Perceived Offenses to "State Sovereignty" in Antebellum North Carolina

Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

lelliott19

Captain
Forum Host
Silver Patron
Joined
Mar 15, 2013
Messages
6,287
1571010727902.png

A New Map of North Carolina, 1685
Have any members here at Civil War Talk read much about North Carolina's distress over issues they perceived as offenses to state sovereignty back in the 1780s to 1840's? I've been doing some reading trying to find out more about an Indian tribe that was granted reserved land in the area of NC where my ancestors settled. Does anyone know of a detailed study of these early antebellum state sovereignty issues? I'd sure be interested to read more.

Here's a <very> brief summary:
It seems that NC's discontent mainly started when the fledgling US Government approved the assumption of states' debts <See below*> Other factors were the unpopular cession of lands that had once belonged to the State of North Carolina. Also what NC perceived as interference of the United States government in the state's interactions with the Indians residing within her boundaries; reserves of land granted to those Indians within the state; and the treaty of Middle Plantation which prevented the Indians from treatying with any individual or entity other than the US government - including the State of North Carolina.

Basically, for many years, NC had been adjudicating disputes between the various Indian tribes living within her borders and between settlers and Indians. Lands reserved to said Indians by the Crown, and later the state of Virginia, that lay within the state were recognized by NC. This included some reserved lands within the area of the disputed VA/NC state line.

When disputes arose, the NC General Assembly took appropriate actions - to prevent European settlers from encroaching on Indian lands and to 'remind' the Indians to stay on their reserved lands. When the situation arose, NC relocated Indians and exchanged their old lands for new ones within the State. When some tribes relocated off their lands, the state appointed proprietors to run the plantations and fisheries on behalf of said Indians.

So it seems that the US govt's decree - included as part of the Treaty of Middle Plantation - that the Indians refrain from treatying with any individual or entity other than the US govt, was perceived by NC as a means to have the whole situation under control of the US govt. And for the reserved lands - within the boundaries of the State of NC - to become the property of the US Govt.

Originally, the boundaries of NC went from the Atlantic all the way to....wherever they ended? In 1789 North Carolina ceded its western territory to the United States but, in doing so, she made a number of key reservations: 1. That the unpaid claims of NC rev war soldiers and officers could be made out of those lands. 2. That the $ resulting from the opening of the new territory would be used to extinguish the rev war debt. 3. That no law would be enacted towards emancipation within the territory and that no attempt at such a law would be made.

I find all this fascinating and am just wondering if any of the members here can enlighten me further? I always wondered what the "states' rights" were - - - other than slavery, of course. Seems these were perceived as some really important issues - at least in NC - during the antebellum period. Maybe they are specific to NC? and dont really apply to other states? Does anyone know of a detailed study? I'd sure be interested to read more.

* Here's an excerpt from the minutes of the NC House of Commons 1790 that paints a pretty clear picture of NC's views on assumption of states' debts:

Resolved, That the assumption of the State debts by the Congress of the United States, without their particular consent, is an infringement on the sovereignty of this State, and may prove eventually injurious and oppressive to the same; wherefore we view this measure of Congress as dangerous to the interests and rights of North Carolina: Under this impression, we the Representatives of the freemen of North Carolina, in General Assembly, on behalf of ourselves and our constituents, do solemnly protest against the proceedings of the Congress of the United States, assuming or providing for the debts of the individual states.​
Resolved, That the Senators and Representatives from this State in the Congress of the United States, be directed to exert their endeavours to prevent as far as possible the evil operations of such​
-------------------- page 1056 --------------------​
acts to the interests and liberties of this country, and prevent as much as in their power all other and further assumptions, until the accounts of the respective states, and this State in particular, shall be fully adjusted, and the consent of this State shall have been first had and obtained.​
Resolved, That the Executive of this state be required, without delay, to demand from the Senators and request of the Representatives of this State in Congress, their intelligence and advice as to the most eligible means of securing the rights and interests of this State, against such injuries as may arise to North Carolina from the aforesaid assumption; and that the Governor, by and with the advice of the Council in the recess of the General Assembly, in this particular may take such measures as to them may be deemed expedient for the purpose aforesaid.​
Resolved, That all evidences of the debt of the United States or of this State, in the hands of the Treasurer, Comptroller or State Agents, shall from time to time be subject, and they are hereby subjected, to the direction of the Governor and Council, during the recess of the General Assembly, that the same may be applied as to them may appear, upon mature deliberation, most beneficial to this State. Source [Minutes of the North Carolina House of Commons, North Carolina. General Assembly, November 01, 1790 - December 15, 1790, Volume 21, Pages 1055-1056.]

