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MattL

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Virginia, the reluctant secession, as in I'm reluctant to eat pizza when I should be eating a salad. I mean I tell myself I'm reluctant, I might tell my wife I'm reluctant, we both know it's a lie.

Fortunately Virginians made it very clear it wasn't reluctant since as early as January 21st, 1861 they gave the US an ultimatum, "concede to us regarding slavery or we join the rest of the slaveholding South"... unanimously.

January 21st, 1861

----
Resolved by the general assembly of Virginia, that if all efforts to reconcile the unhappy differences existing between the two sections of the country, should prove to be abortive, then, in the opinion of the general assembly, every consideration of honor and interest demand that Virginia shall unite her destiny with the slaveholding states of the south.
----

The votes

----
AYES--Messrs. Crutchfield (speaker), Alderson, Allen, Anderson, Arnold, Bailey, Ballard, Baskervill, Bass, Bassel, Bell, Bentley, Burks, Caperton, Carpenter, Carter, Cassin, Chapman, Childs, Christian, Claiborne, Coleman, Cowan, Crump, Davis, Dickenson, Duckwall, Edwards, Evans, Ferguson, Fleming, Friend, J. T. Gibson, C. H. Gilmer, Graham, Grattan, Hanly, Haymond, Huntt, Hunter, James, Jett, Johnson, C. H. Jones, W. T. Jones, Kaufman, Kee, Kemper, Kincheloe, Knotts, Kyle, Leftwich, Locke, Lockridge, Lucas, Lynn, Magruder, Mallory, W, Martin, Massie, Matthews, Maupin, McCamant, McDowell, McGruder, McKinney, McKenzie, Medley, Miles, J. R. Miller, Mong, Montague, Montgomery, Morgan, Myers, Nelson, Newton, Phelps, Preston, Pritchard, Randolph, Reid, Richardson, Robertson, Robinson, Rutherfoord, Saunders, Shannon, Sherrard, J. K. Smith, I. N. Smith, Staples, Thomas, Tomlin, Tyler, Walker, Wallace, Ward, A. Watson, E. Watson, Welch, West, Wilson, Willcox, Witten, Woolfolk and Yerby--108.
----

There are no noes recorded.

It really can't be more plain as day. That if the differences aren't reconciled they will unite with the slaveholding states of the South. Keeping in mind there were no votes against that.

What conditions are they talking about, well three days previous they outline those.

January 19th, 1861

----
Whereas it is the deliberate opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, that unless the unhappy controversy, which now divides the states of this confederacy, shall be satisfactorily adjusted, a permanent dissolution of the Union is inevitable; and the general assembly, representing the wishes of the people of the commonwealth, is desirous of employing every reasonable means to avert so dire a calamity, and determined to make a final effort to restore the Union and the constitution, in the spirit in which they were established by the fathers of the republic: Therefore,

Resolved, that on behalf of the commonwealth of Virginia, an invitation is hereby extended to all such states, whether slaveholding or non-slaveholding, as are willing to unite with Virginia in an earnest effort to adjust the present unhappy controversies, in the spirit in which the constitution was originally formed, and consistently with its principles, so as to afford to the people of the slaveholding states adequate guarantees for the security of their rights, to appoint commissioners to meet on the 4th day of February next, in the city of Washington, similar commissioners appointed by Virginia, to consider, and if practicable, agree upon some suitable adjustment.

Resolved, that Ex-president John Tyler, William C. Rivers, Judge John W. Brockenbrough, George W. Summers and James A. Seddon, are hereby appointed commissioners, whose duty it shall be to repair to the city of Washington, on the day designated in the foregoing resolution, to meet such commissioners as may be appointed by any of the said states, in accordance with the foregoing resolution.

Resolved, that if said commissioners, after full and free conference, shall agree upon any plan of adjustment requiring amendments of the federal constitution, for the further security of the rights of the people of the slaveholding states, they be requested to communicate the proposed amendments to congress, for the purpose of having the same submitted by that body, according to the forms of the constitution, to the several states for ratification.

