentucky. Failing to cross the Tennessee second Battle of Florence. The crossing was continually delayed by rain and flooding but eventually Hood's three corps of nearly 30,000 and Gen. W. H. Jackson's cavalry of 2,000 successfully crossed and were joined by Forrest and his cavalry of 3,000. Students of the Female Synodical College watched the crossing from the dome of the school.”
“Hood's ill-fated plans did not go unnoticed by Union Gen. George H. Thomas in Pulaski. With Forrest's cavalry in advance, Hood ordered his army to move out Nov. 20. The Army of Tennessee left Florence after a 3-inch snowfall. Gen. Benjamin Cheatham's corps moved out on the Coffee Road, Gen. Alexander Stewart's Corps left by the Military Road and Gen. Stephen Lee's corps took the Chisholm road. The advance was greatly impeded by bitter cold, snow and freezing rain.”
 

larry_cockerham

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Journal of the Army of Tennessee
NOVEMBER 14, 1864-JANUARY 23, 1865
Campaign in North Alabama and Middle Tennessee.
O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLV/1 [S# 93]

November 15, 1864.--Headquarters Army of Tennessee at Florence, Ala. Heavy rains in the last forty-eight hours.
November 16.--Headquarters Florence, Ala. In obedience to a general order from these headquarters, all military duties (except those that are absolutely necessary) will be suspended, this day having been set apart by the President as a day of fasting and prayer.
November 17.--Headquarters Army of Tennessee, Florence, Ala. Nothing of importance has transpired to-day.
November 18.--Headquarters Florence, Ala. General Beauregard moved his headquarters from Tuscumbia to Montgomery, Ala. General Stewart has been ordered to cross the Tennessee River with his corps tomorrow.
November 19.--Headquarters Florence, Ala. General Stewart's corps was unable to cross the river today in consequence of the bad weather and the slow progress made by the supply trains. General Lee's corps is ordered to take up line of march at 5 o'clock in the morning.
[Insert – General George Thomas wrote in his Jan 20 1865 report “Hood commenced his advance on the 19th moving on parallel roads from Florence through Waynesboro and shelled Hatch’s cavalry out of Lawrenceburg on the 22nd ]
November 20.--Headquarters Florence, Ala. Stewart's corps crossed the river and moved out several miles on Lawrenceburg road. Lee's corps took up line of march at an early hour and bivouacked ten miles from this place, on road between Lawrenceburg and Waynesborough roads. The whole army will move at an early hour to-morrow.
November 21.--Cheatham's corps took up line of march at an early hour this a.m. and moved out on the Waynesborough road. Army headquarters moved at 10 a.m., and were established at 5 p.m. near Rawhide, on Waynesborough road, twelve miles north of Florence. Lee's corps, on the Chisem road, and Stewart's, on the Lawrenceburg road, resumed their march this morning.
November 22.--Cheatham's corps and army headquarters were in motion at sunrise, and after a march of eighteen miles, army headquarters were established near the intersection of the Natchez and Waynesborough roads. Cheatham's corps encamped one mile south of headquarters.
November 23.--Cheatham's corps and army headquarters took another early start this morning, and after a march of eighteen miles arrived and established headquarters at the Furnace No. 96, four miles north of Waynesborough, on the Mount Pleasant and Waynesborough road.
[Insert – from General George Thomas in his Jan 20 1865 rerport: “On the 23d, in accordance with directions previously given him, General Granger commenced withdrawing the garrisons from Athens, Decatur, and Huntsville, Ala., and moved off toward Stevenson, sending five new regiments of that force to Murfreesborough, and retaining at Stevenson the original troops of his command. This movement was rapidly made by railroad, without opposition on the part of the enemy. That same night General Schofield evacuated Pulaski and moved toward Columbia, reporting himself in position at that place on the 24th”]
November 24.--Army headquarters nine miles south of Mount Pleasant, on the Waynesborough and Mount Pleasant road. Cheatham's corps continued the march on the Waynesborough and Mount Pleasant road, camping twelve miles south [of] Henryville, in the rear of Lee's corps, which came into Waynesborough and Mount Pleasant road from the Pinhook (a country road). Stewart's corps camped in rear of Cheat-ham's corps, having also come into Waynesborough and Mount Pleasant road from the Waterloo and Lawrenceburg road.
November 25.--Army headquarters at Mount Pleasant. Lee's corps camped just beyond town, on Columbia road; Cheatham's corps, five miles south of town, and Stewart's corps at Henryville.
November 26.--Army headquarters at Col. Andrew J. Polk's, five miles south of Columbia, on Mount Pleasant pike. Lee's corps continued the march on the Mount Pleasant and Columbia pike, going into position near Columbia, the right resting on the pike. Cheatham's corps followed Lee's, camping near army headquarters, between the Mount Pleasant and Columbia and the Pulaski pikes. Stewart's corps camped two miles beyond Mount Pleasant, on the Mount Pleasant and Columbia pike.
November 27.--Army headquarters moved from Polk's residence, on the Mount Pleasant and Columbia pike, to Mrs. Warfield's, on the Pulaski pike, three miles south of Columbia. Lee's corps remained in same position it occupied last night. Cheatham's corps crossed over from Mount Pleasant and Columbia pike across the Pulaski pike, going into position with its right resting on Duck River and the left on the Pulaski pike. Stewart's corps continued the march on the Mount Pleasant and Columbia pike, going into position with its right on the Pulaski and its left on the Mount Pleasant and Columbia pikes.
 

