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Reluctant Rebs & "Homegrown Yanks": East Tennesseans in the Civil War

Discussion in 'Civil War History - General Discussion' started by east tennessee roots, Dec 5, 2016.

  1. leftyhunter

    leftyhunter Major

    May 27, 2011
    los angeles ca
    From the book "Lincolnites and Rebels a Divided Town in the American Civil War" Robert McKenzie Oxford University Press p.229 their is a great deal of detail on how and why Unionist and Confederate animosity died down and in 1890 both Unionist and Confederate veterans organization had a three day reconciliation party in Knoxville in 1890.
    Essentially both sides couldn't win through violence and they united on their mutual hatred of black people.
    subetei and bdtex like this.

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  3. John Hartwell

    John Hartwell Captain Forum Host

    Aug 27, 2011
    Central Massachusetts
    And, all over the Union East Tennessee Relief Committees were hard at work. Donations of food, clothing, and money poured in. Rich men gave hundreds of dollars, schoolchildren pooled their pennies, Ladies Sewing Clubs made clothing, and all gave freely. Here's a report from one of them: the East Tennessee Relief Association, from the Boston Daily Advertiser, 19 September 1864.
    leftyhunter likes this.
  4. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    "They are the meanest men I ever saw"


    John K. Miller: Colonel of the Union 13th Tennessee Cavalry

    A prominent Union regiment from east Tennessee was the hard-riding 13th TN Cavalry, the regiment that killed John Hunt Morgan. In May,1864 elements of the 13th were sent to Gallatin, Tn. by Andrew Johnson to seek and destroy the Rebel guerrilla Ellis Harper and his gang. While there the "home-Yankees" encountered a "Contraband" camp. In the regimental history of the 13th, the authors, Samuel Angel and Samuel Scott unashamedly stated, "they had known the colored man only as a slave, and had lost little sleep over him in any way. They were not fighting to free the slave, but to restore the Union". Other Northern Soldiers had made efforts to educate the Contraband that had gathered in Gallatin. This didn't set well with some members of the 13th. A number of the men acquired walking sticks. If the Contraband did not yield the sidewalk to them, they ran the risk of a good thrashing It became common for black folk to leave the area altogether, when a member of the 13th was anywhere near. A 16 year-old resident of Gallatin, Alice Williamson wrote in her diary, "A regiment of east Tennesseans have come to hold this post. They are the meanest men I ever saw, but they have one good trait. They make the Negros walk a chalk". That same night the school in the Contraband camp was burned down.

    Source : "The Dreaded Thirteenth Tennessee Union Cavalry" by Melanie Storie

    The Union 8th, 9th, and 13th Tennessee Cavalry were part of the Union force during General George Stoneman's raid through east Tennessee, s.w.Virginia, and western North Carolina in April,1865. Their Brigadier and fellow east Tennessean, Alvin Gillem, had nothing but utter contempt for Confederate Home-Guard units, his men gleefully unleashing their Spencers on Rebels, young or old.

    They met unsuspecting resistance at Morganton, in Burk County,NC. Some of these were the same young Rebs that had foolishly and bravely charged into the withering fire of Kirk's raiders during his raid on Camp Vance the previous year. In a matter of minutes Gillem's "Tennessee-Yankees" suffered 20-25 causalities, including 8 killed.

    They entered Morganton in a bloody and foul mood. Several of Morganton's slaves gleefully gathered near a rail fence alongside the road to get a look at and welcome their "liberators". As they rode past one of the men raised in his saddle and shouted, "Hail Columbia, Happy Land, If I don't shoot a ****** I'll be dammed". Then proceeded to blow one of the poor onlookers off the rail fence, while the rest fled in terror.

    Alvan Cullem Gillem (1830 - 1875)

    Source ; "Bushwhackers, The Civil War In North Carolina: The Mountains"
    By William R. Trotter
    Last edited: Jan 19, 2017
    leftyhunter likes this.
  5. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    The young Confederate Volunteers from the "Great Valley" of east Tennessee had just as much patriotic fervor in 1861 as those in the lower south :
    Richard M. Saffell: Enlisted on 9/1/1861, Commisioned as a 1st Lieutenant into "F" Co. TN 26th Infantry. Promotions: Capt, Major, and Colonel of the 26th Tennessee. Soon after enlisting, he assured a brother-in-law, "I have no fears, but that the 26th TN will do their duty and if placed where the chance affords, will distinguish themselves".

    Chickamagua after battle report:

    Report of Maj. Richard M. Saffell, Twenty-sixth Tennessee

    Missionary Ridge, October 6, 1863.

    SIR:In obedience to orders from brigade headquarters of Brig.
    Gen. John C. Brown, requiring me to report the action the
    Twenty-sixth Tennessee Regt. took in the late battle of
    Chickamauga, on September 19 and 20, I respectfully submit the
    On Saturday, September 19, and Twenty-sixth Tennessee Regt.,
    forming the left regiment of Brown's brigade, and numbering
    229 total and 255 aggregate, under the command of Col. John
    M. Lillard, received orders about 2 p. m. to advance from a
    position a short distance in rear of our line of battle to the front.
    Accordingly, the regiment was moved forward, and had
    advanced but a short distance before we encountered a heavy line
    of the enemy's skirmishers. The regiment was then halted and
    Companies A and E, commanded by Capt. J. A. Cash, deployed
    as skirmishers, before which the enemy's skirmishers rapidly fell
    back to their main line. The regiment was now moved forward
    in double-quick time and soon came upon the enemy's main line,
    which had taken position upon the crest of a low ridge running
    parallel with our line of battle. The enemy's whole line now
    opened fire upon us at the distance of about 150 yards.

    We then received orders to fire upon him as we advanced,
    and the engagement now became general and the fighting on both
    sides desperate. Immediately in front of my regiment the enemy
    had planted a battery of small field pieces, from which he was
    pouring a destructive fire into our ranks. Col. Lillard ordered the
    regiment to charge this position, and we succeeded after a severe
    contest, which lasted about ten minutes, in forcing him from his
    position and driving him back to his second line, he leaving three
    guns of the battery between his second line and ours. We had
    nearly succeeded in reaching the top of the ridge when the
    enemy's reserve line of fresh troops at very close range threw
    our line into some confusion, and I soon became convinced that
    by attempting to hold my position or to move forward would
    involve the loss of the entire remnant of the regiment, as the
    enemy now largely outnumbered us. I took the responsibility, in
    the absence of orders from my brigade commander, of ordering
    the colors and what remained of my command to fall back,
    which order was not executed in very good order, as the enemy
    was pouring a destructive fire of grape, canister, and musketry
    into our ranks. The column was halted a short distance in rear of
    our reserve line, commanded by Brig.-Gen. Bate, and the men,
    with few exceptions reformed in line.

    This engagement lasted nearly two hours, and the regiment lost
    in killed and wounded-total, 66; aggregate, 73.

    From this position I received orders to move my regiment a short
    distance to the rear, where most of the brigade had rallied after
    the repulse. We remained in this position until near sundown,
    when we were again moved to the front and thrown into position
    a short distance in front of Brig.-Gen. Bate's line. Here we
    deployed skirmishers and bivouacked for the night, no casualties
    having attended the second forward movement.

    At daylight on Sunday, September 20, we were moved by the
    right flank about 400 yards, and took position just behind the top
    of a low ridge, and constructed a temporary breastwork of rotten
    logs, stones, and other material which we found convenient.
    About 8 a. m. the enemy's skirmishers were discovered about
    400 yards in front of our line, and were soon after fired upon by
    our skirmishers. The enemy also commenced shelling us about
    this time, and continued to fire at irregular intervals until near 12
    o'clock, when I received orders to advance. The line was
    accordingly moved forward in double-quick time, and after some
    skirmishing came upon the enemy's main line near to and
    parallel with the main road leading to Chattanooga. We
    succeeded after a short contest in driving him from his position
    and forcing him back across the road. We drove the enemy back
    steadily until my regiment had reached a slight eminence beyond
    the road. My attention having been directed to our right, I
    discovered that the right wing of our brigade had been forced
    back by a heavy fire of artillery; and knowing of no support
    near, and fearing the enemy might cut my command off, I
    thought it prudent to order the command back to the position we
    had occupied in the morning. This order was executed in good
    order, and the command rallied promptly behind the breastwork.

    This engagement lasted nearly one hour, and the casualties in the
    regiment were 24 non-commissioned officers and privates
    killed, wounded, and missing, and 1 officer severely wounded.