A cursory review of available material reveals similar rhetoric surrounding the 1808-1820 Indian lands disputes; the unpopular cession of western lands; and disagreement over how funds resulting from the ceded land were to be applied to the rev war debt. Fascinating stuff. @diane @wausaubob @alan polk @W. Richardson @unionblue @Lost Cause @Stone in the wall @Seduzal or anyone else who knows more about this?
 
Last edited:

W. Richardson

Captain
Joined
Jun 29, 2011
Messages
5,933
Location
Mt. Gilead, North Carolina
View attachment 329484
A New Map of North Carolina, 1685
Have any members here at Civil War Talk read much about North Carolina's distress over issues they perceived as offenses to state sovereignty back in the 1780s to 1840's? I've been doing some reading trying to find out more about an Indian tribe that was granted reserved land in the area of NC where my ancestors settled. Does anyone know of a detailed study of these early antebellum state sovereignty issues? I'd sure be interested to read more.

Here's a <very> brief summary:
It seems that NC's discontent mainly started when the fledgling US Government approved the assumption of states' debts <See below*> Other factors were the unpopular cession of lands that had once belonged to the State of North Carolina. Also what NC perceived as interference of the United States government in the state's interactions with the Indians residing within her boundaries; reserves of land granted to those Indians within the state; and the treaty of Middle Plantation which prevented the Indians from treatying with any individual or entity other than the US government - including the State of North Carolina.

Basically, for many years, NC had been adjudicating disputes between the various Indian tribes living within her borders and between settlers and Indians. Lands reserved to said Indians by the Crown, and later the state of Virginia, that lay within the state were recognized by NC. This included some reserved lands within the area of the disputed VA/NC state line.

When disputes arose, the NC General Assembly took appropriate actions - to prevent European settlers from encroaching on Indian lands and to 'remind' the Indians to stay on their reserved lands. When the situation arose, NC relocated Indians and exchanged their old lands for new ones within the State. When some tribes relocated off their lands, the state appointed proprietors to run the plantations and fisheries on behalf of said Indians.

So it seems that the US govt's decree - included as part of the Treaty of Middle Plantation - that the Indians refrain from treatying with any individual or entity other than the US govt, was perceived by NC as a means to have the whole situation under control of the US govt. And for the reserved lands - within the boundaries of the State of NC - to become the property of the US Govt.

Originally, the boundaries of NC went from the Atlantic all the way to....wherever they ended? In 1789 North Carolina ceded its western territory to the United States but, in doing so, she made a number of key reservations: 1. That the unpaid claims of NC rev war soldiers and officers could be made out of those lands. 2. That the $ resulting from the opening of the new territory would be used to extinguish the rev war debt. 3. That no law would be enacted towards emancipation within the territory and that no attempt at such a law would be made.

I find all this fascinating and am just wondering if any of the members here can enlighten me further? I always wondered what the "states' rights" were - - - other than slavery, of course. Seems these were perceived as some really important issues - at least in NC - during the antebellum period. Maybe they are specific to NC? and dont really apply to other states? Does anyone know of a detailed study? I'd sure be interested to read more.

* Here's an excerpt from the minutes of the NC House of Commons 1790 that paints a pretty clear picture of NC's views on assumption of states' debts:

Resolved, That the assumption of the State debts by the Congress of the United States, without their particular consent, is an infringement on the sovereignty of this State, and may prove eventually injurious and oppressive to the same; wherefore we view this measure of Congress as dangerous to the interests and rights of North Carolina: Under this impression, we the Representatives of the freemen of North Carolina, in General Assembly, on behalf of ourselves and our constituents, do solemnly protest against the proceedings of the Congress of the United States, assuming or providing for the debts of the individual states.​
Resolved, That the Senators and Representatives from this State in the Congress of the United States, be directed to exert their endeavours to prevent as far as possible the evil operations of such​
-------------------- page 1056 --------------------​
acts to the interests and liberties of this country, and prevent as much as in their power all other and further assumptions, until the accounts of the respective states, and this State in particular, shall be fully adjusted, and the consent of this State shall have been first had and obtained.​
Resolved, That the Executive of this state be required, without delay, to demand from the Senators and request of the Representatives of this State in Congress, their intelligence and advice as to the most eligible means of securing the rights and interests of this State, against such injuries as may arise to North Carolina from the aforesaid assumption; and that the Governor, by and with the advice of the Council in the recess of the General Assembly, in this particular may take such measures as to them may be deemed expedient for the purpose aforesaid.​
Resolved, That all evidences of the debt of the United States or of this State, in the hands of the Treasurer, Comptroller or State Agents, shall from time to time be subject, and they are hereby subjected, to the direction of the Governor and Council, during the recess of the General Assembly, that the same may be applied as to them may appear, upon mature deliberation, most beneficial to this State. Source [Minutes of the North Carolina House of Commons, North Carolina. General Assembly, November 01, 1790 - December 15, 1790, Volume 21, Pages 1055-1056.]

