Steam Locomotive Wheel Configurations

Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

Norm53

Sergeant
Joined
Feb 13, 2019
Messages
722
Location
Cape May, NJ

USS ALASKA

1st Lieutenant
Forum Host
Joined
Mar 16, 2016
Messages
4,492
4-2-4


1560520200363.png


Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-2-4 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two axles, two powered driving wheels on one axle, and four trailing wheels on two axles. This type of locomotive is often called a Huntington type.

The configuration was most often used for tank engines, which is noted by adding letter suffixes to the configuration, such as 4-2-4T for a conventional side-tank locomotive, 4-2-4ST for a saddle-tank locomotive, 4-2-4WT for a well-tank locomotive and 4-2-4RT for a rack-equipped tank locomotive.

This wheel arrangement was mainly used on various tank locomotive configurations. Eight 4-2-4 well- and back-tank locomotives which entered service on the Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1853 appear to have been the first with this wheel arrangement. The engine was designed by James Pearson, the railway company's engineer, and featured single large flangeless driving wheels between two supporting four-wheeled bogies. The water was carried in both well- and back-tanks, leaving the boilers exposed in the same way as on most tender locomotives.

United Kingdom
The first eight known 4-2-4 locomotives entered service on the broad gauge Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1853 and 1854, numbered in the range from 39 to 46. They had 9 feet (2,743 millimetres) diameter flangeless driving wheels, supported by leading and trailing two-axle bogies. The water was carried in both well- and back-tanks. Two more engines were built in 1859 and 1862, but with much smaller 7 feet 6 inches (2,286 millimetres) diameter driving wheels.


Between 1869 and 1873, new locomotives were built to replace four of the original 9 feet (2,743 millimetres) diameter driving wheeled engines, re-using the engine numbers of the locomotives being replaced. These four replacement engines had slightly smaller 8 feet 10 inches (2,692 millimetres) diameter driving wheels.

In 1881, this wheel arrangement was also used by the Great Western Railway on William Dean's experimental locomotive no. 9. Since it was so prone to derailing as to be unable to be moved from the workshops where it was built, it did no work and was rebuilt to a 2-2-2 tender locomotive in 1884. Dugald Drummond of the London and South Western Railway built a 4-2-4T F9 class combined locomotive and inspection saloon in 1899. It was little used after Drummond's death in 1912.

United States of America
The engine C.P. Huntington was one of three identical 4-2-4 tank locomotives. They were the first locomotives to be purchased by Southern Pacific Railroad in 1863, for use on light commuter services in the Sacramento area. The locomotives had serious shortcomings. The single driving axle did not carry the full weight of the engine's rear end due to the trailing truck and, in addition to being too light, it therefore lacked adhesion to reliably pull trains, especially on gradients. The short water tank on the Forney-type frame prevented the locomotives from traveling any moderate distance without consuming all of their water. As a result, these locomotives were only used when absolutely necessary.


In 1863, a sister engine, the T.D. Judah, was built by the Cooke Locomotive Works for a railroad which was unable to pay for it and was purchased by the Central Pacific Railroad. This locomotive was rebuilt to a 4-2-2 wheel arrangement in 1872.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-2-4T

1560520694028.png

https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/locomotive/images/4/47/295374616611e2a542a1b.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20170601040357

1560521044913.png

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/4-2-4_B&ER_44.jpg/1200px-4-2-4_B&ER_44.jpg
2696

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
 

rebelatsea

1st Lieutenant
Joined
Mar 30, 2013
Messages
4,385
Location
Kent ,England.
4-2-4


View attachment 311861

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 4-2-4 represents the wheel arrangement of four leading wheels on two axles, two powered driving wheels on one axle, and four trailing wheels on two axles. This type of locomotive is often called a Huntington type.

The configuration was most often used for tank engines, which is noted by adding letter suffixes to the configuration, such as 4-2-4T for a conventional side-tank locomotive, 4-2-4ST for a saddle-tank locomotive, 4-2-4WT for a well-tank locomotive and 4-2-4RT for a rack-equipped tank locomotive.