    We remained behind the breastwork until about 4 p. m., when I
    again received orders to move my regiment forward, and the line
    moved forward in quick time as far as the Chattanooga road.
    From here we were marched by the right flank, by order of Col.
    Cook, commanding Brown's brigade, parallel with the road in
    the direction of Chattanooga, about a quarter of a mile. Here we
    were deployed in line of battle perpendicular to the road. We
    were now moved forward through an open field until fired upon
    by a battery which the enemy had planted on the opposite side of
    the field near the road. I then received orders from Col. Cook
    for my men to lie down. The enemy continued to fire upon us
    rapidly with grape and canister shot, which, fortunately, did us
    but little damage. After remaining in this position about ten
    minutes, Col. Cook ordered the line to take shelter in the woods
    about 200 yards on our right, which order was promptly obeyed.
    We remained here until near sundown, when we were ordered to
    the support of a battery just to our left, immediately upon the
    Chattanooga road. The enemy fired rapidly upon us with artillery
    as we moved across the field to the position assigned us. We
    remained here until near dark, when we were moved by the right
    flank about half a mile to the right of the Chattanooga road,
    ordered to stack arms, and rest for the night.

    On Monday my regiment remained near where we rested on
    Sunday night.

    In addition to the above, I have to report that Lieut. A. C.
    Hickey, formerly connected with this regiment, and Lieut.
    Charles F. Henley, of Company F, on detached service, came in
    on Sunday and volunteered their services, and were of great
    assistance in Sunday's battle.

    The officers and men of the whole regiment, with a few
    exceptions, behaved themselves during the whole engagement in
    a manner creditable to themselves and the command.

    R. M. SAFFELL,
    Maj., Comdg. Twenty-sixth Tennessee Regt.

    Capt. H. J. CHENEY,
    Assistant Adjutant-Gen.


    Recapitulation of Casualties during the two days' engagement.

    Casualties. O. NCO. P. T.
    Killed....................... 1 2 5 8
    Mortally wounded............. 1 1 3 5
    Severely wounded............. 3 8 20 31
    Slightly wounded............. 3 12 39 54
    Total................. 8 23 67 98

    O=Officers. NCO=Non-Commissioned Officers. P=Privates. T=Total.

    Source: Official Records
    PAGE 375-51 KY., SW. VA., TENN., MISS., N. ALA., AND N. GA. [CHAP. XLII.
    [Series I. Vol. 30. Part II, Reports. Serial No. 51.]

    Richard was killed while leading his regiment at Bentonville, NC. in March,1865. His body was never recovered.


    The Confederate Conscription Act of April 16,1862, may have done more damage to the Confederate cause in east Tennessee than any Union Army, or General commanding them. It made ardent Unionists from people who at the first may have considered themselves "neutral". It turned people who at first may have been willing to assist the Confederacy, short of abandoning their homes and family, into people determined to restore the old Union.

    Colonel Richard Saffell's brother, Samuel Saffell Enlisted on 7/30/1862 and was commissioned a 1st Lieutenant into "B" Co. TN 63rd Infantry. After the passage of the unpopular Conscription Law, Samuel wrote the same brother-in-law, "I understand the conscription law is to be enforced in east Tennessee. If that be the case, you look up a substitute". Samuel was mortally wounded at or near Petersburg, Virginia about June, 1864, possibly in, or shortly after the following action :

    Report of Col. Abraham Fulkerson, Sixty-third
    Tennessee Infantry, of operations May 9.

    Before Bermuda Hundred, June 8, 1864.
    CAPT.: I have the honor to submit the following report of the part
    taken in the affair at Swift Creek, May 9, 1864, by the Sixty-third

    When the brigade occupied the line behind Swift Creek my regiment
    was posted at Level Ford, 1 1/2 miles below the Dunlap house, from
    which point Capt. Millard, Company E, was deployed as skirmishers
    to the right and left-connecting with the Seventeenth and
    Twenty-third Tennessee on the left, and the Forty-fourth and
    Twenty-fifth on the right-at a point half a mile from Fort Clifton,
    holding a line near 2 1/2 miles in length. This was on May 8.

    Early on the morning of the 9th the enemy appeared on the bluffs on
    the opposite side of the creek, when sharp skirmishing commenced
    and was kept up from the ford or center to the left throughout the
    day and until a late hour at night. About 12 o'clock on the 9th I
    was ordered to leave a heavy line of skirmishers along the line of
    the creek, and occupy the rifle-works in front of Dunlap's house
    with the reserve. The skirmish line was strengthened by the addition
    of Companies B, H, and I, and Lieut.-Col. Aiken place din charge of
    the line. This part of the line was successfully held until relieved
    on the morning of the 10th, though during the night the enemy effected
    a crossing at the angle opposite the Dunlap house, and succeeded in
    getting a piece of artillery to the water's edge. This force was
    driven back promptly with a detachment from the right of the line,
    under Capt. C. R. Millard. Late in the evening of the 9th the enemy's
    line of skirmishers was advanced to a fence within 500 or 600 yards of
    Dunlap's house. From this position their sharpshooters were enabled to
    annoy our line considerably. About dusk Gen. Johnson, through Capt.
    Blakemore, requested me to drive the line back. Companies A and K,
    under Capt. J. W. Robertson, were detached and directed to cross the
    creek near the left of the enemy's line and to attack it in flank. The
    companies were then deployed in front, and a charge ordered and
    executed satisfactorily. The line fell back in confusion, with a
    loss of 2 killed. The enemy's reserve, supposed to be a brigade,
    fired a volley into our line and made an effort to charge it, but to
    no purpose. Capt. Robertson held the line until a late hour at
    night, when he was relieved by two companies from a North Carolina

    James Carroll, Company A, was slightly wounded in the charge on the
    night of the 9th. Several others were slightly injured, but did not
    leave the field and were not reported as wounded. Capt. Robertson
    was among the number.

    After being relieved by a North Carolina regiment, the reserve of my
    regiment marched back to Level Ford, where it remained until
    relieved on the morning of the 10th instant.

    Very respectfully,


    Capt. R. E. FOOTE, Asst. Adjt. Gen.

    Source: Official Records
    [Series I. Vol. 36. Part II, Reports, Correspondence, Etc. Serial No. 68.]
    Last edited: Jan 21, 2017
    leftyhunter likes this.
  6. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    Honored Tennesseans : Two Union, One Confederate :
    Two Union recipients of the Congressional Medal Of Honor. Both from Hawkins County in east Tennessee. The Confederate was from Middle Tennessee with family here in the eastern corner of the Volunteer State, and a distant cousin on my mother's side. Harrison Collins was the very first Tennessean to be awarded the Medal Of Honor



    Photo By Tom Denardo On Find-A-Grave

    Harrison Collins : Union

    Enlisted on 7/10/1862 at Cumberland Gap, TN as a Corporal, 25 years old. On 11/1/1862 he mustered into “A” Co. TN 1st Cavalry. He was Mustered Out on 6/14/1865 at Nashville, TN. Promotions: (to Sergeant Company H ) Born 3/10/1836 in Hawkins County, (east) Tennessee. Died 12/25/1890 in Isabella, MO. Buried: Springfield National Cemetery, Springfield, MO. Gravesite: 26-1357-B.
    Marker at Sabella Cemetery, Ozark Co., MO

    He was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 12/24/1864 at Richland Creek, TN. (Capture of flag of Chalmer’s Division)

    Gaines Lawson : Union

    Enlisted on 12/21/1862 at Rogersville, Hawkins Co., TN as a Private. Age: 22 years old. Born 9/4/1840 in Hawkins County,(east) Tennessee. He was Mustered Out on 8/2/1865 at Nashville, TN. (Subsequent service in US Army from 07/28/1866 until
    09/16/1892) Promotions: 1st Sergeant Company H, Capt 8/10/1864, Major 6/5/1865. He was awarded the Medal of Honor for action on 10/3/1863 at McMinnville, TN. (Went to aid of wounded soldier between lines)

    OCT. 3RD, 1863

    McMinnville, Tenn., Oct. 3, 1863. Detachment of 4th
    Tennessee Infantry. During the Confederate raid by Wheeler
    and Roddey their combined forces approached McMinnville about
    11 a.m. on the 3rd. When Maj. M. L. Patterson, commanding the
    post, learned of the Confederate advance he disposed of his
    small force of 320 men as best he could, and after skirmishing
    an hour and a half received a flag of truce from Wheeler
    demanding an unconditional surrender. Thinking it useless to
    attempt further resistance he submitted, and the garrison was
    turned over to the Confederates. Seven men were killed and 23
    wounded on the Federal side during the skirmishing prior to
    the surrender, while the Confederates lost 23 killed and twice
    that number wounded according to Patterson’s estimate.

