Bermuda Hundred Sesquicentennial: The Bermuda Hundred Campaign

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
Army Transports

Vessels listed in Wise to Meigs, 19 Apr 64, on p. 419 of Gibson & Gibson, Assault and Logistics

Name; Type; Tonnage; Est. Capacity; Dictionary Page; Notes
Ajax; Tug; ?; ?; p. 9; --
Brayerly; Propeller; 170t.; 200; p. 40; --
Champion; Sidewheel; 309t.; 600; p. 53; or 441t or 550t.
[Daniel?] Wallace; Propeller; 190t.; 200; p. 79; steam barge?
Delan[e]y; Tug; ?; ?; p. 83; --
Edward Palmer; Tug; 45t.; ?; p. 95; --
Emma; Propeller; 185t.; 200; p. 103; or 125t. (Graham's Bde)
Favorite; Sidewheel; 350t.; 300; p. 114; --
George B. Hutchings; Tug; 51t.; ?; p. 130; --
George Weems; Sidewheel; 440t.; 800; p. 132; or 447t.
Highland Light; Sidewheel; 291t.; 600; p. 150; --
John A. Warner; Sidewheel; 600t.; 1,200; p. 177; or 520-527 t.
Kent; Sidewheel; 281t.; 400; p. 189; or 265 t.
Keyport; Sidewheel; 350t.; 350; p. 189; --
Kingston; Sidewheel; 400t.; 500; p. 190; or 218t. or 260t.
Leader; Propeller; 200t.; 200; p. 196; or 182t.
Mary Freeman; Tug; ?; ?; p. 218; --
Matilda; Sidewheel; 700t.; 1,500; p. 220; or 707t.
Mayflower [1]; Propeller; 200t.; 300; p. 221; or 205t. or 215t.
Mayflower [2]; Sidewheel?; 220t.; 350; p. 222; or 274t. or 350t. [Listed as propeller in Wise to Meigs]
Pioneer; Sidewheel; 256t.; 500; p. 256; or 260t. or 295t.
Planter; Sidewheel; 400t.; 800; p. 257; or 386t. Became hospital ship. (Not same as Robert Smalls' Planter.)
Portsmouth; Sidewheel; 400t.; 500; p. 260; or 263t.
Rebecca Barton; Propeller; 350t.; 400; p. 268; --
Rockland; Sidewheel; 300t.; 350; p. 275; or 199t. or 231t.
Sallie M. Bishop; Tug; 120t.; ?; p. 284; --
T. H. Vetterlein; Tug; 50t.; ?; p. 308; propeller
Tallaca; Sidewheel; 400t.; 600; p. 309; ex-ferryboat
Tempest; Tug; 86t.; ?; p. 310; --
Thomas Jefferson; Sidewheel; 400t.; 500; p. 313; or 328-329 t. [Supposition; could be Jefferson, p. 174]
Winonah; Sidewheel; 600t. 1,000; p. 343; or 621t.
Wyoming; Sidewheel; 400t.; 500; p. 344; or 383t.

plus 50 canal barges carrying 150 men each, towed by steam tugs = 7,500 men

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
Oh... and for you grognards out there, I couldn't resist:



Forum Host
Feb 7, 2006
Midlothian, VA

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
Order of Battle: Confederate States Navy

(Although ultimately the Confederate Navy played almost no role in the Bermuda Hundred campaign per se, it was an item to consider for Federal planners.)

From Secretary Mallory's report of April 30, 1864:

Vessels in Commission, James River, under command of Flag-Officer French Forrest:

  • Richmond, ironclad sloop, 4 guns, Commander R. B. Pegram.
  • Hampton, steam gunboat, 2 guns, First Lieutenant J. S. Maury.
  • Nansemond, steam gunboat, 2 guns, First Lieutenant J. H. Rochelle.
  • Beaufort, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant E. J. Means.
  • Raleigh, steam gunboat, 2 guns, Lieutenant M. T. Clarke.
  • School-ship Patrick Henry, 4 guns, under command of Lieutenant William H. Parker.
  • Tender Drewry, Master L. Parrish.
  • Steamer Torpedo, 1 gun, Lieutenant-Commander Davidson, in charge of submarine batteries.