Resolved, that if said commissioners cannot agree on said adjustment, or if agreeing, congress shall refuse to submit for ratification such amendments as may be proposed, then the commissioners of this state shall immediately communicate the result to the executive of this commonwealth, to be by him laid before the convention of the people of Virginia and the general assembly: provided, that the said commissioners be subject at all times to the control of the general assembly, or if in session, to that of the state convention.

Resolved, that in the opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, the propositions embraced in the resolutions presented to the senate of the United States by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, so modified as that the first article proposed as an amendment to the constitution of the United States shall apply to all the territory of the United States now held or hereafter acquired south of latitude thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, and provide that slavery of the African race shall be effectually protected as property therein during the continuance of the territorial government, and the fourth article shall secure to the owners of slaves the right of transit with their slaves between and through the non-slaveholding states and territories, constitute the basis of such an adjustment of the unhappy controversy which now divides the states of this confederacy, as would be accepted by the people of this commonwealth.

Resolved, that Ex-president John Tyler is hereby appointed by the concurrent vote of each branch of the general assembly, a commissioner to the president of the United States, and Judge John Robertson is hereby appointed, by a like vote, a commissioner to the state of South Carolina, and the other states that have seceded, or shall secede, with instructions respectfully to request the president of the United States and the authorities of such states to agree to abstain, pending the proceedings contemplated by the action of this general assembly, from any and all acts calculated to produce a collision of arms between the states and the government of the United States.

Resolved, that copies of the foregoing resolutions be forthwith telegraphed to the executives of the several states, and also to the president of the United States, and that the governor be requested to inform, without delay, the commissioners of their appointment by the foregoing resolutions.
----

Votes

----
AYES--Messrs. Crutchfield (speaker), Allen, Anderson, Arnold, Ball, Ballard, Baskervill, Bass, Bassel, Bell, Bentley, Bisbie, Burks, Caperton, Carter, Chapman, Childs, Claiborne, Coleman, Crump, Davis, Duckwall, Evans, Friend, J. T. Gibson, C. H. Gilmer, Graham, Grattan, Hanly, Huntt, Hunter, James, Jett, Johnson, C. H. Jones, W. T. Jones, Kaufman, Kemper, Kincheloe, Knotts, Kyle, Leftwich, Locke, Magruder, Mallory, J. G. Martin, W. Martin, Matthews, Maupin, McCamant, McDowell, McGruder, McKinney, Miles, J. R. Miller, Mong, Montague, Montgomery, Morgan, Nelson, Newton, Phelps, Pritchard, Robertson, Robinson, Rutherfoord, Saunders, Seddon, Shannon, Sherrard, J. K. Smith, I. N. Smith, Staples, Thomas, Tomlin, Tyler, Wallace, Ward, A. Watson, E. Watson, Welch, Wilson, Wood and Woolfolk--83.

NOES--Messrs. Myers, Porter, Richardson and Wingfield--4.
----

Note both of these resolution clearly State they will join with the rest of the slaveholding South if reconciliation or measures aren't met, neither of these define only on a condition of war or coercion. They clearly establish the side they will form should any conclusion not meet reconciliation. War and alleged "coercion" just ended the time table of reconciliation.
 
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byron ed

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If slavery had been the only issue, then Virginia would have originally seceded in early April 1861 instead of voting against secession by a 2 to 1 margin. The issue of slavery was an important topic at the Secession Convention but the delegates also made clear they were opposed to any type of federal coercion. Furthermore, the Virginia General Assembly had already passed an Anti-Coercion Resolution in Jan. 1861 even before the Secession Convention met. This resolution stated that the federal government had no power to make war against the states and any type of coercion would be resisted by any means necessary. After Lincoln's call for troops on April 15th, the Secession Convention reconvened only 2 days later and voted overwhelmingly to secede as a result of the proposed federal coercion. Therefore, it was the threat of federal coercion against the other southern states which caused Virginia to ultimately decide to secede.
Did you think using the word "coercion" five times would make it seem actually outrageous? All states dealt with Federal oversight issues -- not to mention that supreme impalement of states rights' known as the Fugitive Slave Law. But somehow it's "Tariffs, Taxes and Territories - Oh My!" for the secession South.