    Source: The Union Army, vol. 6


    Dewitt Smith Jobe :Confederate

    Dee, as he was known was born June 4, 1840 near Mechanicsville, Rutherford County, Tennessee. The son of Elihu Coleman Jobe and Mary W. Smith and the grandson of James Jobe and Catherine Pitt. His line of the Jobe family were related to my Jobe relatives. My maternal 4 x great-grandmother in east Tennessee, was Mary Jobe Cox. Dee’s family line settled farther west in middle Tennessee. He was born in a two-story log cabin near Mechanicsville, in Rutherford County,. In 1861 he enlisted in a Company from Williamson County that would become Company D 20th Tennessee Infantry. The 20th was part of the Confederate force that suffered a disastrous defeat at Fishing Creek (or Mill Springs)just across the line in Kentucky in January,1862. The rebels were routed, their General Felix Zollicoffer was killed, and Dee was wounded and captured.

    He was exchanged and recovered from his wounds in time to fight in the Battle of Stones River,(or Murfreesboro.) Dec.31,1862-Jan.2,1863. After this battle, Bragg withdrew to Shelbyville and he and Rosecrans faced off all spring. During this time Dee was detailed to serve with the Coleman Scouts due to his knowledge of the area. This basically meant he would be “scouting” or spying behind Yankee lines. He was captured in late August,1864 by a 15 man troop from the 115th Ohio Infantry headed by a Sergeant Timothy Temple,Company K. They had been detailed, mounted,and sent out against “Confederate guerrillas.” Refusing to divulge his sources, and by one account, literally eating the papers that would do that, he was reportedly tortured to death by his captors. I’ve read two grizzly accounts of how Jobe died. One says his captors knocked out his teeth, put out his eyes, cut out his tongue, then secured him to a horse with a leather strap, and dragged him till he died. In an 1895 issue of “Confederate Veteran.” Dee’s nephew, H.E.Jobe of Paris,Tennessee, gave another version that said the leather strap was secured around his neck and crossed in the back, and with a soldier pulling on each end, he was slowly choked to death

    On August 17, 1977, DeWitt Smith Jobe was posthumously awarded the Confederate Medal of Honor, almost 113 years after his death.

    Southern Cross Of Honor
    Last edited: Mar 31, 2017
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  7. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    East Tennessee Confederates Help Capture A Yankee Gunboat !



    Colonel Bradford wrote a brief description of the capture of the Indianola in the history of his regiment, written for "The Military Annals Of Tennessee" :

    "Late in February 1863, a detachment of three companies of this regiment was ordered down the Mississippi from Warrenton to watch the movements of the gunboat, Queen of the West, which had passed our batteries. The detail of three companies was placed on a small steam ferryboat with two small cannon. They proceeded down the Mississippi and up the Red River until they captured The Queen. Then an expedition was fitted out with the Queen of the West and the William H Webb and some barge transports, and placed under the command of Major (later a Colonel & Brigadier General) J.L. Brent, who had some other troops besides these three companies. Lieutenant (Henry) Miller of this regiment Company B, and Lieutenants, Hampton A. Rice and John M. Carson of Company I, with their two companies and other troops including some Morristown boys from the 60th Tennessee, manned the Queen of the West and the Webb. In ascending the river they met, attacked, and captured the ironclad gunboat, Indianola---- a gallant and brilliant achievement by Major Brent and his men".


    Joseph Lancaster Brent : Residence Baltimore MD; Enlisted as a Captain, Promotions: Major 6/1/1862, Colonel 7/1/1862, Brig-Gen 10/1/1864, He also had service in: CS Gen & Staff (Staff of Major General Magruder) Born in 1826 in Charles County, MD. Died 11/27/1905 in Baltimore, MD. After the War he lived in Baltimore, MD & Louisiana.


    Brent (top row, far right) with Robert E. Lee and Confederate officers, 1869.


    Last edited: Jan 27, 2017
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  8. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    The post on the photo possibly made on the Chickasaw Bayou Battlefield, reminded me of the contribution of John C. Vaughn's east Tennessee Brigade in that battle (December 26-29, 1862) that frustrated Grant's attempt to take Vicksburg by direct approach. I had several east Tennessee relatives in the 60th, 61st, and 62nd Tennessee Regiments.

    John Crawford Vaughn (1824 - 1875)

    East Tennessee Confederates at Chickasaw Bayou (Chickasaw Bluffs)

    General Vaughn's Brigade was ordered to the Department of Mississippi and Eastern Louisiana and arrived at Jackson, Mississippi late in November, 1862. Lieutenant General J. C. Pemberton reported: “On December 21, 1862, while at Grenada, Mississippi, information was received that a large fleet of gunboats and transports was moving down the Mississippi for the supposed purpose of attacking Vicksburg. Brigadier General J. C. Vaughn’s Brigade of East Tennessee was at once ordered to that point.” They arrived on the 26th.

    Brigadier General Stephen D. Lee’s Brigade held the right wing, Brigadier General S. M. Barton’s, the center, and Vaughn’s Brigade the left.

    Stephen Dill Lee (1833 - 1908)

    Seth Maxwell Barton (1829 - 1900)

    Lieutenant General J. C. Pemberton, in his report stated: “The 3rd, 30th and 80th (62nd) occupied the rifle pits on the right in the front and behaved with distinguished coolness and courage. On the left, commanded by Brigadier General Vaughn, the heavy abattis prevented the approach of the enemy except with sharpshooters who advanced continuously, but were met firmly by his East Tennesseans.” General Vaughn reported that on the second day he sent the 62nd to re-enforce Lee; the 60th to re-enforce Barton on the 3rd day; leaving one regiment, the 61st to defend the abattis.
    leftyhunter and huskerblitz like this.
  9. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee



















    Last edited: Apr 16, 2017
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  10. leftyhunter

    leftyhunter Major

    May 27, 2011
    los angeles ca
  11. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    Soldiers, Slaves, & Free Men Of Color In East Tennessee

    1st USCT Heavy Artillery on parade in Knoxville.

    Organized at Knoxville, Tenn., February 20, 1864. Attached to 2nd Brigade, 4th Division,
    23rd Corps, Dept. of Ohio, to February, 1865. 2nd Brigade, 4th Division, District of East
    Tennessee, Dept. of the Cumberland, to March, 1865. 1st Brigade, 4th Division, District
    of East Tennessee, to March, 1866.

    SERVICE.—Duty at Knoxville, Tenn., till January, 1865. Operations against Wheeler in East
    Tennessee August 15-25, 1864. Operations in Northern Alabama and East Tennessee January
    31-April 24, 1865. Stone- man's operations from East Tennessee into Southwestern Virginia
    and Western North Carolina February to April. At Greenville and in District of East
    Tennessee till March, 1866. Mustered out March 31, 1866.

    Frederick A. Dyer "A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion" vol. 3


    JANUARY 25, 1865.--Expedition from Irish Bottom to Evans' Island. Tenn.


    Report of Col. John A. Shannon, First U. S. Colored Heavy Artillery.

    Irish Bottom, Tenn., January 28, 1865.
    SIR: I have the honor to report that in accordance with instructions
    received from Maj. Smith, acting inspector-general, Second Brigade,
    Fourth Division, Twenty-third Army Corps, I proceeded to Beaver Dam
    Bottom on the 25th instant, and did not find the cattle there. I then
    moved on down the river and did not find them until I got to Evans'
    Island, where the cattle were on the island, and the water and ice
    running in the river so bad that the men in charge could not get them
    off. I found Lieut. Wiley M. Christian in command of the First
    Tennessee; he had three commissioned officers and eighty-six men.
    Upon ascertaining the fact that the cattle could not be moved
    immediately I sent to the Beaver Dam for Capt. Murphy and his fifty
    men to come and take charge of the guard and cattle. Capt. Murphy
    had two commissioned officers with him. I then left orders for Capt.
    Murphy to bring the cattle up to the Beavor Dam as soon as practicable,
    and as he then had six commissioned officers and 136 men, I thought
    that that was a sufficient guard for 192 cattle (the number I found
    there), and I took the responsibility upon myself to order the cavalry to
    come on and report to Col. Hawley, as ordered.

    Lieut. Christian accounts for the absence of his men in this way, i.
    e., that when he started from Knoxville he had to leave the sick there,
    bringing only sixty-eight men with him, but that they are getting better
    and are rejoining their command; he now has eighty-six men, and he
    knows of six that had started from Knoxville and would be there by this
    time. I apprehend, that if the present cold weather continues and the ice
    continues to run in the river as it now does, that the cattle cannot get off
    the island, and having consumed the forage there it will be exceedingly
    difficult for them to live.