Vessels Under Construction, Richmond:

  • The steam sloops Fredericksburg and Virginia, completed and now awaiting their armaments, which are nearly ready.
  • Two ironclad steam sloops under construction, planked up and decks laid, and working on shields; machinery for one completed.
  • Four torpedo boats under construction.

Drewry's Bluff:

The demand for seamen to man the vessels of the Navy has compelled the withdrawal of the seamen heretofore stationed at Drewry's Bluff, and the transfer of that post to the Marine Corps.

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
Order of Battle: United States Navy

(Many more vessels than this were assigned to the North Atlantic Blockading Squadron, in whose operational area the Bermuda Hundred Campaign occurred, but these are vessels known to have had some connection with the campaign...)

Malvern, Flagship, 4

Canonicus, Canonicus-class monitor, 2
Saugus, Canonicus-class monitor, 2
Tecumseh, Canonicus-class monitor, 2
Onondaga, Twin-turret monitor, 4
Atlanta, Ironclad ram, 4

Chicopee, Double-ender gunboat, 8
Mackinaw, Double-ender gunboat, 8
Mendota, Double-ender gunboat, 8
Osceola, Double-ender gunboat, 8
Otsego, Double-ender gunboat, 8

Pequot, Screw gunboat, 7

Commodore Jones, Converted gunboat, 6
Commodore Morris, Converted gunboat, 4
Dawn, Converted gunboat, 2
Delaware, Converted gunboat, 3
Eutaw, Converted gunboat, 8
General Putnam (William G. Putnam), Converted gunboat, 2
Hunchback, Converted gunboat, 6
Morse, Converted gunboat, 6
Mystic, Converted gunboat, 5
Shawsheen, Converted gunboat, 3
Shokokon, Converted gunboat, 5
Stepping Stones, Converted gunboat, 5

Coliasset, Steam tug
Hydrangea, Steam tug
Poppy, Steam tug
Rose, Steam tug
Snowdrop, Steam tug
Young America, Steam tug

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
Being a big-picture type, I always like to start at the top and work down... so, asking the patience of those already intimately familiar with these operations, I'll start with a summary of the strategic picture in the spring of 1864...


What became the Bermuda Hundred Campaign was one part of Grant's overall strategy in the East in 1864. Utilizing the military principle of concentration in time, and taking full advantage of the Union's superior numbers and logistics to counterbalance the South's positional advantage (interior lines), major units were to strike separated objectives simultaneously, with an intended cumulative effect. While the largest body of troops, the Army of the Potomac, engaged the Army of Northern Virginia, an army under Franz Sigel, acting as a detached right wing, was to move up the Shenandoah Valley, both to block it as an avenue of approach to Washington and to deny the resources of the Valley to the ANV. Butler's Army of the James, acting as a detached left wing, was to move up the James River to threaten Richmond and the supply lines to the south. The intended result would have been a broadly converging operation among the three principal members, with the ultimate goal the destruction of the ANV.

As we know from this end of history, a variety of things happened to frustrate many aspects of this plan, though (in the broadest sense) it ultimately succeeded... though not on the originally-envisaged timeline, or (in terms of the detached wings) with the same commanding officers.

(By the way, I wonder if Grant played chess. Pinning the "queen" (the ANV) while attempting to place the "king" (Richmond) in check is certainly good chess strategy.)
Last edited:


Dec 13, 2009
New Hampshire

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
150 years ago today (1 May): Side-wheelers USS Morse, Lieutenant Commander Babcock, and USS General Putnam, Acting Master Hugh H. Savage, convoyed 2,500 Army troops up the York River to West Point, Virginia, where the soldiers were landed under the ships' guns and occupied the town. Another side-wheel steamer, USS Shawsheen, Acting Master Henry A. Phelon, joined the naval forces later in the day and operated with General Putnam in the Pamunkey River "for covering our troops and resisting any attack which might be made by the enemy." Morse patrolled the Mattapony River where, Babcock reported, "my guns would sweep the whole plain before the entrenchments."