You would think Federal "coercion" was responsible for white Southrons roiling about in the gutters of their cities, chasing scraps of food, after losing everything they owned to wicked Northern lenders. The Flowers of the South were being compromised and forced into amalgation. There were armies of John Browns invading from the North unchecked, inciting loyal slaves to up and kill their masters, their master's families and the family dog and parakeet. Hard-working white farmers forced to grovel before overpriced Northern shippers. Hordes of Irish, German and low country immigrants coming in through New York and infiltrating the South to take whatever factory jobs a po' white Southron could aspire to, and bringing their petty and grand crimes with them.

None of that had reached that point of desperation. It's to laugh. White folks in the South were generally just fine. They had homes and a place in the Sun as citizens. (Unlike their black chattel, the ones with a genuinely desperate cause).

It's quite clear that the primary cause of secession, and the primary precept of the Confederacy, was slavery; to preserve and expand it. And what's more, Southrons at the time had no illusions about that. Virginians had no illusions about it either, Lee included.
 
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byron ed

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Virginia, the reluctant secession ..Fortunately Virginians made it very clear it wasn't reluctant since as early as January 21st, 1861 they gave the US an ultimatum, concede to us regarding slavery or we join the rest of the slaveholding South... unanimously.
It seems as if the "us" and "we" is intended to include people today, even yourself. Are we to suppose there are actual Virginia Secessionists and Confederates yet alive? Elaborate.
 
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January 19th, 1861

----
Whereas it is the deliberate opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, that unless the unhappy controversy, which now divides the states of this confederacy, shall be satisfactorily adjusted, a permanent dissolution of the Union is inevitable; and the general assembly, representing the wishes of the people of the commonwealth, is desirous of employing every reasonable means to avert so dire a calamity, and determined to make a final effort to restore the Union and the constitution, in the spirit in which they were established by the fathers of the republic: Therefore,

Resolved, that on behalf of the commonwealth of Virginia, an invitation is hereby extended to all such states, whether slaveholding or non-slaveholding, as are willing to unite with Virginia in an earnest effort to adjust the present unhappy controversies, in the spirit in which the constitution was originally formed, and consistently with its principles, so as to afford to the people of the slaveholding states adequate guarantees for the security of their rights, to appoint commissioners to meet on the 4th day of February next, in the city of Washington, similar commissioners appointed by Virginia, to consider, and if practicable, agree upon some suitable adjustment.

Resolved, that Ex-president John Tyler, William C. Rivers, Judge John W. Brockenbrough, George W. Summers and James A. Seddon, are hereby appointed commissioners, whose duty it shall be to repair to the city of Washington, on the day designated in the foregoing resolution, to meet such commissioners as may be appointed by any of the said states, in accordance with the foregoing resolution.

Resolved, that if said commissioners, after full and free conference, shall agree upon any plan of adjustment requiring amendments of the federal constitution, for the further security of the rights of the people of the slaveholding states, they be requested to communicate the proposed amendments to congress, for the purpose of having the same submitted by that body, according to the forms of the constitution, to the several states for ratification.

Resolved, that if said commissioners cannot agree on said adjustment, or if agreeing, congress shall refuse to submit for ratification such amendments as may be proposed, then the commissioners of this state shall immediately communicate the result to the executive of this commonwealth, to be by him laid before the convention of the people of Virginia and the general assembly: provided, that the said commissioners be subject at all times to the control of the general assembly, or if in session, to that of the state convention.