    I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

    Col., Cmdg. Foraging Expedition.

    Capt. W. W. DEANE,
    Asst. Adjt. Gen., 2d Brig., 4th Div., 23d Army Corps,
    Knoxville, Tenn.

    Source: Official Records
    PAGE 10-103 KY., S. W. VA., TENN., N. &C. GA., MISS., ALA., & W. FLA.
    [Series I. Vol. 49. Part I, Reports, Correspondence, Etc. Serial No. 103.]
    General Davis Tillson, Chief of Artillery, Department of Ohio, commanding defenses of Knoxville, Loudon and Kingston. Commanded the organizing of the 1st United States Colored Troops Heavy Artillery.

    Two of their soldiers :

    Artist's rendition, possibly from an actual photo of Edward and wife, Nancy on their wedding day.

    Edward Kline Enlisted and mustered on 10/1/1864 at Knoxville,TN as a Sergeant into "E" Co. US CT 1st Heavy Artillery. He had recently escaped from slavery in Roane County,TN. He was 5'11" and 22 years old. He mustered out at Chattanooga, March 31, 1866.
    Isaac Rucker escaped slavery in North Georgia. He made it to Knoxville, Tennessee, where on 5/1/1864, he enlisted and mustered as a Corporal into "G" Co. US CT 1st Heavy Artillery. He mustered out March 31,1866 in Chattanooga. Surprisingly, Isaac returned to his Georgia home after the war to live out his days among white neighbors that no doubt, supported the Confederacy. Reportedly, Isaac was apparently very highly thought of and respected. One account says a Confederate Veteran assisted the illiterate Isaac with the paper work for his pension. Isaac is buried in New Hope Cemetery in Dahlonega,GA with only one other Union Veteran and among 60 Confederates. He died August 30,1915 at the same place where he escaped slavery and joined in east Tennessee in his fight for freedom.
    Confederate Private John N. T. Hammonds (or Hammond), wrote from Camp Brown, Knoxville, Tennessee to a "Dear Uncle," February 10, 1862. (Courtesy Special Collections Library, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville).Hammonds served in the 1st East Tennessee Cavalry Regiment, later designated as 5th (McKenzie's) Tennessee Cavalry C.S.A.

    "I seat myself to write you a few lines to inform you that I am well hoping that those few lines may find you all well. I have nothing of importance to write to you at this time. My company is know [sic] station on Cumberland Mountain. All but a few of us that was detailed to stay here to mind the tents & take care of some sick boys that we had sick here with the measels. We will all leave here in the morning. We had a small chunk of a fight with the Lincolnit[es] the 2 day of this instant. We killed six of them & taken one prisoner & wounded ten more. Jack Thomas a colored person that belongs to our company killed one of them".

    About a month later, On the morning of March 14th, 1862, while the 1st was guarding the Cumberland Mountain passes, two companies of the 1st were surprised by a night march of the 49th Indiana. Besides several casualties, and prisoners taken, the regimental standard was captured in the brief fight. Two of the rebels that died were Hammond and Thomas.

    Thomas was actually listed on the muster roll as Jackson Thomas, no mention of his race in his record.

    1. Both men are in the 1860 census of Polk County, TN. Polk County was one of six east Tennessee counties that voted solidly in favor of secession. Company E (originally Co.D of the 1st east Tennessee Cavalry) was the only company in McKenzie's 5th from Polk County.

    2. They lived in close proximity of one another, (at least for that day), and could have been acquainted. On one file card Jack is listed as being age 30, on another, 35. The Census lists him as 43.

    3. Jack Thomas
    United States Census, 1860
    Name Jack Thomas
    Event Type Census
    Event Date 1860
    Event Place 5th District, Polk, Tennessee, United States
    Gender Male
    Age 43
    Race Black
    Race (Original) Black
    Birth Year (Estimated) 1817
    Birthplace Georgia
    Page 97

    4. Jack and wife Hannah had 8 children, ages, 2-21. A white man named P.M. Carson lived with them. All members of the household were born in Georgia, so they hadn't been in Tennessee very long.

    1. John Hanmon
    United States Census, 1860
    Name John Hanmon
    Event Type Census
    Event Date 1860
    Event Place 5th District, Polk, Tennessee, United States
    Gender Male
    Age 18
    Race White
    Race (Original) [Blank]
    Birth Year (Estimated) 1842
    Birthplace Tennessee
    Page 99

    2. John lived with his parents and 7 siblings, ages 7-23 and probably a 65 year-old maternal aunt or grandmother. John's parent's are age 50, they and his oldest sibling (a sister) were born in South Carolina.

    File Cards from their CMSR's

    Jackson Thomas.jpg

    John Hammond 5th Tn Cavalry.jpg

    The Athens post. (Athens, Tenn.) 1848-1917, May 30, 1862



    Mary and Charles Boyd of Maryville, Tennessee

    Charles was Body-Servant to Confederate Captain William Y. C. Hannum. The Captain Enlisted on 6/29/1861 at Washington County, VA as a 1st Lieutenant into “B” Co. VA 48th Infantry. Detailed 2/28/1862,(On recruiting duty), Returned 3/31/1862. Wounded 12/28/1862 Cedar Run, VA (Right leg wounded), Returned 1/21/1863, He Resigned on 12/1/1863 due to his wound. His leg was eventually amputated, but he went on to become a leading citizen of Maryville. Charlie was credited with probably saving the Captains life by removing him from the battlefield.

    From his obituary, 26 April, 1917 :

    “Uncle Charlie” was born in slavery about 1837. Charlie was taken into the Civil War by his master, W.Y.C. Hannum, and it was the slave’s heroism that gave to Maryville one of her foremost citizens. When Captain Hannum was wounded in the battle of Cedar Run, Va., the slave carried his wounded master through the darkness to safety and although the injured leg was amputated, Captain Hannum was a useful citizen for half a century following.
    Last edited: Mar 31, 2017
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  12. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    East Tennessee's Connection To The Real Story Of "Cold Mountain".


    William P. "Pink” Inman as he is still known to descendants today, was born in 1840. The sixth of eight children (6 boys 2 girls), born to Joshua and Mary Smith Inman in the Bethel Community of Haywood County, NC. Only two of their six sons would survive the Civil War. Charles Frazier, the author of “Cold Mountain”, based the lead character of his novel, and later the movie, on the Civil War experience of his 2 x great uncle. On 6/29/1861, Inman joined the “Haywood Highlanders”, soon to become Company F 25th NC.Infantry. Pink was wounded 7/1/1862 at Malvern Hill, VA. returning to duty, two weeks later. On 9/5/1862, he is shown as ”deserted.” He returned 11/19/1862 and faithfully served through the Battle of the Crater until he was hospitalized, 8/21/1864 at Petersburg, VA (With a gunshot wound to the neck). He deserted a final time on 11/2/1864 at a Raleigh, NC Hospital. He disavowed the southern Confederacy and took the Oath of Allegiance 12/15/1864 in Union occupied Knoxville in eastern Tennessee.

    It was probably during his last time home that he joined himself to two other rebel deserters. Samuel Massey, deserted the 62nd NC in November, 1862. Three of Inman’s brothers were in this regiment. Two died while imprisoned at Camp Douglass, Chicago, Illinois. John Swanger, was briefly a Blacksmith in the 2nd NC Cavalry. They had become “Pilots”, guiding Union men hiding in the mountains from Confederate conscription squads, leading them to Union bases in Kentucky and Tennessee. Massey later drew a pension for serving in east Tennessee as a “recruiting agent.”


    Federal pension file for Samuel Massey and his widow, Martha

    Inman “swallowed the yellow dog,” (Oath of Allegiance,) in the office of the east Tennessee Provost in Knoxville. At that time a native east Tennessean, Brig.Gen. Samuel Powhatan Carter, notable for being the only officer to attain the rank of major general in the U.S. Army and rear admiral in the U.S. Navy. General Carter in Knoxville asked Massey to take his men and go break his cousin and nephew out of the Waynesville, NC. jail, this was the beginning of the end for Pink and John. They gathered some additional men and headed back home, with John carrying recruiting orders from General Carter

    Brig. Gen. Samuel Powhatan Carter

    Not far from home the men were overtaken by the infamous rebel Home Guard of Captain John Albert Teague. Some accounts say over 100 Confederates chased them through the mountains. The Waynesville, NC. Mountain Courier in 1919, gave this account of the pursuit :

    "The fight was kept up this way during almost the whole day for a distance of 10 miles or more. At this point however, the mountain became less steep and more open of woods. The soldiers began to gain. Two of Massey’s companions, John Swanger and Pink Inman, being thoroughly exhausted and overcome with the struggle, were overtaken and brutally shot with their hands up and left in the
    woods like wild animals".