A cursory review of available material reveals similar rhetoric surrounding the 1808-1820 Indian lands disputes; the unpopular cession of western lands; and disagreement over how funds resulting from the ceded land were to be applied to the rev war debt. Fascinating stuff. @diane @wausaubob @alan polk @W. Richardson @unionblue @Lost Cause @Stone in the wall @Seduzal or anyone else who knows more about this?

@lelliott19,

I have to say I can add very little about this. It's really fascinating reading and I do thank you for posting. I do remember reading about the NC Boundary at one point running to the Pacific. Truly amazing read.

Respectfully,
William
To post CWT.JPG
 

diane

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
Joined
Jan 23, 2010
Messages
20,541
Location
State of Jefferson
That tribe would be the Catawbas. And it's STILL in the courts! My grandfather was part Catawba and I lived near the Rock Hill rez for a short time as a kid, which was literally one mile by one mile big with nothing but shacks and very elderly people. However, Chief Blue managed to get the mess of treaties, declarations and proclamations from various entities at various times, state, federal and foreign clear to the Supreme Court where it was only partially decided. The Catawbas agreed to a $50 million settlement, but the dispute over North Carolina holdings is still ongoing! It first came into the judicial system in 1973...so this might give one an idea of which generation of Catawbas will find out if they have a chunk of NC or a money payout.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

alan polk

2nd Lieutenant
Joined
Jun 11, 2012
Messages
2,799
I can’t help much either, @lelliott19 But I’m most interested. My 5 or 6 time grandfather was involved with North Carolina politics in its beginnings. According to the North Carolina dictionary, my ancestor, Thomas Jones:
“[R]epresented Chowan County in the colonial Assembly for three terms between 1773 and 1775 and in all five sessions of the Provincial Congress between 1774 and 1776. He also served on the Provincial Council in 1775–76 and on the Council of Safety in 1776. His letters, which are well written and grammatically correct, contain evidence of a classical education.”

After reading @diane post above, I’m wondering if my ancestor was involved with the case she mentioned. Again, the North Carolina dictionary States as follows:

“As a member of the Provincial Council and the Provincial Congress, Jones played a significant role in the colony. . . . . The Council was responsible for the steps that led to victory at the Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge; it also laid the plans for and ordered the execution of General Griffith Rutherford's campaign against the Cherokee Indians. In the Provincial Congress Jones served on a select committee to provide for the defense of the province, and he also was on the Committee of Secrecy, Intelligence, and Observation. The latter committee reported the document that has come to be known as the Halifax Resolves—the first state action calling for independence from Great Britain. On 9 May 1776 Allen Jones and Thomas Jones, presumably unrelated, were appointed by the Provincial Congress to attend the Virginia Provincial Congress to recommend that both states fit out armed vessels to protect trade.”

@diane or @lelliott19 , I wonder if the campaign against the Cherokee Indians stated above is the same incident Diane mentioned? That campaign was fought around the Catawba River. Sounds like it might be.

If so, I kinda hate that Diane’s ancestor and mine had to be associated in that way.
 

lelliott19

Captain
Forum Host
Silver Patron
Joined
Mar 15, 2013
Messages
6,287
That tribe would be the Catawbas.
Actually I think there are still several tribes yet "in limbo." The tribe in the section of the state where my folks settled - was granted reserve lands by the King. That reserve was recognized by VA but, after the border was settled, the reserve wound up being in NC. So NC recognized the reserve land. Later, the reserve was swapped when another nearby tribe was hostile. Then it was reconfigured and decreased in size and finally, when most of the inhabitants had left the reserve, it was placed under a proprietorship for the benefit of the said Indians. A lot of historians over the years have claimed that the few remaining were consolidated into another tribe and removed to the north. But from what I hear, that may not be completely true.