larry_cockerham

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[The 58th North Carolina was left at Columbia to guard 1,700 Federal Prisoners sent to the unit, and to garrison the town. This detail enabled the regiment to miss Hood's twin disasters at Franklin and Nashville, Tennessee. At this time the regiment was reported to have an effective strength of 246 men, total present of 311, with an aggregate present total of 338. On December 14, 1864, the 58th North Carolina was ordered to Corinth, Mississippi with the prisoners. Here they were relieved of the guard, and on December 26, 1864, was ordered to Okalona, Mississippi to drive off a cavalry raid which had cut the rail line there. The remainder of the Brigade were not lucky, and traveled on with Hood to his great defeat. The 58th North Carolina rejoined Palmer's now very small brigade on the return of Hood's Army to Tupelo, Mississippi in January 1865.] As per cousin Jeffrey C. Weaver regarding the 58th North Carolina.
November 28, 1864.--Army headquarters continued during the day at Mrs. Warfield's residence, on the Pulaski pike, three miles south of Columbia. The army occupied the same position as designated yesterday. The enemy abandoned Columbia last night and our troops took possession at daylight this morning. General Orders, No. 37, issued to-day, prohibiting plundering by the army of both private and public property, it having been reported to General Hood that Columbia had been "wantonly and disgracefully plundered."
November 29.--General Hood, with Cheatham's and Stewart's corps and Johnson's division, of Lee's corps, flanked the enemy's force remaining opposite Columbia, crossing Duck River about three miles above the town, and moving by a country road to the Columbia and Franklin pike, struck the enemy (who, in the meantime, had begun to retire from Columbia) near Spring Hill, but without success. The command then went into camp near Spring Hill. Army headquarters for the night were at Doctor Thompson's, two and a half miles from Spring Hill and a little to the right of the Columbia and Franklin pike. General Lee, with Clayton's and Stevenson's divisions and the artillery and teams of the army, remained at Columbia.
[Insert – from General George Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “During the 24th and 25th the enemy skirmished with General Schofield's troops at Columbia, but showed nothing but dismounted cavalry until the morning of the 26th, when his infantry came up and pressed our line strongly during that day and the 27th, but without assaulting. As the enemy's movements showed an undoubted intention to cross above or below the town, General Schofield withdrew to the north bank of Duck River during the night of the 27th and took up a new position, where the command remained during the 28th, undisturbed. Two divisions of the Twenty-third Corps were placed in line in front of the town, holding all the crossings in its vicinity, while Stanley's corps, posted in reserve on the Franklin pike, was held in readiness to repel any vigorous attempt the enemy should make to force a crossing; the cavalry, under command of Brevet Major-General Wilson, held the crossings above those guarded by the infantry. About 2 a.m. on the 29th the enemy succeeded in pressing back General Wilson's cavalry, and effected a crossing on the Lewisburg pike; at a later hour part of his infantry crossed at Huey's Mills, six miles above Columbia.”]
[The withdrawal of the main force from in front of Columbia was safely effected after dark on the 29th; Spring Hill was passed without molestation about midnight, and making a night march of twenty-five miles, the whole command got into position at Franklin at an early hour on the morning of the 30th; the cavalry moved on the Lewisburg pike, on the right or east of the infantry.]
November 30.--The march was resumed on the Columbia and Franklin pike, Lee coming up from Columbia with the remainder of his command and the artillery. Cheatham's and Stewart's corps went into position around the enemy's works at Franklin about 4.30 p.m., engaging the enemy almost immediately, Stewart on the right and Cheatham on the left. General Hood's headquarters were on the pike, about three-fourths of a mile in rear of the line of battle. The battle closed about 12 o'clock at night. Skirmishing was going on, however, till 3 a.m., when the enemy abandoned his position, and retired upon the Franklin and Nashville pike. Cheatham's and Stewart's corps and Johnson's division, of Lee's corps, were all engaged, Clayton's and Stevenson's divisions, of Lee's corps, and the artillery not having been brought into action.
[Insert – from General George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “General Schofield's position was excellently chosen, with both flanks resting upon the river, and the men firmly held their ground against an overwhelming enemy, who was repulsed in every assault along the whole line. Our loss, as given by General Schofield in his report transmitted herewith (and to which I respectfully refer), is, 189 killed, 1,033 wounded, and 1,104 missing, making an aggregate of 2,326. We captured and sent to Nashville 702 prisoners, including 1 general officer, and 33 stand of colors. Maj. Gen. D. S. Stanley, commanding Fourth Corps, was severely wounded at Franklin whilst engaged in rallying a portion of his command which had been temporarily overpowered by an overwhelming attack of the enemy. At the time of the battle the enemy's loss was known to be severe, and was estimated at 5,000. The exact figures were only obtained, however, on the reoccupation of Franklin by our forces, after the battles of December 15 and 16, at Brentwood Hills, near Nashville, and are given as follows: Buried upon the field, 1,750; disabled and placed in hospital at Franklin, 3,800, which, with the 702 prisoners already reported, makes an aggregate loss to Hood's army of 6,252, among whom were 6 general officers killed, 6 wounded, and 1 captured. The important results of the signal victory cannot be too highly appreciated, for it not only seriously checked the enemy's advance, and gave General Schofield time to remove his troops and all his property to Nashville, but it also caused deep depression among the men of Hood's army, making them doubly cautious in their subsequent movements.”]