This wheel arrangement was mainly used on various tank locomotive configurations. Eight 4-2-4 well- and back-tank locomotives which entered service on the Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1853 appear to have been the first with this wheel arrangement. The engine was designed by James Pearson, the railway company's engineer, and featured single large flangeless driving wheels between two supporting four-wheeled bogies. The water was carried in both well- and back-tanks, leaving the boilers exposed in the same way as on most tender locomotives.

United Kingdom
The first eight known 4-2-4 locomotives entered service on the broad gauge Bristol and Exeter Railway in 1853 and 1854, numbered in the range from 39 to 46. They had 9 feet (2,743 millimetres) diameter flangeless driving wheels, supported by leading and trailing two-axle bogies. The water was carried in both well- and back-tanks. Two more engines were built in 1859 and 1862, but with much smaller 7 feet 6 inches (2,286 millimetres) diameter driving wheels.


Between 1869 and 1873, new locomotives were built to replace four of the original 9 feet (2,743 millimetres) diameter driving wheeled engines, re-using the engine numbers of the locomotives being replaced. These four replacement engines had slightly smaller 8 feet 10 inches (2,692 millimetres) diameter driving wheels.

In 1881, this wheel arrangement was also used by the Great Western Railway on William Dean's experimental locomotive no. 9. Since it was so prone to derailing as to be unable to be moved from the workshops where it was built, it did no work and was rebuilt to a 2-2-2 tender locomotive in 1884. Dugald Drummond of the London and South Western Railway built a 4-2-4T F9 class combined locomotive and inspection saloon in 1899. It was little used after Drummond's death in 1912.

United States of America
The engine C.P. Huntington was one of three identical 4-2-4 tank locomotives. They were the first locomotives to be purchased by Southern Pacific Railroad in 1863, for use on light commuter services in the Sacramento area. The locomotives had serious shortcomings. The single driving axle did not carry the full weight of the engine's rear end due to the trailing truck and, in addition to being too light, it therefore lacked adhesion to reliably pull trains, especially on gradients. The short water tank on the Forney-type frame prevented the locomotives from traveling any moderate distance without consuming all of their water. As a result, these locomotives were only used when absolutely necessary.


In 1863, a sister engine, the T.D. Judah, was built by the Cooke Locomotive Works for a railroad which was unable to pay for it and was purchased by the Central Pacific Railroad. This locomotive was rebuilt to a 4-2-2 wheel arrangement in 1872.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/4-2-4T

View attachment 311862
https://vignette.wikia.nocookie.net/locomotive/images/4/47/295374616611e2a542a1b.jpg/revision/latest?cb=20170601040357

View attachment 311863
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/e/e8/4-2-4_B&ER_44.jpg/1200px-4-2-4_B&ER_44.jpg
2696

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
Those big 4-2-4s look odd to our eyes, but they were very stable and very fast, averaging 60mph, and one was recorded at 83mph down Dainton bank (one of the big 4-4-0 saddle tanks achieved 88mph in the same place with the up Plymouth mails conveying urgent despatches during the ACW). The change in wheel diameter was in answer to increasing loads and to reduce the stress on the crank axle. These regularly achieved speeds must be seen against the background of the "standard gauge lines which were barely averaging 50mph at the time and speeds of 60 were considered excessive. Indeed some of Stephenson's engines, the so called long boilers were unstable at these speeds.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

USS ALASKA

1st Lieutenant
Forum Host
Joined
Mar 16, 2016
Messages
4,492
Those big 4-2-4s look odd to our eyes, but they were very stable and very fast, averaging 60mph, and one was recorded at 83mph down Dainton bank (one of the big 4-4-0 saddle tanks achieved 88mph in the same place with the up Plymouth mails conveying urgent despatches during the ACW). The change in wheel diameter was in answer to increasing loads and to reduce the stress on the crank axle. These regularly achieved speeds must be seen against the background of the "standard gauge lines which were barely averaging 50mph at the time and speeds of 60 were considered excessive. Indeed some of Stephenson's engines, the so called long boilers were unstable at these speeds
Those Brit 4-2-2s and 4-2-4s...the driver size is so impressive. Size envy!