What initially peaked my curiosity was whether my folks took lands from the tribe or entered claims on land that had once been a part of the reserve. Turns out my direct ancestors didn't, but one of my collaterals or his descendants may have. I'm just not sure yet whether it was directly or indirectly. Anyway, @Eleanor Rose posted a thread about the Powhatan about a month ago which is what got me started down this incredible rabbit hole. I had NO IDEA about all this political wrangling over the lands; the huge sums of $ from the resulting claims; the conflicts over how the $ was allocated to extinguish the states' rev war debts; or any of this! I imagine the situation was the same for Georgia and South Carolina? But not the "new states" Alabama and Mississippi?
 
Last edited:

diane

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
Joined
Jan 23, 2010
Messages
20,541
Location
State of Jefferson
Don't worry about it Alan! They probably used Catawba scouts - the Cherokees were enemies at that time.

There is a LOT of complication with tribes in NC - there were a lot of them, and several merged with others as numbers dwindled. The history of cessions in the states of Mississippi, Tennessee, Alabama are a little less tangled because the tribes involved were greatly weakened by numerous conflicts. The Red Stick war for instance. Some of the Catawbas, when Removal was enforced, joined up with Cherokees in NC - which further complicated things. There were Choctaws from Mississippi who moved east instead of west, and they joined the Catawbas. (That's why my grandfather was Catawba/Cherokee/Choctaw/Chickasaw. They moved back to Kentucky.) Uncle Billy didn't help much later on - he blithely gave freedmen Indian lands and...that's still working through various courts. The remainder of the tribes back east have a much, much more complicated row to hoe than we do out here - and that's saying a lot! Just a couple years ago the Modoc, who had been removed to Oklahoma after the Modoc War, bought land in their original country around Lost Lake and returned. It was strange - they'd been gone over 100 years and the Modocs who had not been removed had merged with the Klamath and Yahoosin.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

Stone in the wall

First Sergeant
Joined
Sep 19, 2017
Messages
1,286
Location
Blue Ridge Mountains, Jefferson County WV
Nor can I add much here. As was stated above, I believe the Catawba would have been excellent scouts. They were known to travel to, or even north of the Potomac River. I remember they tracked some Lenapes all the way to near Leesburg Virginia (I used to live there and remember this part) and attacked them. Don't remember the out come.
 

lelliott19

Captain
Forum Host
Silver Patron
Joined
Mar 15, 2013
Messages
6,287
Here's another interesting item I ran across while reading the Journals of the Senate and House of Commons. This one is from 1835, page 29.

Does anyone know more about this? It sounds like the US treasury had a surplus - and rather than reduce taxes, the Federal Government was considering handing over the public land to the new western states?

I can sure see why North Carolina would have found this a particularly bitter pill to swallow since she had ceded all of her western territory years before and that land west of NC would have belonged to the state had she not ceded it to the US. So from NC perspective, she cedes the lands away to the US. The US has "plenty of money" now, so they are going to give the proceeds from the land claims to the new states - formed from land that used to belong to NC? [@alan polk @Stone in the wall James Lutzweiler @WJC @wausaubob @Andersonh1 do any of you know more about this? ]

And what does this part mean about tariffs?....the system of taxation, which was so lately adopted on a compromise of conflicting interests and opinions, upon the subject of the tariff, we believe it to be the duty of Congress to devise some safe method....
1572741100718.png

 
Last edited:
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

WJC

Major General
Moderator
Thread Medic
Answered the Call for Reinforcements
Joined
Aug 16, 2015
Messages
12,820
The US has "plenty of money" now, so they are going to give the proceeds from the land claims to the new states - formed from land that used to belong to NC? [@alan polk @Stone in the wall James Lutzweiler @WJC @wausaubob @Andersonh1 do any of you know more about this? ]
Recall that Jackson vetoed the original distribution bill. I believe the excerpt is of the Legislature's position as a new distribution bill was being crafted.
I don't know of any real "bitterness" on the part of North Carolinians when the provisions of the final, 1836 distribution bill were implemented. Of all the States, North Carolina seems to have made the best use of its substantial share of $1.5 Million. The State used it for internal improvements: railroads and land development. But it also formed the basis for the development of public education in the State.
As far as the "perceived offenses to State sovereignty", my recollection is that the State's Rights advocates gladly accepted the Federal revenues.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

