★ ★  Scott, Winfield

Winfield Scott

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Scott 3.jpg


Born: June 13, 1786

Birthplace: Laurel Hill Plantation, Petersburg, Virginia

Father: Captain William Scott 1747 – 1791

Mother: Ann Mason 1747 – 1802

Wife: Maria DeHart Mayo 1789 – 1862
(Buried: U.S. Military Academy Post Cemetery, West Point, New York)​

Children:

Maria Mayo Scott 1818 – 1833​
(Buried: U.S. Military Academy Post Cemetery, West Point, New York)​
John Mayo Scott 1819 – 1820​
(Buried: Montpelier Estate National Historic Site, Montpelier, Virginia)​
Virginia “Sister May Emmanuel” Scott 1821 – 1845​
(Buried: Georgetown Visitation Monastery, Washington, D.C.)​
Edward Winfield Scott 1823 – 1827​
(Buried: Montpelier Estate National Historic Site, Montpelier, Virginia)​
Cornelia Winfield Scott 1824 – 1885​
(Buried: New Cathedral Cemetery, Baltimore, Maryland)​
Adeline Camilla Scott Hoyt 1831 – 1882​
(Buried: Kensico Cemetery, Valhalla, New York)
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Marcella “Ella” Scott MacTavish 1833 – 1909​
(Buried: Basilica di San Lorenzo fuouri le Mura, Rome, Italy)​

Education:

Attended College at the College of William and Mary​
Studied law under Attorney David Robinson​

Occupation before War:

Attended the trial of Aaron Burr who was accused of treason​
Developed a negative opinion of General James Wilkinson​
Served as a Corporal in Virginia State Militia Cavalry​
Served in the Chesapeake – Leopard Affair​
Attempted to Practice law in South Carolina unable to obtain license
Scott 2.jpg
1808 – 1812: Captain United States Army​
1810: Court Martialed for his remarks about General Wilkinson​
1810: His Commission was suspended for one year​
1810: Fought a duel with William Upshaw​
1810 – 1811: Studied Military Tactics and Strategy in Virginia​
1812 – 1813: Lt. Colonel, United States Army​
1812: Served in the Invasion of Canada under Van Rensselear​
1812: Captured at the Battle of Queenston Heights, Canada​
1812: Prisoner of War, held by the British Army​
1813 – 1814: Colonel in United States Army​
1813: Served in the Battle of Fort George, Ontario​
1814 – 1847: Brigadier General in United States Army​
1814: Served in the Invasion of Canada​
1814: Served in the Battle of Chippawa, Canada​
1814: Wounded during the Battle of Lundy’s Lane​
1814: Brevetted Major General for his gallantry at Chippawa
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1814: Recipient of Congressional Gold Medal​
United States Army Commander of Maryland and Northern Virginia​
Member of the Board for demobilizing the United States Army​
United States Army Commander of Northeastern Department​
1821: Asked to be relieved of his commander after reorganization​
1832: Ordered by Pres. Jackson to take command in Black Hawk War​
1832: Traveled to Charleston, South Carolina during Nullification​
1835: Ordered by President to take command against Seminoles​
1835: Author of Infantry Tactics or Rules​
1835 – 1855: His Manual was used by the United States Army​
Opposed the thinking of Edmund Gaines and Andrew Jackson​
1836: Served as Commander during Creek War​
1838: Commander for the removal of Cherokee from Southeastern United States​
1837: Dispatched to Western New York to prevent border crossings​
1839: Unsuccessful Candidate for 1840 Whig Nomination​
1841 – 1861: Major General of United States Army​
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1841 – 1861: Commanding General of United States Army​
1844: Unsuccessful Candidate for Whig Party Presidential Nomination​
1846 – 1848: Commander U.S. Army during Mexican – American War​
Agreed on a plan with Secretary of War to capture Northern Mexico​
Drew up a plan that would bring a naval assault on the Gulf​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Siege of Vera Cruz, Mexico​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Cerro Gordo, Mexico​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Contreras, Mexico​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Churubusco, Mexico​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Mexico City, Mexico​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Molino del Rey​
1847: Commander of U.S. Army at the Battle of Chapultepec, Mexico​
1847: Accepted the Surrender of the Mexican Army on Sept. 14th
1848: Unsuccessful Candidate for Whig Party Presidential Nomination​
1850: Advocate for the Passage of the Compromise of 1850​
1852: Unsuccessful Whig Party Presidential Candidate​
Often Clashed with Secretary of War Davis over travel expenses​
1855: Brevetted Lt. General in United States Army​
1859: Assigned settle dispute with Great Britain over San Juan Islands​
1860: Convinced President to resupply D.C., Fort Sumter, Fort Pickens​

Civil War Career:

1841 – 1861: Major General of United States Army​
1841 – 1861: Commanding General of United States Army​
1860: Sick from the effects of Protracted Diarrhea​
1861: Advised President Lincoln to evacuate the Forts in the south​
1861: Advised President Lincoln to Offer Robert E. Lee Command​
1861: Author of the Anaconda Plan to the Win the Civil War​
1861: General Scott felt McDowell was to inexperience to command​
1861: Submitted his resignation from United States Army in October​
1861: Supporter of Henry Halleck as his successor as Commander​