[Palmer's Brigade missed the disastrous battle at Franklin, Tennessee on November 30, 1864. To their good fortune, Hood had them detached for other duty, guarding the ordnance train. Hood's carelessness resulted in about 7,000 rebel dead. Lieutenant Colonel James M. Ray of the 60th North Carolina wrote that after the encounter at Columbia, Tennessee, the Confederates delayed instead of pursuing the retreating Federals, giving them time to regroup and entrench at Franklin. The Confederates intended to push the Yankees into the Big Harpeth River according to Edward Pollard. Hood's men advanced across open plains to slaughter and carnage. Twelve Southern generals were killed or wounded, 13 regimental commanders were killed and 32 wounded.] Jeff Weaver writing about the 60th NC.
 

larry_cockerham

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Into Nashville Dec 1864

December 1.--The army moved out from Franklin during the morning on the Franklin and Nashville pike, Lee in front, Stewart next, and Cheatham in the rear, all camping on the pike, a few miles from Franklin. Army headquarters for the night just across Harpeth River from Franklin.
December 2.--The army again in motion on Franklin and Nashville pike, marching in the same order as on yesterday. Late in the evening we took position in front of Nashville, Lee's corps in the center, with its center resting upon the Franklin pike, Stewart's forming on his left and Cheatham's on his right, Forrest's cavalry protecting either flank, our line extending, as near as possible, from the Cumberland, above the city, to the Cumberland, below the city, curving forward from General Lee's center. (See confidential circular of December 2, 1864.) Army headquarters at Mr. Overton's residence, five and a half miles from Nashville, and near the Franklin and Nashville pike.
December 3.--The army occupied the same position as yesterday, with slight alterations. Army headquarters remained at Mr. Overton's.
December 4.--The army occupies the same position around Nashville. The skirmish line was advanced on some portions of the line. The cavalry, under Chalmers, captured two transports seven miles below Nashville, on Cumberland River, and some 300 mules.
December 5.--Army headquarters at Mr. Overton's house. Our line remains pretty much the same. The enemy, in heavy line of battle, drove in General Cheatham's skirmishers across the Nashville and Murfreesborough railroad this morning, but retired without attacking our line. Sears' brigade, of French's division, and Brown's brigade, of Stevenson's division, with a battery each, were sent to the vicinity of Murfreesborough to report to General Forrest. General Bate, with the force under his command, was also directed to report to General Forrest. Circular issued to-day to corps commanders for information of the army announcing the capture of "the block-house and fort at La Vergne, with commissary stores, 100 prisoners, 2 pieces of artillery, 100 small-arms and ammunition, 20 wagons, and some teams by General Forrest, and that General Bate had burned three block-houses." General Hood made a proposition to officer commanding U.S. forces at Nashville for an exchange of the prisoners in his hands for an equal number of Confederate prisoners.
December 6.---General Thomas, commanding U.S. forces, Nashville, in reply to General Hood's proposition for an exchange of prisoners, states "that such an arrangement is impracticable, all Confederate prisoners having been sent North, and consequently placed beyond his control." General Hood asks by telegraph of both Generals Beauregard, commanding department, and Maury, commanding Department of Alabama, Mississippi, and East Louisiana, to have the Memphis and Charleston Railroad repaired to Decatur, Ala., to which point he hopes to have the Tennessee and Alabama Railroad running in a day or two.
(See telegrams and letter book, office assistant adjutant-general.) Our lines around Nashville about the same, perhaps with slight alteration by corps commanders, under revision of General Hood. Slight demonstration on our (Cheatham's) right by the enemy. General Forrest's command invests Murfreesborough. The enemy reported very strongly fortified there, and with 6,000 or 8,000 troops in his forts. It is not yet determined whether an assault will be made by our forces.
From Nathan Bedford Forrest’s official report: On the evening of the 6th I was re-enforced by Sears' and Palmer's brigades of infantry. I ordered Colonel Palmer in position on the right upon a hill, and to fortify during the night.
December 7.--Nothing new on our line immediately around Nashville. Captain Reid, commanding at Corinth, Miss., reports, under date of December 1, the following, which was repeated by General Hood to General Beauregard, Macon, Ga., with the request that all men belonging to this army, and any re-enforcements that could be spared, be sent forward as soon as possible:
Scouts from the vicinity of Memphis report that Steele, with 15,000 men, landed at that point on last Thursday and passed up the river Saturday.
News of our forces in neighborhood of Murfreesborough being driven back by the enemy received to-night. Col. B. J. Hill, with his cavalry command, was ordered today to Bedford, Giles, and Marshall Counties, Tenn., 6, to break up and destroy the home guards, to conscribe men liable to military duty, and to protect the mills in the neighborhood of Shelbyville? (See dispatch to General Forrest, field dispatch book.)
[The rest of Palmer's brigade was with General Nathan Bedford Forrest's command in the Battle of the Cedars , Murfreesboro, Tennessee, fought on December 7, 1864.
 