Resolved, that in the opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, the propositions embraced in the resolutions presented to the senate of the United States by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, so modified as that the first article proposed as an amendment to the constitution of the United States shall apply to all the territory of the United States now held or hereafter acquired south of latitude thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, and provide that slavery of the African race shall be effectually protected as property therein during the continuance of the territorial government, and the fourth article shall secure to the owners of slaves the right of transit with their slaves between and through the non-slaveholding states and territories, constitute the basis of such an adjustment of the unhappy controversy which now divides the states of this confederacy, as would be accepted by the people of this commonwealth.

Resolved, that Ex-president John Tyler is hereby appointed by the concurrent vote of each branch of the general assembly, a commissioner to the president of the United States, and Judge John Robertson is hereby appointed, by a like vote, a commissioner to the state of South Carolina, and the other states that have seceded, or shall secede, with instructions respectfully to request the president of the United States and the authorities of such states to agree to abstain, pending the proceedings contemplated by the action of this general assembly, from any and all acts calculated to produce a collision of arms between the states and the government of the United States.

Resolved, that copies of the foregoing resolutions be forthwith telegraphed to the executives of the several states, and also to the president of the United States, and that the governor be requested to inform, without delay, the commissioners of their appointment by the foregoing resolutions.
That's VA's invitation to the Peace Conference of 1861. The final product of that conference (which included 7 slave states) also dealt with only one issue. Ditto Crittenden's Compromise. Ditto Jefferson Davis's resolutions in February 1860. The election of the first anti-slavery president was the occasion for seven slave states (those with the highest slave populations by percentage). The commencement of the ACW was the occasion for for four additional slave states (with the next highest slave populations). Those four states had no problem with their brethren coercing U.S. sovereignty in Charleston Harbor. Slavery was the only issue dividing the states (and I mean dividing the states) 1860-1861. Everything else was plain vanilla sectionalism, which was not enough to prompt secession and civil war, as per the referenced proposals. all designed to settle and solve the matter.
 

jgoodguy

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Did you think using the word "coercion" five times would make it seem actually outrageous? All states dealt with Federal oversight issues -- not to mention that supreme impalement of states rights' known as the Fugitive Slave Law. But somehow it's "Tariffs, Taxes and Territories - Oh My!" for the secession South.

You would think Federal "coercion" was responsible for white Southrons roiling about in the gutters of their cities, chasing scraps of food, after losing everything they owned to wicked Northern lenders. The Flowers of the South were being compromised and forced into amalgation. There were armies of John Browns invading from the North unchecked, inciting loyal slaves to up and kill their masters, their master's families and the family dog and parakeet. Hard-working white farmers forced to grovel before overpriced Northern shippers. Hordes of Irish, German and low country immigrants coming in through New York and infiltrating the South to take whatever factory jobs a po' white Southron could aspire to, and bringing their petty and grand crimes with them.

None of that had reached that point of desperation. It's to laugh. White folks in the South were generally just fine. They had homes and a place in the Sun as citizens. (Unlike their black chattel, the ones with a genuinely desperate cause).

It's quite clear that the primary cause of secession, and the primary precept of the Confederacy, was slavery; to preserve and expand it. And what's more, Southrons at the time had no illusions about that. Virginians had no illusions about it either, Lee included.
Coercion of States is a feature of the Constitution, not a bug.
 

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It seems as if the "us" and "we" is intended to include people today, even yourself. Are we to suppose there are actual Virginia Secessionists and Confederates yet alive? Elaborate.
Sorry it was unclear, I should have put "quotes" around that statement, I was stating it from the perspective of Virginians during the time mentioned.
 
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WJC

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Fortunately Virginians made it very clear it wasn't reluctant since as early as January 21st, 1861 they gave the US an ultimatum, concede to us regarding slavery or we join the rest of the slaveholding South... unanimously.
I have, until @jgoodguy posted this information, indeed considered Virginia's decision "reluctant" and a difficult, last minute decision. Now it is clear that their intent from at least January was not only secession but joining the other states in rebellion against the United States. A 'Kentucky-like' neutrality was never 'on the table'.
 