trice

Lt. Colonel
Joined
May 2, 2006
Messages
11,916
Seems to go back to:
Tariff of 1789
Funding Act of 1790
Compromise of 1790
The Compromise of 1790 made it possible to pass the Funding Act of 1790, that had been blocked by many southern states as they had already paid off a good part of their war debt and didn't feel they should share the northern states debts.
Actual quotas allocated to the States for assumption of debt in the Funding Act of 1790, passed on August 4, 1790:
Massachusetts4,000,000
South Carolina4,000,000
Virginia3,500,000
North Carolina2,400,000
Pennsylvania2,200,000
Connecticut1,600,000
New York1,200,000
New Jersey800,000
Maryland800,000
New Hampshire300,000
Georgia300,000
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations200,000
Delaware200,000
That totals $21.5 million. Please note that Virginia, South Carolina and North Carolina are all very high in the list. Those three states account for $9.9 million of the $21.5 million (46%). If you consider Georgia, Maryland and Delaware as part of "the South" with them, they come to a total of $11.2 million out of the $21.5 million (52%).


Pennsylvania had been very aggressive in paying down their own debt (in 1787 Pennsylvania owed $11.6 million, which had been reduced to $4.8 million by late 1789). PA then engaged in some interesting financial arrangements to move debt back to private citizens as word of a Federal debt funding act grew -- Hamilton proposed it officially in January of 1790. In early 1790, Pennsylvania was the crucial state in the voting on the Funding Act, which failed to pass in April. (For further information on this, see "HEADS I WIN, TAILS YOU LOSE": THE PUBLIC CREDITORS AND THE ASSUMPTION ISSUE IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1790-1802.)

Interestingly enough, the totals submitted came to less than the quotas allowed, coming to only $18.3 million when everything was complete. Really odd for a government program. :hungry:
 
Last edited:

Stone in the wall

First Sergeant
Joined
Sep 19, 2017
Messages
1,286
Location
Blue Ridge Mountains, Jefferson County WV
Actual quotas allocated to the States for assumption of debt in the Funding Act of 1790, passed on August 4, 1790:
Massachusetts4,000,000
South Carolina4,000,000
Virginia3,500,000
North Carolina2,400,000
Pennsylvania2,200,000
Connecticut1,600,000
New York1,200,000
New Jersey800,000
Maryland800,000
New Hampshire300,000
Georgia300,000
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations200,000
Delaware200,000
That totals $21.5 million. Please note that Virginia, South Carolina and North Carolina are all very high in the list. Those three states account for $9.9 million of the $21.5 million (46%). If you consider Georgia, Maryland and Delaware as part of "the South" with them, they come to a total of $11.2 million out of the $21.5 million (52%).



Pennsylvania had been very aggressive in paying down their own debt (in 1787 Pennsylvania owed $11.6 million, which had been reduced to $4.8 million by late 1789). PA then engaged in some interesting financial arrangements to move debt back to private citizens as word of a Federal debt funding act grew -- Hamilton proposed it officially in January of 1790. In early 1790, Pennsylvania was the crucial state in the voting on the Funding Act, which failed to pass in April. (For further information on this, see "HEADS I WIN, TAILS YOU LOSE": THE PUBLIC CREDITORS AND THE ASSUMPTION ISSUE IN PENNSYLVANIA, 1790-1802.)

Interestingly enough, the totals submitted came to less than the quotas allowed, coming to only $18.3 million when everything was complete. Really odd for a government program. :hungry:
Amounts are for assumption of debts only. Like Pennsylvania had done, Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia and Maryland had also paid debt way down and were blocking it. South Carolina is high because same as most northern states it had been slow repaying. Hamilton had dropped the amount from $42.4million to $21.5million in effort to gain support. Of course the Compromise changed all this.
 