larry_cockerham

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Nashville and the retreat afterward CSA

James Clark penned his last wartime epistle to Martha in January 1865 from the Clayton Hospital Mess at Columbus, Georgia. He noted that he had been wounded at the battle of Murfreesboro, a slight wound in the wrist. He wrote, "I was so exposed coming out of Tenn. that it became very sore.... Many men have lost their toes & some their entire feet." Reynolds's Brigade officially made the transition to become Palmer's brigade during this time. Joseph Benjamin Palmer, 1825-1890, having a name very similar to the organizer of the 58th North Carolina has caused some confusion in records relating to the regiment. Palmer, a prewar Unionist, attorney, and politician entered the Confederate Army upon Tennessee's secession. He led a consolidated brigade in the Franklin- Nashville Campaign, but was detached during both big fights. His command, attached to Edward Walthall's Division did take part in covering the retreat. In the final reorganization of the Army of Tennessee he was placed in command of a brigade composed of the remnants of 38 Tennessee regiments and two battalions. His brief association with the men of Reynolds' Brigade went well, but he lost them in the April 9, 1865 reorganization…. Jeffrey Craig Weaver ]
December 8.--Lieutenant-General Lee made a demonstration on his extreme left to-day, driving in the enemy's pickets without any show of resistance, and establishing his own line in the pits from which he had driven the pickets of the enemy. General Forrest was ordered to drive the enemy back to Murfreesborough, and then give him an opportunity to leave the town in the direction of Lebanon, if he chose. He was also directed to return Bate's division and Sears' brigade to the army, keeping Palmer's (Brown's old) brigade and Mercer's, which was ordered to him to-day, and what artillery he might deem necessary, another division to be sent to him to supply the place of Bate's when the latter shall have joined the army.
December 9.--All quiet in front. General Forrest advised by General Hood that another division would not be sent him to supply the place of Bate's [division] and Sears' brigade, other dispositions being made to prevent the enemy from re-enforcing Murfreesborough, and in the event of evacuation to secure his defeat. Palmer's and Mercer's brigades ordered to strongly fortify themselves on Stewart's Creek, or at La Vergne, as General Forrest might deem best, "to constitute a force in observation of the enemy," and a brigade of cavalry to picket in the neighborhood of Lebanon.
December 10.--Generals Stewart's and Lee's corps retired their lines a short distance for the purpose of convenience to wood. No change otherwise. Reports received of the concentration of the enemy's cavalry at Edgefield, and General Forrest directed to meet and drive them back should the force attempt to cross the Cumberland River above. Circular issued to corps commanders directing the construction of self-supporting detached works--General Stewart to select all good points in rear of his left; General Cheatham, all good points in rear of his right; and General Lee, all good points in rear both of his right and left flanks, for the construction of these works.
December 11.--No change in the lines.
December 12.--No change to report. General Hood telegraphed to General Beauregard "for all available cavalry to be sent to this army as soon as Sherman completes his raid."
December 13 and 14.--No change in the line.
December 15.--The enemy attacked both of our flanks this morning about the same time, and was repulsed with heavy loss on our right, but toward evening he succeeded in driving in our infantry outposts on the left.
December 16.--A general attack was commenced early this morning on our entire line, and all the enemy's assaults repulsed with heavy loss, till 3.30 p.m., when our line suddenly gave way to the left of the center, causing in a few moments our lines to give way at all points, our troops retreating rapidly and in some 'confusion down the Franklin pike. The army camped all along the pike from Brentwood to and including Franklin. Army headquarters at Mrs. Maney's, near Franklin. General Forrest was advised through a staff officer (Captain Cooper) of the retreat of the army, and directed to make disposition of his troops for protecting it.
[Insert- from General George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “General Wilson's cavalry, dismounted, attacked the enemy simultaneously with Schofield and Smith, striking him in reverse, and gaining firm possession of the Granny White pike, cut off his retreat by that route. Wood's and Steedman's troops, hearing the shouts of victory coming from the right, rushed impetuously forward, renewing the assault on Overton's Hill, and although meeting a very heavy fire, the onset was irresistible, artillery and innumerable prisoners falling into our hands. The enemy, hopelessly broken, fled in confusion through the Brentwood Pass, the Fourth Corps in a close pursuit, which was continued for several miles, when darkness closed the scene and the troops rested from their labors. As the Fourth Corps pursued the enemy on the Franklin pike, General Wilson hastily mounted Knipe's and Hatch's divisions of his command, and directed them to pursue along the Granny White pike and endeavor to reach Franklin in advance of the enemy. After proceeding about a mile they came upon the enemy's cavalry, under Chalmers, posted across the road and behind barricades. The position was charged by the Twelfth Tennessee Cavalry, Colonel Spalding commanding, and the enemy's lines broken, scattering him in all directions and capturing quite a number of prisoners, among them Brig. Gen. E. W. Rucker.”]