This move up the York was a feint intended to keep the Confederates guessing about Union intentions in the lower Chesapeake region. The military build-up was impossible to conceal, so Butler and company tried a bit of misdirection. It alarmed some in Richmond, but others (Lee included) appear to have (accurately) continued to regard the James River as the most likely axis of Union operations.

Mark F. Jenkins

Member of the Year
Mar 31, 2012
Central Ohio
I'm pretty sure by that he meant no "eccentric" campaigns that didn't directly support the principal efforts of the Union military (example: continuing to campaign against Charleston SC). This was tied into the overall spring strategy in the East.


2nd Lieutenant
Jan 31, 2013
Tampa, Fl
I'm pretty sure by that he meant no "eccentric" campaigns that didn't directly support the principal efforts of the Union military (example: continuing to campaign against Charleston SC). This was tied into the overall spring strategy in the East.

yankee hoorah

First Sergeant
Feb 21, 2014
Order of Battle: Confederate Army

Confederate Forces: Gen. Pierre G. T. Beauregard

Ransom’s Division: Maj. Gen. Robert Ransom, Jr.
  • Gracie’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Archibald Gracie, Jr.
    • 41st Alabama Infantry: Lt. Col. Theodore G. Trimmier
    • 43rd Alabama Infantry: Col. Young M. Moody
    • 59th Alabama Infantry: Lt. Col. John D. McLennan
    • 60th Alabama Infantry: Col. John W. A. Sanford
    • 23rd Alabama Battalion (Sharpshooters): Maj. Nicholas Stallworth
  • Kemper’s Brigade: Col. William R. Terry
    • 1st Virginia Infantry: Maj. George F. Norton
    • 7th Virginia Infantry: Col. Charles C. Floweree
    • 11th Virginia Infantry: Col. Kirkwood Otey
    • 24th Virginia Infantry: Lt. Col. Richard L. Maury
  • Barton’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Seth M. Barton; (5/11/64) Col. Birkett D. Fry
    • 9th Virginia Infantry: Col. James J. Phillips
    • 14th Virginia Infantry: Col. William White
    • 38th Virginia Infantry: Col. Joseph R. Cabell; (5/10/64) Col. George K. Griggs
    • 53rd Virginia Infantry: Col. William R. Aylett
    • 57th Virginia Infantry: Col. Clement R. Fontaine
  • Hoke’s Brigade: Col. Willam G. Lewis
    • 6th North Carolina Infantry: Lt. Col. Samuel M. Tate
    • 21st North Carolina Infantry: Maj. William J. Pfohl
    • 43rd North Carolina Infantry: Col. Thomas S. Kenan
    • 54th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Kenneth Murchinson
    • 57th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Archibald C. Godwin
    • 21st Georgia Infantry: Col. Thomas W. Hooper
  • Artillery
    • Surry (Va) Light Artillery (Hankin’s Battery): Capt. James D. Hankins
    • 2nd Nelson (Va) Artillery (Rive’s Battery): Capt. J. Henry Rives
    • Caroline (Va) Battery (Thornton’s Battery): Capt. Thomas R. Thornton
  • Cavalry
    • 5th South Carolina Cavalry: Col. John Dunovant