Cheers!
USS ALASKA
 

USS ALASKA

1st Lieutenant
Forum Host
Joined
Mar 16, 2016
Messages
4,492
0-4-2

1561484716205.png

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0-4-2#/media/File:WheelArrangement_0-4-2.svg

Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-4-2 represents the wheel arrangement with no leading wheels, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles and two trailing wheels on one axle. While the first locomotives of this wheel arrangement were tender engines, the configuration was later often used for tank engines, which is noted by adding letter suffixes to the configuration, such as 0-4-2T for a conventional side-tank locomotive, 0-4-2ST for a saddle-tank locomotive, 0-4-2WT for a well-tank locomotive and 0-4-2RT for a rack-equipped tank locomotive. The arrangement is sometimes known as Olomana after a Hawaiian 0-4-2 locomotive of 1883.

The earliest recorded 0-4-2 locomotives were three goods engines built by Robert Stephenson and Company for the Stanhope and Tyne Railway in 1834.

The first locomotive built in Germany in 1838, the Saxonia, was also an 0-4-2. In the same year Todd, Kitson & Laird built two examples for the Liverpool and Manchester Railway, one of which, LMR 57 Lion, has been preserved. The Lion had a top speed of 45 miles per hour (72 kilometres per hour) and could pull up to 200 tons (203 tonnes).

Over the next quarter of a century, the type was adopted by many early British railways for freight haulage since it afforded greater adhesion than the contemporary 2-2-2 passenger configuration, although in time they were also used for mixed traffic duties.

From the mid-1860s onwards, the 0-4-2 wheel arrangement tended only to be used on tank engines in the United Kingdom. Exceptions were in Scotland on the Caledonian and Glasgow and South Western railways and in southern England on the London Brighton and South Coast Railway (LB&SCR) and the London and South Western Railway. The LB&SCR uniquely built express passenger 0-4-2 tender classes until 1891.

The Casper for South Fork and Eastern railroad used an locomotive number two "Daisey" an 1885 Baldwin 0-4-2T locomotive to haul its logging operations in its early days (Baldwin builder number 7558). That locomotive still survives and is on display next to the skunk train depot on Laurel Street in Fort Bragg. Viewing the locomotive is free to the public in the little mall next door to the train depot. There is also an 18 0-4-0t locomotive on display. That locomotive is California Western railroad locomotive number one (was assembled in 1875 by a smaller locomotive manufacture, but serial numbers on the frame point to the Baldwin locomotive works.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/0-4-2

1561485582873.png

https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3916/15082664669_e3089776f9_b.jpg

1561485681821.png

https://c1.staticflickr.com/1/150/392207834_ddc5eaee87_b.jpg

1561486211511.png

https://www.railpictures.net/images/d1/5/3/9/8539.1370980379.jpg
2832

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
 

USS ALASKA

1st Lieutenant
Forum Host
Joined
Mar 16, 2016
Messages
4,492
0-4-4

1563892207533.png


Under the Whyte notation for the classification of steam locomotives, 0-4-4 represents the wheel arrangement of no leading wheels, four powered and coupled driving wheels on two axles, and four trailing wheels on two axles. This type was only used for tank locomotives. In American cities, the type known as a Forney locomotive, was used on the narrow curves of elevated railways and other rapid transit lines. In the UK 0-4-4 tanks were mainly used for suburban or rural passenger duties.

The Forney is a type of tank locomotive patented by Matthias N. Forney between 1861 and 1864. Forney locomotives include the following characteristics:

  • An 0-4-4T (or 0-4-6T) wheel arrangement, that is four driving wheels followed by a truck with four (or six) wheels.
  • No flange on the second pair of driving wheels.
  • The fuel bunker and water tank placed over the four-wheel truck.