    Record of the 50th Congress ( 1887-1889) Pertaining to Samuel Massey’s eventual success in obtaining a Federal pension for his service as a recruiting agent. Massey apparently died shortly after


    Hunting Union Men In The Mountains Of western NC. and east TN.

    Oral history says someone notified Inman’s father of the killing. He retrieved the bodies and buried them both in the same grave in the same family cemetery where he would be buried. It’s recently been confirmed that indeed two bodies are buried in what’s believed to be "Pink" Inman’s grave.
    Last edited: Mar 31, 2017
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  13. Mark F. Jenkins

    Mark F. Jenkins Lt. Colonel

    Mar 31, 2012
    Central Ohio

    This action may have been inspired by Magruder's 'navy' in the recapture of Galveston; there are parallels in the way the Confederates loaded up boats with infantry to overwhelm their targets with small arms fire. Both lead me to think that what the Union really needed on its river gunboats were quick-firing/repeating weapons; a couple of "tinclads" with a pair of gatlings or coffee mill guns apiece would have been a lot more threatening to formations ashore than the ironclads with their slow-firing big guns.
  14. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    Thanks Mark, I really appreciate your knowledge of the Naval aspects of the war.
  15. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee

    Some East Tennesseans Fought On Both Sides :

    Daniel Parrot resided in Hawkins County, east Tennessee and was about 21 years old and a newlywed, when he enlisted on June 1,1861 as a Confederate soldier, in Company K 19th Tennessee Infantry, serving as a teamster. He was seriously wounded on September 19, 1863 at Chickamauga. He was hospitalized, then furloughed home to continue his recuperation through June,1864. While home, Daniel apparently experienced a "change of loyalties". The Union Army in upper east Tennessee had organized the 3rd Tennessee Mounted Infantry in July,1864. This was a 90-day regiment, made up in a large part by Rebel deserters, that had realized by then, they had probably started out this war on the loosing side. Daniel enlisted in Company F on August 1,1864. By September,1864, Daniel's 90 days as a "Tennessee Yankee" were almost up and he probably figured the war for him, was over. Then one day in October, Yankees from the 13th Tennessee Cavalry show up at his door, and tell him he was "going with them", or "they would kill him and his then pregnant wife, Lizzy". So he was forced to re-enlist in Company K 13th Tennessee Union Cavalry, where he served until September 5, 1865.

    Amazingly, he returned home to Lizzie in one piece. They were the parents of 9 children. In 1885, he leaves for a short trip due to the death of his father, and never returns home until 1900. He had married during that time two other women, one in Kentucky and one in Arkansas. He and Lizzie again lived as man and wife till his death in 1911. Lizzie's pension application tells of a sad end to the story of a Civil War soldier, that fought on both sides. Lizzy's application for a widows' pension reads in part :

    "The soldier was married to the claimant in 1862 and deserted her in 1885, going to Kentucky, where he married Louisa Bruner in May, 1886. She died in August, 1886, and in Dec. 1887, or 1888, he married America E. Morris, with whom he lived till 1899, and then deserted her and returned to his first wife, the claimant in this case.

    …The claimant is 73 years old. She is so crippled from rheumatism that she has to use two crutches. She is almost totally blind and is otherwise in feeble health. She is absolutely penniless. She is taken care of by her daughter and son-in-law, who are very poor and have five children of their own.

    They all live in a little hut. I think that this claim should be made special.

    Claimant bears an excellent reputation for truthfulness, and no one has a word to say against her character, except some blame her for taking the soldier back".


    John Jones also from Hawkins County: He was probably one of the three men with this familiar name listed in three different companies (probably Co.D from Hancock County) of the 29th Tennessee Infantry. John soon lost heart in the Confederate cause and deserted. He enlisted and mustered into Company H of the Union 8th Tennessee Cavalry on 11/19/1863. In 1865 John came home at news of the death of his wife, Jerusha. While at home he and three other Union soldiers were abducted by 25 Confederate soldiers led by one Jess Henard from Hawkins County of Company K 29th Tennessee Infantry. They were loaded into a wagon and headed in the general direction of Surgoinsville. All four men attempted escape during the night, and each was shot dead. Martin Crawford, another Hawkins Countain of the 39th Tennessee was charged with John’s “murder” but was acquitted as it was “declared an act of war and all charges were dropped.”

    Photo made, probably in Knoxville, Tennessee
    Lilburn is seated on the right, holding the .50 caliber Smith breech-loading carbine. The soldier with the saber is: David Hays 21 years old. Enlisted on 4/18/1864 as a Private. On 4/27/1864 he mustered into "I" Co. TN 8th Cavalry ............................................................................................ Standing is : Andrew J. Campbell 20 years old. Enlisted on 9/25/1863 as a Private. On 11/14/1863 he mustered into "I" Co. TN 8th Cavalry He was Mustered Out on 9/11/1865 at Knoxville, TN

    Lilburn W. Depew was born about 1845 in Sullivan County, Tennessee. His father was Isaac Depew Jr, son of one of the first pioneers in what would become upper east Tennessee. He was one of 11 children. Three older brothers were Confederate, Three other older brothers fought for the Union. In May, 1861 he enrolled in the Confederate Army at Knoxville, Tn, in what would become Company B 19th Tennessee Infantry at the ripe-old age of 16. After the passage of the 1st Confederate Conscription Act in the Spring of 1862, the Army was re-organized and Lilburn was discharged for being "under-age".

    At some point, this "big ole boy" from east Tennessee decided it would be a "durn shame" to let a Civil War go by and not fight somebody, By dog, he'd just join the Yankees ! He enlisted for a term of three years. He enrolled Sept. 18, 1863, in Jonesboro, TN. Mustered in at Camp Nelson, KY. and mustered out Sep 11, 1865. The company descriptive book says he was 18 years, 5 foot 10 inches, with a dark complexion, dark eyes, and light hair. He was married to Sarah Hashbarger.(a 3 x 1st cousin of mine). Her brother, John D. Hashbarger, Confederate Private Co. K 19th Tenn Inf, died in the Civil War. Her father, Elijah, Co B 19th Tn Inf was wounded at Stones River, Tenn.

    Jackson C. Simmons was the father of my maternal great-grandmother. He was born about 1839. He enlisted as a Confederate in the 3rd Maryland Artillery at Jonesboro, Tennessee on 4/21/1862. At Knoxville they were attached to General A.W. Reynolds Brigade. He served with them through the Vicksburg Campaign and was paroled back to east Tennessee following the surrender of the garrison. The roll for Nov-Dec, 1863 declares him "deserted". On July 4, 1864, he joined the newly formed Union 3rd Tennessee Mounted Infantry.


    Jackson's daughter and my maternal great-grandmother, Mary Simmons Cox.
    Last edited: Feb 20, 2017
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  16. leftyhunter

    leftyhunter Major

    May 27, 2011
    los angeles ca
    Some ladies don't get lucky in love. If it wasn't for hard luck Mrs. Lizzie would have no luck at all. Fascinating stories keep them coming:grant:
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  17. civilken

    civilken 2nd Lieutenant

    Jul 25, 2013
    most of you who read what I usually put down has a lot to do with the offices and the politicians. I will never malign the fighting soldiers on either side these men and boys fort for what they believed in. And for that I tip my hat to them but as for the individuals who lived in the South and supported north all I can say you were some tough individuals and a better man than I would ever be so to you rest well warriors a job well done.
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  18. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    East Tennessee Unionists in Arkansas:

    Margret Ann Bains, Hoppers, Cox after 1872.The Star on her neck belonged to her son, Sinclair. It was given to her at the time of his death and she wore it until she passed away. It was passed on to her son Jerry Barry Cox, who gave it to his son, Sinclair Christopher Columbus Cox, who in turn gave it to his son, Don Cox. Jerry Cox, played with it as a young boy. It was lost on a farm, east of Urbana, Missouri.

    Margaret Ann "Peggy" Baines, was a daughter of Samuel & Elizabeth Jones Baines She was born on Feb.7, 1835 in Orange County, North Carolina. She married her first husband, George Hoppers, in Washington County, east Tennessee on August 11, 1835. Shortly after, they left east Tennessee for northwest Arkansas, probably accompanied by several families including a 3 x maternal great-grand uncle of mine and Margaret's future second husband, Jacob Cox and his family. By the mid-1840's, Margaret and Jacob had both lost their spouses, and were married to each other. Margaret had a son, Michael, with George Hoppers in east Tennessee about 1837, before the move to Arkansas. Her first child with Jacob, was Sinclair Cox, born about 1845. She was step-mother to Jacob's older sons, Joshua, John, and Nathan. All three of the Cox brothers, and half-brothers, Michael Hoppers and Sinclair Cox would serve in the Union Army.