lelliott19

Captain
Forum Host
Silver Patron
Joined
Mar 15, 2013
Messages
6,287
formed the basis for the development of public education in the State.
From my reading of the NC Journals of the Senate and House of Commons from 1790 to 1835 it looks like NC had expended a lot of effort and resources to the establishment of public schools - prior to the allocations in 1836. The University of North Carolina, the first public University in the United States, was chartered in 1789 and provided with State support. In 1801, the town of Raleigh was granted a lot to erect an academy. In 1802, Governor Williams urged "adequate and suitable means for the general diffusion of learning and science throughout the State." Between 1800 and 1825, societies for the education of poor children in Edgecomb, New Bern, Fayetteville, Wilmington, Raleigh, Wayne County, and Johnston County seem to have had considerable influence in securing funds for their work. The New Bern charitable society for the education of poor females was incorporated by the legislature of 1812. The Wayne County free school was incorporated in 1813; as was the Fayetteville orphan asylum, whose object was to clothe, educate and bind out to trades poor orphan children. The Wilmington Female Benevolent Society, incorporated in 1817, had similar objects.

Act passed in the year 1825, entitled an "Act to create a fund for the establishment of Common Schools," have had the same under consideration and beg leave to report: That by the act of 1825 a fund for common schools is created, in which the youth of our State are to be instructed in the common principles of reading, writing and arithmetic: That under the provisions of that act, a fund to the amount of $35,989.82½ cts. has already accumulated; that the sum with the dividends of Bank Stock and Navigation Stock, monies arising from licenses, granted to retailers and auctioneers; monies arising from entries of vacant land, and the vacant and unappropriated swamp lands; also the sum of $21,090 which was paid by the State for [obtaining title to] Indian reservations [from the Indians], which it is hoped will be refunded by the United States; all of which are appropriated by said act to the fund for Common Schools, will create a fund sufficient to carry the rudiments of an English Education to the door of every cottage in this State.​
The NC Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was established in 1827. Despite the interest and good intentions toward public education, it seems that the distribution of surplus revenue in 1836 resulted in a new era in North Carolina public education. The total amount received from the national government under this act was $1,433,757.39 See: Public Education in North Carolina; A Documentary History, 1790-1840. Coon. Vol. I, page 42.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!

WJC

Major General
Moderator
Thread Medic
Answered the Call for Reinforcements
Joined
Aug 16, 2015
Messages
12,820
From my reading of the NC Journals of the Senate and House of Commons from 1790 to 1835 it looks like NC had expended a lot of effort and resources to the establishment of public schools - prior to the allocations in 1836. The University of North Carolina, the first public University in the United States, was chartered in 1789 and provided with State support. In 1801, the town of Raleigh was granted a lot to erect an academy. In 1802, Governor Williams urged "adequate and suitable means for the general diffusion of learning and science throughout the State." Between 1800 and 1825, societies for the education of poor children in Edgecomb, New Bern, Fayetteville, Wilmington, Raleigh, Wayne County, and Johnston County seem to have had considerable influence in securing funds for their work. The New Bern charitable society for the education of poor females was incorporated by the legislature of 1812. The Wayne County free school was incorporated in 1813; as was the Fayetteville orphan asylum, whose object was to clothe, educate and bind out to trades poor orphan children. The Wilmington Female Benevolent Society, incorporated in 1817, had similar objects.

Act passed in the year 1825, entitled an "Act to create a fund for the establishment of Common Schools," have had the same under consideration and beg leave to report: That by the act of 1825 a fund for common schools is created, in which the youth of our State are to be instructed in the common principles of reading, writing and arithmetic: That under the provisions of that act, a fund to the amount of $35,989.82½ cts. has already accumulated; that the sum with the dividends of Bank Stock and Navigation Stock, monies arising from licenses, granted to retailers and auctioneers; monies arising from entries of vacant land, and the vacant and unappropriated swamp lands; also the sum of $21,090 which was paid by the State for [obtaining title to] Indian reservations [from the Indians], which it is hoped will be refunded by the United States; all of which are appropriated by said act to the fund for Common Schools, will create a fund sufficient to carry the rudiments of an English Education to the door of every cottage in this State.​
The NC Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb was established in 1827. Despite the interest and good intentions toward public education, it seems that the distribution of surplus revenue in 1836 resulted in a new era in North Carolina public education. The total amount received from the national government under this act was $1,433,757.39 See: Public Education in North Carolina; A Documentary History, 1790-1840. Coon. Vol. I, page 42.
Thanks for your response.
Indeed, North Carolina was among the most advanced of the States in supporting free, universal education. Most of the State's share of money from the Federal surplus was squandered. The exception was the money devoted to education.
 
Fewer ads. Lots of American Civil War content!
JOIN NOW: REGISTER HERE!
Top