The locomotives were set up to run cab (or bunker) first, effectively as a 4-4-0 (or 6-4-0). The 4-4-0 wheel arrangement, with its three-point suspension, was noted for its good tracking ability, while the flangeless middle wheels allowed the locomotive to round tight curves. Placing the fuel and water over the truck rather than the driving wheels meant the locos had a constant adhesive weight, something other forms of tank locomotive did not. Large numbers of Forney locos were built for the surface and elevated commuter railroads that were built in cities such as New York, Chicago and Boston. These railroads required a small, fast locomotive that tracked well and could deal with tight curves. Their short runs meant the limited fuel and water capacity was not a problem, making the Forney ideal. However, as these railroads began to electrify or were replaced by subways at the end of the 19th century, Forneys began to disappear. Forneys were also popular on the 2 ft (610 mm) narrow gauge railroads of Maine. The use of these locomotives differed in that they were run smokestack leading, like a conventional locomotive, and all driving wheels were flanged. The latter resulted in Maine narrow gauge railroads having comparatively broad radius curves. Further developments included the introduction of locomotives with a leading pony truck, giving a 2-4-4 wheel arrangement. This was done to improve tracking ability in these locomotives. The 0-4-4T type was a precursor of other designs which may have drawn on the Forney, such as the Boston & Albany and Central of New Jersey 4-6-4T, which have been only called "tank engines". A similar locomotive was produced by the Mason Locomotive Works. The engines were three-foot gauge types 2-6-6T known as the "Mason Bogies." They were purchased in quantity by the Denver, South Park & Pacific Railroad. Unlike the Forneys, the Mason Bogies were actually articulated locomotives, whose boilers and fuel/water tanks were on the main frame and the engine was on a steam truck (hence the name "bogie")articulated to pivot beneath the boiler. Because the steam truck was articulated, the reach rod and reversing lever was positioned above well above the main frame earning the locomotives the nickname "sewing machines." (See: Mason Bogies.) Today, Forney locomotives can still be seen on Maine Narrow Gauge Railroad Museum and at the Forney Transportation Museum. The No. 3 and No. 5 locomotives on the Disneyland Railroad were originally built as Forneys, but are now 2-4-4T Boston-type locomotives.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Forney_locomotive

1563892682087.png

http://www.trainsarefun.com/lirr/lirr engines/tank-forney/0-4-4-T Forney Nos. 159-158-at Baldwin Loco Wks-05-1892.JPG

1563892756117.png

http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-WC8MkNAzEQg/T3vy9Yr5rSI/AAAAAAAAGQM/C3HspEmOJyI/s1600/RREngineKCRR.jpg

1563892857830.png

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Clapham_Stewarts_Lane_Locomotive_Depot_ex-SE&C_0-4-4T_geograph-2688016-by-Ben-Brooksbank.jpg
2991

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

USS ALASKA

1st Lieutenant
Forum Host
Joined
Mar 16, 2016
Messages
4,492
2-4-4

1565442763011.png


In Whyte notation, a 2-4-4, or Boston-type, is a steam locomotive with two unpowered leading wheels followed by four powered driving wheels and four unpowered trailing wheels.

This unusual wheel arrangement does not appear to have been used on the mainline railways in the UK. It was however one of the configurations used on the Mason Bogie articulated locomotives, in the USA during the 1870s and 1880s. Five examples were constructed at the Mason Machine Works for the narrow gauge Boston, Revere Beach and Lynn Railroad 1883-1887. The railway subsequently received twenty-one further examples between 1900 and 1914, constructed by the Taunton Locomotive Manufacturing Company, Manchester Locomotive Works, and ALCO. Developmentally, there are two logical ways of reaching this wheel formula: to add a forward axle to a Forney locomotive to improve its ability to negotiate curves, or to add a second trailing axle to a Columbia design, notably in a 2-4-4(T) configuration to expand its coal capacity.

Four 2-4-4T passenger locomotives were built by the Czechoslovak Škoda for Lithuania in 1932 and marked as Tk class. They were seized by the USSR in 1940, then by the Germans.[1] One was used after World War II in Poland as the OKf100-1 until 1950.[2]

Other tank locomotives with 2-4-4T arrangement:

  • Bavarian D XII
  • French T5 6601 - 6637 of AL railway
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/2-4-4

1565443085551.png


1565443327274.png

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mason_Bogie#/media/File:BRBL_6_Bldr.jpg

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!
Top