[Insert from William T. Sherman writing to U.S. Grant on
December 16 from Savannah: “I myself am somewhat astonished at the attitude of things in Tennessee. I purposely delayed at Kingston until General Thomas assured me that he was all ready, and my last dispatch from him of the 12th of November was full of confidence, in which he promised me that he would ruin Hood if he dared to advance from Florence, urging me to go ahead, and give myself no concern about Hood’s army in Tennessee. Why he did not turn on him at Franklin, after checking and discomfiting him, surpasses my understanding. Indeed, I do not approve of his evacuating Decatur, but think he should have assumed the offensive against Hood from Pulaski, in the direction of Waynesburg, I know full well that General Thomas is slow in mind and in action; but he is judicious and brave, and the troops feel great confidence in him. I still hope he wiall outmaneuvre and destroy Hood.”]
December 17.--The march was continued toward Columbia--Stewart in front, Cheatham next, and Lee in the rear, with Chalmers' and Buford's cavalry. General Lee's rear harassed considerably by the enemy's cavalry near Spring Hill. Lieutenant-General Lee slightly wounded. The army camped between Franklin and Spring Hill in the order of march. Army headquarters at Spring Hill.
December 18.--Stewart's corps marched in front to-day, camping in line of battle on Duck River. Cheatham camped on Rutherford's Creek, and General Lee between the creek and Franklin. Army headquarters at Mr. Vaught's, Columbia.
[Insert- from George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “On the 18th the pursuit of the enemy was continued by General Wilson, who pushed on as far as Rutherford's Creek, three miles from Columbia. Wood's corps crossed to the south side of Harpeth River and closed up with the cavalry. The enemy did not offer to make a stand during the day. On arriving at Rutherford's Creek the stream was found to be impassable on account of high water, and running a perfect torrent.
 

larry_cockerham

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Columbia south to Alabama and Mississippi

December 19.--Army headquarters still at Mr. Vaught's. The army, and such trains and artillery as were not crossed over yesterday, occupied the day in crossing Duck River--Lee first, Cheatham next, and then Stewart. The enemy's cavalry appeared on opposite side of Rutherford's Creek.
[Insert – from General George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “During the 19th several unsuccessful efforts were made by the advanced troops to cross Rutherford's Creek, although General Hatch succeeded in lodging a few skirmishers on the south bank. The heavy rains of the preceding few days had inundated the whole country and rendered the roads almost impassable. Smith's and Schofield's commands crossed to the south side of Harpeth River, General Smith advancing to Spring Hill, whilst General Schofield encamped at Franklin”]
December 20.--Everything over the river this morning. The march was resumed on the Pulaski pike--Lee in front (Stevenson commanding), Cheatham next, and General Stewart in rear. General Forrest, with his cavalry and a division of infantry under command of Major-General Walthall (composed of Ector's, Strahl's, Maney's, Granbury's, and Palmer's brigades), directed to oppose the advance of the enemy's cavalry. General Stevenson's corps camped within two miles of Pulaski, and the other two corps in his rear, and in order of march. Army headquarters at Mr. Jones', Pulaski.
[Insert – from General George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “On the morning of the 20th General Hatch constructed a floating bridge from the debris of the old railroad bridge over Rutherford's Creek, and crossing his entire division pushed out for Columbia, but found, on reaching Duck River, the enemy had succeeded the night before in getting everything across, and had already removed his pontoon bridge; Duck River was very much swollen and impassable without a bridge.”]
December 21.--Army headquarters still at Mr. Jones', Pulaski. Stevenson's corps marched across Richland Creek and went into camp; Cheatham's and Stewart's corps camped on this side.
[Insert – from George H. Thomas Jan 20, 1865 report: “The weather had changed from dismal rain to bitter cold, very materially retarding the work in laying the bridge, as the regiment of colored troops to whom that duty was intrusted seemed to become unmanned by the cold and totally unequal to the occasion. On the completion of the bridge at Rutherford's Creek sufficient material for a bridge over Duck River was hastily pushed forward to that point, and the bridge constructed in time to enable Wood to cross late in the afternoon of the 22d and get into position on the Pulaski road, about two miles south of Columbia. The water in the river fell rapidly during the construction of the bridge, necessitating frequent alterations and causing much delay. The enemy, in his hasty retreat, had thrown into the stream several fine pieces of artillery, which were rapidly becoming uncovered, and were subsequently removed.”]