Hoke’s Division: Maj. Gen. Robert F. Hoke
  • Corse’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Montgomery Corse
    • 15th Virginia Infantry: Lt. Col. Emmett M. Morrison
    • 17th Virginia Infantry: Lt. Col. Arthur Herbert
    • 18th Virginia Infantry: Maj. George C. Cabell
    • 29th Virginia Infantry: Col. James Giles
    • 30th Virginia Infantry: Col. Archibald T. Harrison
  • Clingman’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Thomas Clingman
    • 8th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Henry M. Shaw
    • 31st North Carolina Infantry: Col. John V. Jordan
    • 51st North Carolina Infantry: Col. Hector McKethan
    • 61st North Carolina Infantry: Col. James D. Radcliffe
  • Johnson’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Bushrod Johnson
    • 17th/23rd Tennessee Infantry: Col. Richard H. Keeble
    • 25th/44th Tennessee Infantry: Col. John S. Fulton
    • 63rd Tennessee Infantry: Col. Abraham Fulkerson
  • Hagood’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Johnson Hagood
    • 11th South Carolina Infantry: Col. F. Hay Gantt
    • 21st South Carolina Infantry: Col. Robert F. Graham
    • 25th South Carolina Infantry: Lt. Col. John G. Pressley
    • 27th South Carolina Infantry: Col. Peter C. Galliard
    • 7th South Carolina Battalion: Maj. James H. Rion
  • Artillery: Lt. Col. Benjamin F. Eshleman
    • 1st Company, Washington Artillery: Capt. Edward Owen
    • 2nd Company, Washington Artillery: Capt. John B. Richardson
    • 3rd Company, Washington Artillery: Capt. Andrew Hero, Jr.
    • 4th Company, Washington Artillery: Capt. Joseph Norcom
    • Payne’s Battery (improvised, manned by Johnson’s Brigade)
  • Cavalry
    • 3rd North Carolina Cavalry: Col. John A. Baker

Colquitt’s Division: Brig. Gen. Alfred H. Colquitt
  • Colquitt’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Alfred H. Colquitt; (5/15/64 – 5/16/64) Col. John T. Lofton
    • 6th Georgia Infantry: Col. John T. Lofton; (5/15/64 – 5/16/64) Lt. Col. William M. Anderson
    • 19th Georgia Infantry: Col. James H. Neal
    • 23rd Georgia Infantry: Col. Marcus R. Ballenger
    • 27th Georgia Infantry (arrived 5/20/64): Lt. Col. James Gardner
    • 28th Georgia Infantry (at Petersburg): Capt. Tully Graybill
  • Ransom’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Matthew W. Ransom; (5/14/64) Col. William J. Clarke; (5/15/64) Col. Henry M. Rutledge
    • 24th North Carolina Infantry: Col. William J. Clarke; (5/14/64) Lt. Col. John L. Harris
    • 25th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Henry M. Rutledge; (5/15/64) Lt. Col. John L. Harris
    • 35th North Carolina Infantry: Col. John G. Jones
    • 49th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Leroy M. McAfee
    • 56th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Paul F. Faison
  • Artillery
    • Richmond Fayette Artillery (Macon’s Battery): Capt. Miles C. Macon
    • Richmond (Va) Battery (Martin’s Battery): Capt. S. Taylor Martin
    • Macon (Ga) Battery (Slaten’s Battery): Capt. C. W. Slaten
  • Cavalry
    • 7th South Carolina Cavalry: Col. William P. Shingler

Whiting’s Division: Maj. Gen. William H. C. Whiting
  • Wise’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. Henry A. Wise
    • 26th Virginia Infantry: Col. Powhatan R. Page
    • 34th Virginia Infantry: Col. John T. Goode
    • 46th Virginia Infantry: Col. Randolph Harrison
    • 59th Virginia Infantry: Col. William B. Tabb
  • Martin’s Brigade: Brig. Gen. James G. Martin
    • 17th North Carolina Infantry: Col. William F. Martin
    • 42nd North Carolina Infantry: Col. John E. Brown
    • 66th North Carolina Infantry: Col. Alexander D. Moore

(Working on cavalry and artillery... there seem to be some discrepancies here... will edit/post when I have them straightened out...)
Is the 23rd SC in there ?
They saw action at Bermuda Hundred.
Ifit is my appoligies.
23rd South Carolina infantry Col Henry L Benbow