Carnegie had enough trouble managing free workers. No one ever tried to institute slavery after the war.\n\nI don't see how you can say that. It is true that the hereditary, open market\/personal title slavery practiced during the antebellum period had ceased to exist, but that was replaced by post Civil War laws in the south that attempted to maintain slavery in all but name. Additionally we have numerous horrific examples of massive industrial scale slavery that took place in Germany, the Soviet Union, communist China, and Cambodia. Slavery still exists to this date as human trafficking and other forms. I'm not trying to expand the discussion outside of a historical scope and into modern times; I'm only trying to point out that brutish regimes have successfully employed slavery for use beyond agriculture. So, I really don't see any reason to believe that the western CSA states wouldn't have employed African slavery for mining purposes or that they would have been unsuccessful in that endeavor... as awful as it would have been.