[Forrest and his cavalry, and such other detachments as had been sent off from his main army whilst besieging Nashville, had rejoined Hood at Columbia. He had formed a powerful rear guard, made up of detachments from all his organized force, numbering about 4,000 infantry, under General Walthall, and all his available cavalry, under Forrest. With the exception of his rear guard, his army had become a disheartened and disorganized rabble of half-armed and barefooted men, who sought every opportunity to fall out by the wayside and desert their cause to put an end to their sufferings. The rear guard, however, was undaunted and firm, and did its work bravely to the last.

During the 23d General Wilson was occupied crossing his command over Duck River, but took the advance on the 24th, supported by General Wood, and came up with the enemy just south of Lynnville, and also at Buford's Station, at both of which places the enemy made a short stand, but was speedily dislodged, with a loss in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Our advance was so rapid as to prevent the destruction of the bridges over Richland Creek. Christmas morning, the 25th, the enemy, with our cavalry at his heels, evacuated Pulaski, and was pursued toward Lamb's Ferry over an almost impracticable road and through a country devoid of subsistence for man or beast.]
December 22.--Army headquarters at Pulaski. Stevenson's corps was directed to move forward on the Lamb's Ferry road, in rear of the pontoon train, and camped about eight miles from Pulaski. General Stewart's corps camped in rear of Stevenson's about six miles from Pulaski, and General Cheatham's on Richland Creek, in the immediate vicinity of town. The wagon train ordered to move at daylight toward Bainbridge, by the Powell road.
December 23.--Army headquarters on Powell's Ferry road, six miles from Lexington, Ala. The army, after the day's march, camped as follows: Stevenson's corps at the intersection of the Lamb's Ferry road with the Powell road, four miles from Lexington; General Stewart in rear, on the Lamb's Ferry road; General Cheatham moved on the Lawrenceburg road.
December 24.--Army headquarters at Mr. Joiner's, eleven miles from Bainbridge, on the main Bainbridge road. Stevenson's corps reached and camped on Shoal Creek and Stewart's in his rear. General Cheat-ham not yet come into the main road from the Powell road.
[Insert- George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report. This must have been the battle with Forrest at Anthony’s Hill: “During the afternoon Harrison's brigade found the enemy strongly intrenched at the head of a heavily wooded and deep ravine, through which ran the road, and into which Colonel Harrison drove the enemy's skirmishers; he then waited for the remainder of the cavalry to close up before attacking; but before this could be accomplished the enemy, with something of his former boldness, sallied from his breast-works and drove back Harrison's skirmishers, capturing and carrying off one gun belonging to Battery I, Fourth U.S. Artillery, which was not recovered by us, notwithstanding the ground lost was almost immediately regained. By night-fall the enemy was driven from his position, with a loss of about 50 prisoners.”]
December 25.--Army headquarters at Bainbridge, on the Tennessee River. The pontoon was being laid across the river as rapidly as the arrival of the boats would allow. General Cheatham came into the main road this morning, and in rear of Stevenson's corps moved to the river, where a line covering the bridge was formed, Cheatham occupying the right and Stevenson the left. General Stewart's corps, upon arriving at the point where Cheatham's corps came into the main road, was put into position so as to protect both roads.
December 26 to January 2, 1865, inclusive.--The pontoon was completed by daylight on the 26th instant, and the army was occupied two days in crossing--Lee's and Cheatham's corps on the 26th, and Stewart's and the cavalry on the 27th. On the 28th the pontoon was withdrawn. The march was resumed, upon striking the Memphis and Charleston railroad, immediately down the road, in the order of crossing the river, to Burnsville, Miss., where, on the 31st, a circular was issued to corps commanders, directing further movements, as follows: "Lee's corps to move to Rienzi, on the Mobile and Ohio Railroad, Cheatham's corps to move to Corinth, and Stewart's corps to remain at Burnsville until further orders." Cheatham's corps arrived and established camps at Corinth on January 1, and Lee's and Stewart's corps at their respective destinations on January 2, 1865. Army headquarters were at Tuscumbia from the 26th to the 28th of December, inclusive. On the 29th General Hood, with Colonel Mason and his personal staff, remained during the day at the terminus of the railroad near Tuscumbia, awaiting the train, which did not arrive until late at night. He reached Burnsville on the evening of the 30th, remained there until the morning of the 2d of January, and from thence came by cars to Corinth. [28 Dec Hood’s trains passed through Leighton, 29 Dec Gen. Thomas abandoned pursuit]
TWO ARMIES ON THE SAME ROAD
CHAPTER II
As you have seen earlier in this document, much has been written concerning the travels and travails of the Army of Tennessee leading up to and including the retreat from the Battle of Nashville into North Alabama. In most references, the story stops at the Tennessee River on December 28, 1864. This broken, bloody, but still viable Confederate army was not completely beaten, just against the ropes. There was more war to be fought; they were not down for the count. There were still two armies, Blue and Gray, still traveling the same roads, often with fatal results. I believe that Whitfield Monroe Parker remained with the 63rd Virginia until the time of the battle at Bentonville before making his way on some mighty sore legs back to the green South Holston River Valley in the Wyndale community, a few miles south of Abingdon, Virginia. James Patterson Cockerham was to remain in service with the 10th Tennessee Cavalry until August 1865 when he returned to his family in the foothills of the Blue Ridge near Elkin in Wilkes County, North Carolina. It would have perhaps been better if these two and the half dozen or so others responsible for my presence on this earth had never left their homes in the Appalachian mountains. Duty did not allow that option.
Following is a series of chronological references taken from many sources, mostly official records or regimental histories.