Occupation after Resignation:

Traveled to Europe with his daughter Cornelia​
Helped Thurlow Weed defuse the Trent Affair in Paris, France​
1861 – 1866: Suffered from vertigo, gout and dropsy​
1861 – 1866: Lived alone in New York City and West Point, New York​
1861 – 1866: Author of his Memoirs of his service in the U.S. Army​
1862: President Lincoln accepted his advice with Promoting Halleck​
1864 – 1865: General Grant used a plan like the Anaconda Plan
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1866: President Johnson Ordered flags flown half-staff Scott’s death​

Died: May 29, 1866

Place of Death: West Point, New York

Cause of Death: Bad Health

Age at time of Death: 79 years old

Burial Place: U.S. Military Academy Post Cemetery, West Point, New York
 
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Cavalier

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jul 20, 2019
A fascinating historical character who had a really impressive career in my opinion.

I believe the old character actor Sydney Greenstreet played him in the movie They Died With Their Boots On. Even beyond their size there is kind of a resemblance.

He looks like the kind of guy whose merest hint of criticism could be a stinging rebuke. If I remember correctly he once referred to future General Israel B. Richardson as "Fighting Dick", which would seem to be quite a compliment coming from him.

Thanks for posting this gentlemanrob

John
 

jackt62

Captain
Joined
Jul 28, 2015
Location
New York City
I've recently finished reading a biography of Winfield Scott. The author's main premise is that Scott "professionalized" the US Army by attempting to transform it from its early militia, "minuteman" origins into a disciplined and career military that would be the core of any American fighting force. Scott managed to do this with the regular army but political resistance meant that it would not be given sufficient resources and manpower to overcome the need for a voluntary army of citizens to meet the needs in times of major crisis. That was the case in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American wars throughout the 19th century.
 

KianGaf

First Sergeant
Joined
May 29, 2019
Location
Dublin, Ireland
I've recently finished reading a biography of Winfield Scott. The author's main premise is that Scott "professionalized" the US Army by attempting to transform it from its early militia, "minuteman" origins into a disciplined and career military that would be the core of any American fighting force. Scott managed to do this with the regular army but political resistance meant that it would not be given sufficient resources and manpower to overcome the need for a voluntary army of citizens to meet the needs in times of major crisis. That was the case in the Mexican, Civil, and Spanish-American wars throughout the 19th century.
Somebody had to do it. After the Bladensburg disaster militia as a mainstay source of defence wouldnt cut it.
 

Luke Freet

Sergeant Major
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Location
Palm Coast, Florida
Was it him or Taylor in charge in Mexico. I know Scott took the surrender of Mexico City but was he in total charge of the campaign??
I think he was the commander in chief in Mexico, but both had equal footing, in some sense. But Scott was given priority for his landing in Vera Cruz and his march to Mexico City. Its too broad a front for him to control everyone, so Zachary Taylor, and Stephen Kearny in California, were basically operating independently.
 

KianGaf

First Sergeant
Joined
May 29, 2019
Location
Dublin, Ireland
I think he was the commander in chief in Mexico, but both had equal footing, in some sense. But Scott was given priority for his landing in Vera Cruz and his march to Mexico City. Its too broad a front for him to control everyone, so Zachary Taylor, and Stephen Kearny in California, were basically operating independently.

Id say the lines of communication had a big influence on the command structure. It’s an interesting war. It’s probably the last American war of “limited” loses on the field in comparison to the upcoming ACW. The huge loss of life make some battles in the ACW difficult to study , while remaining very interesting in a historical sense.
 

Luke Freet

Sergeant Major
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Location
Palm Coast, Florida
Id say the lines of communication had a big influence on the command structure. It’s an interesting war. It’s probably the last American war of “limited” loses on the field in comparison to the upcoming ACW. The huge loss of life make some battles in the ACW difficult to study , while remaining very interesting in a historical sense.
Somewhat, though I attribute it more to the sizes of the armies involved. I believe Scott's force had no more than 20K men. Taylor meanwhile had just 5K at Beuna Vista.
 

jackt62

Captain
Joined
Jul 28, 2015
Location
New York City
Was it him or Taylor in charge in Mexico. I know Scott took the surrender of Mexico City but was he in total charge of the campaign??
President James Polk made a decision to downgrade Taylor's victories in northern Mexico at the start of the war, fearing him as a political opponent in a future election. (Although Polk decided not to run again, Taylor did indeed win the next presidency.) To do so, Polk backed Scott's expeditionary force, thinking Scott a less formidable political enemy. As things turned out, Scott's bold decision to land at Vera Cruz and strike directly to the heart of the Mexican capitol, was the event that ended the war in America's favor. By the time Scott arrived in Mexico, Taylor's campaign was pretty much over.
 

WScott

Private
Joined
May 6, 2021
My first exposure to Winfield Scott was when I began studying the War of 1812 many years ago. I was impressed with his military skills, tenacity and aggressiveness, bordering on suicide. During the Battle of Lundy's Lane Scott lead an attack across the front of the American line to assault the left flank of the British. An American victory, Winfield Scott was wounded at Lundy's Lane but demonstrated his leadership and became an American hero.
Thank You BronxYankee for your tribute to one of our Greats!
 
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