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Coercion of States is a feature of the Constitution, not a bug.
Well stated. Coercion is an important function of maintaining order. Imprisoning individuals for crimes is individual coercion and in itself isn't inherently good or bad, just a tool.

It's interesting too since as a software engineer the word "coercion" has a different connotation to us than many others. It's a term used in computer science regarding the automatic conversion between data types. Basically implicit conversion vs explicit conversion. I find in the Civil War, despite your personal opinion on whether it was good or bad, that it's a good way to look at such coercion. The Southern Confederacy changed itself to an incompatible type and the US automatically and implicitly converted it back to a type compatible again with the US Constitution. As you say a feature, not a bug. The US Constitution was only as effective as it was in our Nation's history due to it being self enforcing and adapting (including mechanisms for just about anything to be changed given enough support and you follow the proper process).

The action was to be expected (or realistically expected at a minimum) whatever you personally believe about it.
 

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I have, until @jgoodguy posted this information, indeed considered Virginia's decision "reluctant" and a difficult, last minute decision. Now it is clear that their intent from at least January was not only secession but joining the other states in rebellion against the United States. A 'Kentucky-like' neutrality was never 'on the table'.
I too thought the same until studying Virginia resolutions, secession convention in detail, etc a year or two ago.

I have yet to complete my own study in this (work has been extra crunchy lately), though I started studying the secession convention delegates that voted against secession at the time of the first vote but then for it after Sumter. I haven't found comprehensive info though I have indeed found that at least some of those who "switched" their votes were actually always for and pro-secession, they were also just pro-patience and anti-reckless behavior like their faster acting slaveholding allies. I have gotten the impression that this was the majority of the swing vote, people who knew that secession was inevitable without major (and unrealistically) extra-Constitutional concessions regarding slavery and when the war started it was clear that was never going to happen. Basically the start of the war didn't make the impact due to coercion (that's just one of the many things they complained about) but due to it ending their stall and forcing them to finally choose a side.

As we can see, at least for the legitimate State government of Virginia in January those intentions were already crystal clear with that unanimous decision.

They weren't reluctant secessionists, but reluctantly patient about seceded.
 

Potomac Pride

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When I go look at the resolutions, I find this one, plain as day.
View attachment 299492
Virginia, the reluctant secession, as in I'm reluctant to eat pizza when I should be eating a salad. I mean I tell myself I'm reluctant, I might tell my wife I'm reluctant, we both know it's Edited.

Fortunately Virginians made it very clear it wasn't reluctant since as early as January 21st, 1861 they gave the US an ultimatum, concede to us regarding slavery or we join the rest of the slaveholding South... unanimously.
January 21st, 1861
----
Resolved by the general assembly of Virginia, that if all efforts to reconcile the unhappy differences existing between the two sections of the country, should prove to be abortive, then, in the opinion of the general assembly, every consideration of honor and interest demand that Virginia shall unite her destiny with the slaveholding states of the south.
----
What conditions are they talking about, well three days previous they outline those.

January 19th, 1861

----
Whereas it is the deliberate opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, that unless the unhappy controversy, which now divides the states of this confederacy, shall be satisfactorily adjusted, a permanent dissolution of the Union is inevitable; and the general assembly, representing the wishes of the people of the commonwealth, is desirous of employing every reasonable means to avert so dire a calamity, and determined to make a final effort to restore the Union and the constitution, in the spirit in which they were established by the fathers of the republic: Therefore,

Resolved, that on behalf of the commonwealth of Virginia, an invitation is hereby extended to all such states, whether slaveholding or non-slaveholding, as are willing to unite with Virginia in an earnest effort to adjust the present unhappy controversies, in the spirit in which the constitution was originally formed, and consistently with its principles, so as to afford to the people of the slaveholding states adequate guarantees for the security of their rights, to appoint commissioners to meet on the 4th day of February next, in the city of Washington, similar commissioners appointed by Virginia, to consider, and if practicable, agree upon some suitable adjustment.