The ITINERARY OF CHEATHAM’S CORPS was condensed from a journal kept by Major Henry Hampton. This outline of the movement of Cheatam’s Corps gives a good idea of the movement of the 63rd and 54th Virginia regiments between January and May 1865. Reorganized as the 54th Virginia, the men of the 63rd remained in LEE’S CORPS of the re-organized Army of Tennessee. The various Divisions and Corps of the Army of Tennessee moved generally on the same path through Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina and on to the end of the war in North Carolina. Many of the following notes are from that journal. The Journal of the Army of Tennessee, previously presented, stops with the crossing of the Tennessee River at Bainbridge, Alabama. Here is the rest of the story.

December 28, 1864 The Army of Tennessee completed their crossing of the Tennessee River at Bainbridge, Alabama and loaded their pontoons on wagons before heading off toward haven in Mississippi.
[Insert- General George H. Thomas Jan 20 1865 report: “General Wood's corps kept well closed up on the cavalry, camping on the night of December 25 six miles out from Pulaski, on the Lamb's Ferry road, and pursuing the same route as the cavalry, reached Lexington, Ala., thirty miles from Pulaski, on the 28th, on which date, having definitely ascertained that the enemy had made good his escape across the Tennessee at Bainbridge, I directed ****her pursuit to cease.”]
[The enemy's cavalry, under Roddey, was met at Leighton, with whom Colonel Palmer skirmished and pressed back in small squads toward the mountains. Here it was ascertained that Hood's trains passed through Leighton on the 28th of December and moved off toward Columbus, Miss. Avoiding the enemy's cavalry, Colonel Palmer left Leighton on the 31st of December, moved rapidly via La Grange and Russellville and by the Cotton-gin road, and overtook the enemy's pontoon train, consisting of 200 wagons and 78 pontoon-boats, when ten miles out from Russellville. This he destroyed. Having learned of a large supply train on its way to Tuscaloosa, Colonel Palmer started on the 1st of January toward Aberdeen, Miss., with a view of cutting it off, and succeeded in surprising it about 10 p.m. on the same evening, just over the line in Mississippi. The train consisted of 110 wagons and 500 mules, the former of which were burned, and the latter sabered or shot]
 

larry_cockerham

Southern Gentleman, Lest We Forget, 2011
Honored Fallen Comrade
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Anthony's Hill, Tennessee

One of these challenges was Anthony’s Hill just five miles down present-day highway 11. The infantry under General E.C. Walthall which included Palmer’s Brigade (that carried Private Whitfield Monroe Parker) and the cavalry of General N.B. Forrest noticed that this hill provided a natural cover to slow the advancing US 4th Cavalry under General James H. Wilson. The ensuing battle provided the capture of one of Gen. Wilson’s prize cannons and resulted in the deaths or wounding of at least 43 Confederates. The 63rd VA lost the services of Mitchell M. Bryant of Moccasin Gap, Virginia in that struggle. Mitchell had been reported in the Watts Hospital at Birmingham, AL back on 11 Nov 1864 a little over a month prior to his death. Much of this hearty little army under Walthall and Forrest must have been walking wounded who were four hundred miles from their homes in the Holston Valley and under the care of the only Confederate force left for their protection. Mitchell Bryant and 42 others lie at rest in the cemetery on Chestnut Grove Road adjacent to the Anthony Hill Church around the corner on Fall River Road. These men were buried soon after the battle by local residents and their graves were preserved on the Reynolds family farm. Identities of several of these Confederates have been preserved largely through the efforts of Tim Moore and Jim Burgess of Giles County, TN.
 

scone

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The road of High Hopes and sorrows..