    Union Soldier Private Sinclair Cox 18 years old. Enlisted on 2/23/1863 at Fayetteville, AR as a Corporal. On 2/23/1863 he mustered into "B" Co. AR 1st Infantry. Other Information: born in Madison County, AR.

    Union Soldier Private Joshua Stephen Cox Co. B 1st Arkansas Infantry. 43 years old. Enlisted on 2/23/1863 at Fayetteville, AR as a Private. On 2/23/1863 he mustered into "B" Co. AR 1st Infantry He was discharged (date not stated) Other Information: born in Sullivan County, TN (Applied for a pension in 1882)

    Union Soldier Private John Blackstone Cox Company G. 11th Missouri Cavalry. He enlisted in Company G 11th Regiment of Missouri Volunteer Cavalry April 25,1863 at the original organization of the regiment in Springfield,Missouri. He is shown "present & on the rolls " promoted to corporal April 1,1864. Mustered out July 27,1865 at New Orleans,La. there is a letter in John's record,apparently to John's company,regiment,or post commander from his wife,Amanda. As best I can tell she writes the following : " Jefferson City,Mo. Sept 19,1864. Sir, my husband John Cox joined the 11th Mo.Cav.Vol in April / 63 at Springfield,Mo. He has sent me money but twice since he enlisted in the service. The last in Feb./ 64 $35.00. I have four children aproximately 11-9-6 and baby. I am entirely destitute & my children will have to starve unless I can get help. I have no relatives to whom I could go near for help .....Mrs.Amanda J. Cox

    Union Soldier Nathan H. Cox Sergeant. Co B 1st Arkansas Infantry. 25 years old. Enlisted on 2/23/1863 at Fayetteville, AR as a Sergeant. On 2/23/1863 he mustered into "B" Co. AR 1st Infantry He was discharged (date not stated) Other Information: born in Rock Castle, TN died 11/23/1907 (Applied for a pension in 1890).

    Union Soldier Michael Hoppers Co.B 1st Arkansas Infantry. 20 years old. Enlisted on 2/23/1863 at Fayetteville, AR as a Corporal. On 2/23/1863 he mustered into "B" Co. AR 1st Infantry He was discharged (date not stated) Other Information: died 11/4/1919 in Urbana, MO (Applied for a pension in 1890)
    Last edited: Feb 25, 2017
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  19. civilken

    civilken 2nd Lieutenant

    Jul 25, 2013
    thank you all for the lovely story.
  20. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee

    Two of Captain Ellis' nemesis in east Tennessee he mentions in his book, were Captain Barton Roby Brown and Colonel Vincent Addison Witcher. "The Old Red Fox" had choice words for them both. After graphically describing a brutal hanging of three Union men, Ellis says,"Captain Roby Brown, a citizen of Johnson County, Tennessee, and one of the Home Guard in that county, enjoyed himself very much at this miserable feast of blood....He would turn them around violently, telling them to face their pardner....He did not like to dance with any person that would not face him.....I cannot presume to say that this most desperate and incorrigible scoundrel, Roby Brown, was in the possession of a human heart".... It is said, Captain Brown later sued Dan Ellis for libel because of the way he was presented in Ellis' book.


    Captain Barton Roby Brown: Enlisted on 7/19/1861 at Buncombe County, NC as a Private. While a resident of Watauga County NC; he was 20 years old. On 7/19/1861 he mustered into "D" Co. NC 1st Cavalry. 2nd Lieut 5/20/1862. He was discharged for promotion on 10/10/1862. On 10/10/1862 he was commissioned as a Captain into "F" Co. NC 7th Battalion of Cavalry. He was transferred out on 8/3/1863. On 8/3/1863 he transferred into "A" Co. NC 6th Cavalry. Wounded 9/13/1862 Middletown, VA.
    Paroled 5/1/1865 Ridgeway, NC. Born 8/4/1841 in Ashe County, NC. Died 6/8/1929 in Shouns, TN (modern-day Mountain City), where he lived after the war.

    This McClellan saddle belonged to Capt. Barton Roby Brown, of Johnson County, Tenn. Brown recruited the only regular CSA unit from Johnson County, Tenn.

    "On November 19, 1863, a most notorious and miserable scoundrel by the name of Witcher arrived in Carter County, (east) Tennessee from the State of Virginia, having under his command 400 men, who were as mean and reckless as the devil himself could have desired them to be....he and his ruffian followers had killed 21 Union men in the course of one day and night"...... Ellis tells of an attack in east Tennessee on 57 Union men from Wilkes County, NC. attempting to get to Union bases in Kentucky. Those unable to escape, were simply gunned down.


    Lt. Col. Vincent A. Witcher, (called "clawhammer" by his men), commanded the 34th Virginia Cavalry Battalion. They fought in western Virginia, East Tennessee, with the Army of Northern Virginia in the Shenandoah Valley. It had a force of 172 men at Gettysburg. They saw action at Piedmont, and served with Early in the Shenandoah Valley. The 34th disbanded at Lynchburg in April, 1865. Lieutenant Colonel Vincent Addison Witcher, and Majors John A. McFarlane and William Straton were in command. Of his command at Gettysburg, Witcher wrote after the war, "I shall never, no never, forget that eventful night when accompanied by one courier, my Adjutant Edwards and Sergeant Major, both being wounded, I full of grief and bitterness, rode to the barns in our rear and saw with tears in my eyes, my brave fellows from away over the mountains in West Virginia, laid out in windrows, torn and bleeding. I shall never forget that night or the next mornings parade when I could muster but 96 enlisted men. Brave fellows, not a slave holder among them." In Colonel Witcher's record is a letter of commendation from R.E. Lee, and a commendation with recommendation for promotion from J.E.B. Stuart.
    Last edited: Feb 27, 2017
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  21. east tennessee roots

    east tennessee roots 1st Lieutenant

    Dec 31, 2010
    Kingsport, Tennessee
    19th Tennessee Infantry

    Don Troiani's interpretation of a Confederate Private in the 19th Tennessee. (notice the out-dated Flintlock Musket which was very true of early Confederate Volunteers especially in east Tennessee)


    The 19th Tennessee Infantry Regiment, or Nineteenth Tennessee Volunteer Infantry Regiment, was an infantry regiment in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. The 19th Tennessee fought in every major battle and campaign of the Army of Tennessee except the Battle of Perryville. 1st Lt. Robert D. Powell of Company K, killed at the Battle of Barbourville, Kentucky, is believed to be the first soldier killed in the Civil War outside of Virginia. The 19th Tennessee was formed from companies of men from the counties of East Tennessee and was mustered into the Confederate army at Knoxville, Tennessee, in the spring of 1861. The men were recruited in the counties of Hamilton, Sullivan, Washington, Rhea, Knox, Polk, McMinn, and Hawkins. Beginning the war with a force of over 1,000 men, only 78 soldiers were present when the 19th surrendered.[1] Fifty-eight of the remaining 78 soldiers were from the initial muster at the beginning of the war. The remaining 20 soldiers had joined the regiment later.
    The regiment was encamped at Greensboro, North Carolina, when the Army of Tennessee surrendered on April 26, 1865. The 19th Tennessee's regimental flag was not surrendered to the Union army, and its final disposition and whereabouts are unknown.

    Stone's River after battle report:


    Report of Col. Francis M. Walker, Nineteenth Tennessee Infantry.

    SHELBYVILLE, TENN., January 10, 1863.
    About sunrise Monday morning, December 29, the Nineteenth
    Tennessee Regiment, under my command, moved on the left of your
    brigade to a position previously selected on the north bank of Stone's
    River, where we were posted in line of battle as the extreme left
    regiment of the brigade. The regiment numbered in line 348 privates and
    non-commissioned officers, 30 company officers, 3 field officers, and
    adjutant; aggregate, 382. We remained at the point above mentioned in
    line until 9 a.m. Wednesday, uninterrupted except by the occasional
    explosion near us of a stray shell from the enemy's batteries, when we
    moved forward in line with the brigade to the attack, in support of the
    front line of the corps, we being in the second line. On our way we met
    many stragglers and wounded men from the front lines retiring to the
    rear, the former demoralized, the latter disabled. The first we tried to
    turn back, urging them to renew their efforts; the last we could but pity.