Resolved, that Ex-president John Tyler, William C. Rivers, Judge John W. Brockenbrough, George W. Summers and James A. Seddon, are hereby appointed commissioners, whose duty it shall be to repair to the city of Washington, on the day designated in the foregoing resolution, to meet such commissioners as may be appointed by any of the said states, in accordance with the foregoing resolution.

Resolved, that if said commissioners, after full and free conference, shall agree upon any plan of adjustment requiring amendments of the federal constitution, for the further security of the rights of the people of the slaveholding states, they be requested to communicate the proposed amendments to congress, for the purpose of having the same submitted by that body, according to the forms of the constitution, to the several states for ratification.

Resolved, that if said commissioners cannot agree on said adjustment, or if agreeing, congress shall refuse to submit for ratification such amendments as may be proposed, then the commissioners of this state shall immediately communicate the result to the executive of this commonwealth, to be by him laid before the convention of the people of Virginia and the general assembly: provided, that the said commissioners be subject at all times to the control of the general assembly, or if in session, to that of the state convention.

Resolved, that in the opinion of the general assembly of Virginia, the propositions embraced in the resolutions presented to the senate of the United States by the Hon. John J. Crittenden, so modified as that the first article proposed as an amendment to the constitution of the United States shall apply to all the territory of the United States now held or hereafter acquired south of latitude thirty-six degrees and thirty minutes, and provide that slavery of the African race shall be effectually protected as property therein during the continuance of the territorial government, and the fourth article shall secure to the owners of slaves the right of transit with their slaves between and through the non-slaveholding states and territories, constitute the basis of such an adjustment of the unhappy controversy which now divides the states of this confederacy, as would be accepted by the people of this commonwealth.

Note both of these resolution clearly State they will join with the rest of the slaveholding South if reconciliation or measures aren't met, neither of these define only on a condition of war or coercion. They clearly establish the side they will form should any conclusion not meet reconciliation. War and alleged "coercion" just ended the time table of reconciliation.
Did you think using the word "coercion" five times would make it seem actually outrageous? All states dealt with Federal oversight issues -- not to mention that supreme impalement of states rights' known as the Fugitive Slave Law. But somehow it's "Tariffs, Taxes and Territories - Oh My!" for the secession South.

It's quite clear that the primary cause of secession, and the primary precept of the Confederacy, was slavery; to preserve and expand it. And what's more, Southrons at the time had no illusions about that. Virginians had no illusions about it either, Lee included.
Thanks for your comments. The issue of slavery was an important topic in Virginia that was discussed by the General Assembly and the Secession Convention in early 1861. Furthermore, resolutions regarding the institution of slavery were even passed by these groups as discussed. In addition, the majority of the other southern states had already seceded by early 1861. However, the Secession Convention of Virginia still voted against secession in April 1861 by a 2 to 1 margin when the issue of slavery was the primary area of concern and other states had seceded. It wasn't until Lincoln's call for troops later that same month that they voted to secede. This was in accordance with the resolution passed in Jan. 1861 that opposed any type of federal coercion which would be resisted by any means necessary. The opposition to coercion was also expressed by the delegates during the Virginia Secession Convention. Therefore, it was the threat of federal coercion and possible war against the other southern states that caused Virginia to ultimately decide to secede.

My comments are supported by the noted historian William J. Cooper who discussed the secession of Virginia and the other states in the Upper South in his book We Have the War Upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, Nov. 1860 - April 1861. This book was published in 2012 to excellent reviews from the critics. William J. Cooper is a retired Professor Emeritus of History at LSU who has also written other books on the Civil War era.

In his book, Professor Cooper writes that Virginia and the other Upper Southern states had all originally hoped to stay in the Union. However, things changed dramatically on April 15, 1861 when Lincoln issued his Proclamation Calling for Troops from the states following the Ft. Sumter incident. Cooper states in his book: "Lincoln's proclamation exploded all hope. It made plain the he intended to invade the Confederate States. Such military action meant coercion in its baldest form. The Upper South began racing toward secession. Almost overnight in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas top-heavy Conservative-Unionist majorities turned into lopsided secessionist majorities. In these four states, conventions, legislatures, and popular referenda all testified to the powerful shift in public opinion. By early June, all had joined the Confederate States." We Have the War Upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, Nov. 1860 - April 1861, page 271, by William J. Cooper.
 