Or as you call larry. " two armies on the same road"


Thank for sharing.

I recived my 140th franklin Re-enactment Dvd yesterday. The Documentary on the battle of franklin itself is a must see. Rob Hodge & Wide Awake have made another classic.

Although I didnt catch my self in any of the footage I did see several others in my unit. and people i know.

regards, Steven
 

larry_cockerham

Southern Gentleman, Lest We Forget, 2011
Honored Fallen Comrade
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Anthony's Hill "update"

Much of this hearty little army under Walthall and Forrest must have been walking wounded who were four hundred miles from their homes in the Holston Valley and under the care of the only Confederate force left for their protection. Over four hundred of these infantry serving in the rear guard action were considered as “ineffectives”. Whit Parker and Mitchell Bryant were probably in that number since both had previously been recorded receiving medical treatment for severe wounds.

Proving that he had compassion as well as grit, Forrest commandeered several supply wagons and dumped their low priority goods, thus making a place for the "ineffectives" to ride and stay with the column. Tim Morrison wrote that “these ‘ineffectives’ exhibited great bravery and determination in battle and responded to General Forrest's faith in them.

Mr. Tim Morrison has provided this local knowledge concerning Anthony’s Hill:

“Pvt. Bryant and 42 others lie at rest in the Chestnut Grove Cemetery on Anthony's Hill, almost on their battleground. These Confederate soldiers were buried soon after the battle by local residents. Many wounded in the ambush died later, but some were probably stragglers that could not retreat any further with the column and perished at Anthony's Hill. The Chestnut Grove Methodist Church, established in 1859, cared for these graves and collectively referred to them as the "old Confederates." From the 1950s and well into the 1990s, Houston Newton and "Mac" Reynolds (of African descent) cared for the cemetery and preserved the knowledge of these soldiers for the present generation. Mr. Newton was buried in the cemetery he so lovingly cared for in 1998. Mr. Reynolds is buried a short distance from Anthony's Hill in the local black cemetery. The Reynolds family still owns the land where the ambush took place on that Christmas Day. The well preserved road that led the Army of Tennessee to their destiny can still be walked. Identities of the sixteen Confederates were researched and recorded by Tim Burgess of Hendersonville, TN. Tim Morrison of Fayetteville, TN, discovered, coordinated, and directed the placement of 43 Confederate headstones that replaced primitive fieldstone markers and concrete blocks. These two men were joined by many other volunteers from multiple Sons of Confederate Veterans camps in marking, preserving, and honoring these fallen Confederate soldiers.
 

showmegal

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Columbia, Mo
Great info on Tenn sites! Hoping to head to Tenn and Georgia this summer. Am I right in remembering that Shy's Hill used to be called Compton's Hill? Blue and Gray magazine had a haunted places issue years ago that included a piece about Colonel Shy and his grave at his homeplace being vandalized. I think I remember it saying his iron coffin with a window over his face was displayed at the Carter House. Has anybody seen it? Also, is Shy's Hill easy to find from whatever interstate runs through Nashville? Thanks for any info !
 

scone

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Tennessee - From the "The City Between The Lakes"
Showmegal,

You are correct Compton's hill is Now known as Shys Hill. and Col. Shy's Coffin is in the Carter House Museum. Grave Robbers did the damage to his Coffin If I remember correctly. Be it vandels or grave robbers neither one is any worse than the other in my book and should all be hung on the spot.

I have been Shys hill and have seen the Coffin in the Carter house Museum ..

Shy hill is rather easy to get to from I-65..

Check out the Battle of Nashville Preservation societry website at
www.BONPS.org

And make sure you look under Bonps Feature section.


If I may be of any more help Just ask.

Regards, steven
 

showmegal

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Messages
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Location
Columbia, Mo
Thanks, Steven! Will probably pick your brain some more as trip gets closer! Is Shy's homeplace privately owned? Visiting his grave is probably out of the question. Do you know anything about Forrest's boyhood home? I think it's open to the public but am not sure.
 

scone

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Feb 20, 2005
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Location
Tennessee - From the "The City Between The Lakes"
'I'm not really sure of the location of the Shy Home. The Forrest boyhood home I think is open for tours. I havent been there myself but I beieve that Larry on the board here has been there..

The Sons of Confederate Veterans has a Forrest homecoming event in july this year . Larry may have some info on that as well.

Regards, Steven
 
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