    Some 400 yards from our first position, we came to the position
    previously occupied by the front or first lines the day before, and where
    they had thrown up a temporary breastwork of loose stone and timber.
    At and behind this the regiment halted for half an hour or more under
    a heavy fire from some unseen batteries in our front. At this point,
    while my men were lying behind the loose wall of rock, a shell struck
    the latter near the center of my left wing, wounding, by the fragments
    of shell and shattered rock, 6 of my men, all of whom were disabled
    and 1 of whom soon after died. Moving from this point we came to the
    Wilkinson pike, up which we moved by the left flank near 300 yards,
    when, again resuming the movement to the front, we moved forward
    through a field to the to of a slight elevation, where the battery which
    had been playing on us is believed to have been posted. But just when
    we were resuming the march to the front and crossing the Wilkinson
    pike we could distinctly see by the action of the men in the front line
    (for we had now come in sight of them) that they were on the eve of
    being driven back, if, indeed, they had not already entirely given way.
    Many of them were falling back, and all seemed disorganized. But our
    line promptly moved up to their support and crossed the field to the
    elevation. Here, for the first time, we could see the evidences of the
    conflict in the field beyond the elevation. Numbers of dead and wounded
    were lying [ about], both Confederate and Federals, horses, and arms,
    and equipments, and here we first felt the fire from the small-arms of
    the enemy. Pushing forward, we crossed the field and entered the thick
    cedar woods in which the enemy had taken shelter. In the edge of this
    woods we came up
    with three or four pieces of the battery which they had vainly
    endeavored to withdraw. These are believed to have been the guns
    posted on the elevation in the field above mentioned, and from which we
    had received the injury while at the rock wall in the woods. As we
    entered the woods the enemy gave us a most galling fire, but we moved
    steadily forward, driving them farther into the thick wood, and now we
    passed the various pieces of artillery which they were trying to remove,
    but which, on our approach and under our fire and from loss of horses,
    thickness of timber, &c., they were forced soon to abandon. These we
    left in our rear and pressed upon the heavy lines of their infantry, under
    whose fire we were exposed. Some 200 yards farther into the woods the
    enemy appeared in great force, rather to my left. They here poured in
    upon me a most effective and murderous fire. This we returned with all
    the vigor and rapidity possible, gradually moving forward, swinging,
    according to orders, a little from left to right. This constant and severe
    fire continued for near an hour, when, but the persistency and accuracy
    of our fire, our steady and resistless advance, the obstinacy of the
    enemy was at last overcome, and, giving way, a perfect rout ensued.
    Their retreat was rapidly followed up by us through the woods for
    several hundred yards, and through and old field, through which a
    ravine and also the Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad ran, within
    which and behind the embankment of the railroad the enemy took
    refuge. At these points they were beyond the reach of our small-arms.
    We pursued no farther than the edge of this field. But before reaching
    their safe retreat, while they passed through the woods and field,
    hundreds of them paid the penalty with their lives for their rash act of
    invasion and wicked occupation of an unoffending country. The marks
    on the arms and equipments picked up on the field from which we drove
    the enemy, as well as the statements of prisoners captured, show
    conclusively that the brigade or division which we fought was regular

    By your direction, the entire brigade halted at the edge of the field, for
    at the time, and all the time of our advance, through the woods, there
    appeared no support upon our left. It is believed if a battery could have
    been put in position near the point occupied by my left, the enemy could
    have been shelled from their shelter in the ravine and behind the
    railroad, and the day might thus have been more completely ours. Six
    or eighth thousand men seemed to be striving for the mastery, in
    confusion, in this field, and would have been easily driven into the
    woods beyond. But a battery was out of the question, for we could scarcely
    get through parts of the woods through which we came. We remained in
    position here until near night, when we retired with the brigade to the
    rear a few hundred yards, for rest.

    We moved back to the front each succeeding day, keeping skirmishers
    in front near the edge of the field for three days, but no casualties or
    engagement of note further occurred until we moved with the brigade in
    retreat on the evacuation on Sunday morning.

    In the engagement my men captured about 50 prisoners, who were sent
    to the rear. We also brought from the field about three hundred guns
    besides our own, some of the men bringing off three.

    The loss of the regiment in killed and wounded was 136, as will appear
    from the accompanying report* of my adjutant. My major (Rufus A.
    Jarnigan) was mortally wounded while leading the left wing in a charge.
    Capt. [J. G.] Frazier, Company D, was killed instantly at the head of
    his company. Lieut. [S. G.] Abernathy fell at this post.

    No braver or more gallant officers than these have given their lives to
    their country in this war.

    I hope, sir, that the conduct of the men and officers of this regiment in
    the engagement at Murfreesborough and the days and nights of duty and
    exposure connected with it has been satisfactory to you. I can complain
    of none of them myself but might compliment many of them in terms of
    high encomium. I might with propriety mention the case of Corporal
    Mayson, of the color-guard, who, when the color-sergeant was wounded
    and the colors fell from his hand, instantly seized it in exultation,
    bearing it as a beacon to the regiment through the storm of the battle;
    and of Orderly Sergt. Joseph Thompson, who, upon reaching the edge
    of the field where the brigade halted, ran forward, overtaking the
    retreating enemy, seized a prisoner and started back with him, but this
    person being shot down in his hands he relinquished him; back to the
    lines of the still-retreating enemy, and seized a second prisoner, whom
    he brought off safely.

    Before closing this report, sir, I beg leave to congratulate you upon the
    successful and skillful manner in which your brigade was maneuvered
    and kept together, and, through you, I congratulate our division, corps,
    and other commanders for our successful operations against greatly
    superior numbers. I hope, sir, that yours and their success may never
    be less marked or less safe to yourself in all future engagements with
    our enemies.

    Very respectfully, general, yours, &c.,

    F. J. WALKER,
    Col. Nineteenth Tennessee Regt.


    Source: Official Records
    [Series I. Vol. 20. Part I, Reports. Serial No. 29.]

    Chickamagua after battle report:


    Report of Col. Francins M. Walker, Nineteenth Tennessee

    SEPTEMBER 29, 1863.
    SIR: In compliance with circular orders received yesterday and
    with common custom, I proceed to report briefly the part taken
    by my regiment (Nineteenth Tennessee) in the late battle of
    September 19 and 20 at Chickamauga:
    About 1 o'clock of the 19th, the regiment, numbering 242 rank
    and file, moved with your brigade, being on the right, to the
    battle-field, and took position in line in front of, but out of reach
    of the small-arms of the enemy. The battle at this time had fairly
    opened, and the brigades of Gen.'s Smith and Wright, of
    Cheatham's division, were engaging the enemy; the former
    immediately (or nearly so) in our front.

    About 2 o'clock orders were received to move forward in
    support of Gen. Smith's brigade, at that time being pressed and
    in danger of being flanked. My regiment moved steadily forward
    with the brigade through an open field or clearing, and was soon
    under a heavy fire, but no enemy could be seen either in front or
    to the flank. After proceeding 200 or 300 yards under this fire
    without being able as yet to fire upon the enemy, he being
    thoroughly concealed by timbers and thick undergrowth, I
    received an official order to move my regiment by the right
    flank, so as to unmask Smith's brigade, on the left. This
    movement under a heavy fire was not only a dangerous one but
    desperate, but was accomplished with singular promptness by my
    men under the circumstances, being as they were assailed in front
    and from the right by a murderous fire, which was literally
    mowing them down. Being thus exposed without a chance to
    check the fire of the enemy by our own and seeing that we were
    likely to be flanked from the right, I allowed the men to retire
    slowly, but all the time under a heavy and effective fire from the
    front and right.

    By the time we had reached our former position, where I
    reformed the men and re-established the line, I had lost in killed
    and wounded not less than 75 men, among whom were several
    officers. My lieutenant-colonel and acting adjutant had both had
    their horses shot under them, and my major severely wounded.

    In about an hour after the first advance, my regiment, with
    the Thirty-first and Thirty-third Tennessee Regt.'s, was ordered
    forward in support of Gen. Maney's brigade, on his left, the
    same being heavily pressed and at the same time threatened by
    a flank movement. We moved forward about 300 yards, when
    we encountered the enemy attempting to turn the left of Gen.
    Maney. We opened fire upon him, which, being kept up briskly
    for a short time, checked the movement on the flank of Gen.

    In the meantime, Maney's brigade retired; seeing which, the two
    regiments above named also fell back in good order to our
    former position in line with the brigade. In this movement we
    also suffered some loss, though but slight compared to that
    sustained in the first.