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Potomac Pride

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"Other reasons" for Virginia's secession simply comes across as "other excuses" especially in the face of the evidence and source documents presented here.
There are some people who like to examine other possible reasons for secession. On the other hand, there are those who just find it easier to blame everything on slavery.

ok, I'll wait.
Well, you might be waiting for a while. Edited.
 

unionblue

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There are some people who like to examine other possible reasons for secession.

As a way, it appears, to excuse or minimize the effect of slavery bringing on the war and Virginia's secession over it. To me, it smacks of desperation to avoid actual events.

On the other hand, there are those who just find it easier to blame everything on slavery.

Especially since all the evidence and historical events of the period shout this issue from every corner of the day.
 
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byron ed

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...there are those who just find it easier to blame everything on slavery.
I don't know of anyone who "blames everything" on slavery, but if you meant "blames the Civil War" on slavery, well yes folks do claim that.

But it's not that they find that an easy conclusion, but rather that they find it an inescapable conclusion.

Anyone who would focus on the mere politics, the things called Secession and the Confederacy, rather than on the people that had to endure those things will never see it that way, and some of them "d----- if they ever do." Just a fact of life here, less upsetting as time goes on.
 
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jgoodguy

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Thanks for your comments. The issue of slavery was an important topic in Virginia that was discussed by the General Assembly and the Secession Convention in early 1861. Furthermore, resolutions regarding the institution of slavery were even passed by these groups as discussed. In addition, the majority of the other southern states had already seceded by early 1861. However, the Secession Convention of Virginia still voted against secession in April 1861 by a 2 to 1 margin when the issue of slavery was the primary area of concern and other states had seceded. It wasn't until Lincoln's call for troops later that same month that they voted to secede. This was in accordance with the resolution passed in Jan. 1861 that opposed any type of federal coercion which would be resisted by any means necessary. The opposition to coercion was also expressed by the delegates during the Virginia Secession Convention. Therefore, it was the threat of federal coercion and possible war against the other southern states that caused Virginia to ultimately decide to secede.

My comments are supported by the noted historian William J. Cooper who discussed the secession of Virginia and the other states in the Upper South in his book We Have the War Upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, Nov. 1860 - April 1861. This book was published in 2012 to excellent reviews from the critics. William J. Cooper is a retired Professor Emeritus of History at LSU who has also written other books on the Civil War era.

In his book, Professor Cooper writes that Virginia and the other Upper Southern states had all originally hoped to stay in the Union. However, things changed dramatically on April 15, 1861 when Lincoln issued his Proclamation Calling for Troops from the states following the Ft. Sumter incident. Cooper states in his book: "Lincoln's proclamation exploded all hope. It made plain the he intended to invade the Confederate States. Such military action meant coercion in its baldest form. The Upper South began racing toward secession. Almost overnight in Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas top-heavy Conservative-Unionist majorities turned into lopsided secessionist majorities. In these four states, conventions, legislatures, and popular referenda all testified to the powerful shift in public opinion. By early June, all had joined the Confederate States." We Have the War Upon Us: The Onset of the Civil War, Nov. 1860 - April 1861, page 271, by William J. Cooper.
From that page.

1553815094829.png

1553815415321.png

1553815191773.png

Joined the Slaveholding South.
1553815553761.png

Where slavery was less than 25% of the population, no secession.

This single page is unremarkable unless one wants to assert that coercion was the only reason unentangled with slavery.

From Page 24-25 of the above book.
Slave States here Slave States there Slave States everywhere where secession is.
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Secession is for the Slave States only according to the Fire-Eaters.
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