    The first day's engagement closed without any other engagement
    with the enemy or casualty. The second day also closed without
    our being engaged or meeting with loss although during the
    entire two day's engagement we were exposed at times to a
    terrific shelling.

    The casualties to the regiment in the entire battle were as
    follows: Eight killed, 66 wounded, 20 missing, including 3 that were
    known also to be wounded, viz, Capt. Frazier and Sergeant
    Thompson. Among the killed was Capt. W. W. Lackey, a gallant
    officer and brave soldier, a generous and courteous gentleman.
    It is also feared that Capt. Frazier may be dead, as he was
    known to be seriously wounded through the body. He was left on
    the field, and fell with others into the hands of the enemy.

    Accompanying the foregoing statement is submitted a list*
    showing the name and rank of the killed, wounded, and missing
    in the regiment. While we mourn the gallant dead who have
    fallen and feel for those who suffer from wounds, it is matter of
    congratulation that yourself and so many others of your command
    escaped unhurt through the operations of two days upon the
    bloody field of Chickamauga.

    Respectfully submitted.

    F. M. WALKER,
    Col., Comdg. Nineteenth Tennessee Regt.

    Brig.-Gen. STRAHL.

    Source: Official Records
    [Series I. Vol. 30. Part II, Reports. Serial No. 51.]

    Colonel Walker was the Confederate Officer that received the surrender of General Prentiss at Shiloh. The Colonel was killed at Atlanta, July 22, 1864.

    Maybe some remember watching the episode of the program " History Detectives " about the Confederate P.O.W. at Johnson's Island that made a " home-made" camera and took photos of some of his comrades. Notice the print below the photo, "made on oyster can."


    Robert Chester Crouch: Residence Jonesboro, TN; a 17 year-old Farmer. Promoted to 1st Lieutenant. Enlisted and mustered on 7/1/1861 at Jonesboro, TN as a Private into Company B 19th Tennessee Infantry. POW 9/19/1863 Chickamauga, GA. POW 9/19/1863 Chickamauga, GA. Confined 9/20/1863 Johnson's Island, OH. Oath of Allegiance 6/15/1865 Johnson's Island, OH. Born 4/14/1844 in Jonesboro, TN. Died 5/2/1931 in Morristown, TN. After the War he lived in Morristown, TN. He served for some time on the Tennessee Pension Board.
    Death Of Zollicoffer:


    Brigadier-General Felix K. Zollicoffer, of Tennessee, fell in
    battle before the war had lasted a year; but at that time
    there had been no death which inspired more genuine regret.
    He was born in Maury county, Tenn., May 19, 1812, of Swiss
    descent. His grandfather was a captain in the war of
    American independence.

    His early education was limited, being only such as could be
    obtained in the common schools of that day, and with but
    little preparation for the battle of life he was thrown upon
    his own resources. While yet a boy he was employed in a
    printing-office, and soon became very proficient.

    In 1835 he became editor of the Columbia Observer. Afterward
    he edited the Nashville Banner, with great ability, conducting
    it in the interest of the Whig party, earning for himself
    considerable fame as a political leader. In 1841 he was
    appointed attorney-general of Tennessee, and in the same year
    was elected by the legislature as comptroller.

    In 1849 he was chosen a member of the State Senate. He was
    elected a member of Congress from the Nashville district in
    1853. This position he held for three successive terms, and
    won much distinction as a debater on all the leading issues of
    the day. He was so skillful in his wielding of figures and
    statistics that he frequently vanquished more eloquent men by
    the strong array of facts which he presented. In this way he
    was regarded as a formidable opponent in debate.

    To be a Whig at that day was to be for the Union. This
    sentiment Zollicoffer held in common with his party; but the
    continual agitation of the slavery question finally drove him,
    as it did many other devoted Unionists of the South, into the
    ranks of the State rights men. He was devoted, however, to
    the Union, and was convinced that its preservation could be
    secured through the policy advocated by the political
    followers of Bell and Everett. Therefore he earnestly
    advocated the election of these two leaders in 1860 on the
    brief platform, "The Constitution, the Union and the
    enforcement of the laws," and canvassed the State of New York
    for that ticket, declaring that the election of Abraham
    Lincoln on the platform adopted by the Republican party would
    result in a sectional war.

    Having, as he thought, done what he could to avert such a
    calamity, when the issue was squarely made, he did not
    hesitate to espouse the cause of the South. He had some
    experience in military affairs, having been first a private
    soldier, and then a commissioned officer in the Seminole war.

    He assisted in the organization of the provisional army of
    Tennessee, and was appointed one of the major-generals of
    State forces, May 9, 1861. He received his commission as
    brigadier-general in the provisional army of the Confederate
    States, July 9, 1861, and was assigned to command in east

    He was beset by many difficulties, but acted with great
    justice and moderation. His efforts to overcome the hostility
    to the Confederate cause which existed in so large a part of
    his department met with considerable success. He issued
    conciliatory orders, and declared that no act or word would be
    tolerated on the part of officers or men, which was calculated
    to alarm or irritate the people of his district.

    Finding that Federal forces were gathering in Kentucky in such
    a position as to menace his department, he led a portion of
    his men to Barboursville, and without serious difficulty
    dispersed a Federal camp. Then marching in the direction of
    Somerset, he caused the retreat of General Schoepf in such
    disorder that it received the name of the "Wildcat stampede."

    In January, 1862, he and his force of about 4,000 men, near
    Mill Spring, Ky., came under command of Major-General
    Crittenden, who was his superior in rank. Here occurred,
    January 19th, the disastrous battle in which General
    Zollicoffer lost his life.

    The circumstances of his death were as follows: The day was
    apparently going well for the Confederates, and Zollicoffer
    was ascending a hill where the enemy had collected his
    strength. As he rode forward to supposed victory, he came
    upon a regiment of Kentuckians (Union) commanded by Colonel
    Fry, concealed in a piece of woods.

    He did not become aware of his dangerous position until it was
    too late. Although a rubber overcoat concealed his uniform, a
    man who recognized his features called out, "There's
    Zollicoffer! Kill him!" An aide to Zollicoffer instantly
    fired and killed the man who had recognized the general.

    Zollicoffer, hoping still to deceive the enemy, rode within a
    few feet of Fry and said, "You are not going to fight your
    friends, are you?" pointing to a Mississippi regiment some
    distance off. The reply was a pistol shot from the colonel
    and a volley from his men, and General Zollicoffer fell from
    his horse, dead, pierced through by many balls.

    General Zollicoffer at the time of his death was between
    forty-five and fifty years of age. He was a man of
    unblemished moral character, amiable and modest in deportment,
    but quick to resent an insult. He was untiring in application
    to his duties and, had he lived, would probably have won
    distinction as a division commander. Many public honors were
    paid to his memory in the South.

    Source: Confederate Military History, vol. X, p. 346
    Fry, Speed S., brigadier-general, was born in Mercer
    county, now Boyle county, Ky., Sept. 9, 1817. He began his
    college education at Centre college, but finished at Wabash,
    where he was graduated in 1840, studied law and in 1843 was ad-
    mitted to the bar. He organized a company for the 2nd Ky. Vol-
    unteers in 1846, commanded it during the Mexican war, and on
    his return to Kentucky resumed his law practice and was, from
    1857 to 1861, county judge of Boyle County. At the beginning
    of the Civil war he organized the 4th Ky. infantry, became its
    Colonel Oct. 9, 1861, and served throughout the war, being mus-
    tered out of the service Aug. 24, 1865. He was brigadier-
    general of volunteers from March 21, 1862. After the war, from
    1869-72, Gen. Fry was supervisor of internal revenue in Ken-
    tucky. He died in Louisville, Ky., Aug. 1, 1892.

    Source: The Union Army, vol. 8

    Considered to be the most accurate rendition of the incident, based on the testimony of eyewitnesses.
    columbus c. etter.jpg

    Columbus C. Etter:
    Enlisted and mustered on 6/1/1861 as a Private into "K" Co. TN 19th Infantry. He was born at Mooresburg, Tennessee, October 22, 1836. Columbus gave up his life early in the battle for the Confederacy's independence. He was killed in the Battle of Shiloh, April 6, 1862.

    William W. Etter: 22 years old, when he enlisted and mustered on 5/15/1861 as a Private into "K" Co. TN 19th Infantry. Promoted to 1st Lieut. Wounded in the Georgia Campaign. Born 8/10/1838 in Mooresburg, TN. Died 1/5/1898 in Palarm, AR. Two other brothers served in the 63rd Tennessee.
    Last edited: Mar 7, 2017

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