Major General Jubal Anderson Early (CSA) Jubal Anderson Early was born in the Red Valley section of Franklin County, Virginia on 3 November 1816. His father operated an extensive tobacco plantation at the foot of the Blue Ridge. Early graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1837, 18th of 50 cadets. At the Academy, he was engaged in a dispute with Lewis Addison Armistead who resigned but went on to also have a storied military career. Early fought against the Seminole in Florida as a second lieutenant in the 3rd U.S. Artillery before resigning from the Army in 1838. He practiced law in the 1840s as a prosecutor for both Franklin and Floyd Counties in Virginia. He served in the Virginia House of Delegates from 1841 to 1843. His law practice was interrupted by the Mexican-American War, in which he served as a major with the 1st Virginia Volunteers from 1847 to 1848. Early was a Whig and strongly opposed secession at the April 1861 Virginia convention. However, he was roused by President Abraham Lincoln’s call for 75,000 volunteers to suppress the rebellion and accepted a commission as a brigadier general in the Virginia Militia. He raised three regiments in Lynchburg and was commissioned colonel of the 24th Virginia. He displayed valor at Blackburn’s Ford and impressed General P.G.T. Beauregard at the First Battle of Manassas (Bull Run) in July 1861 and was promoted to brigadier general shortly after. While leading a charge during the Battle of Williamsburg on 5 May 1862, Early was wounded. He convalesced at his home in Rocky Mount, Virginia for two months and returned to action under the command of Maj. Gen. Thomas J. “Stonewall” Jackson in time for the Battle of Malvern Hill. Early demonstrated his career-long lack of aptitude for battlefield navigation and his brigade was lost in the woods during the battle. Early was noted for his performance at the Battle of Cedar Mountain, and he arrived in the nick of time to reinforce Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill on Jackson’s left on Stony Ridge in the Second Battle of Bull Run. At Antietam, Early rose to division command when his commander, Alexander Lawton, was wounded. General Robert E. Lee was impressed with his performance and retained him in division command. At Fredericksburg, Early saved the day by counterattacking the division of Maj. Gen. George G. Meade, which penetrated a gap in Jackson’s lines. He was promoted to major general on 17 January 1863. At Chancellorsville, he defended Fredericksburg while Lee and Jackson attacked the main part of the Army of the Potomac to the west. During the Gettysburg Campaign, Early commanded a division in the corps of Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell (Jackson had been mortally wounded at Chancellorsville). He defeated a Union force at Winchester to open the Shenandoah Valley for Lee’s forces. Early’s men captured Gettysburg on 26 June 1863 and demanded a ransom, which was never paid. He seized York, Pennsylvania and received partial payment of his ransom demands. Elements of his command reached the Susquehanna River, the farthest east in Pennsylvania any organized Confederate force would penetrate. Lee recalled Early to concentrate at Gettysburg. Approaching from the northeast on 1 July, Early’s division was on the left flank of the Confederate line. He soundly defeated Brig. Gen. Francis Barlow’s division (XI Corps) and drove the Union troops back through the streets of the town, capturing many of them. On 2 July, Early assaulted East Cemetery Hill. Despite initial success, Union reinforcements repulsed Early’s division. On 3 July, Early detached one brigade to assist Maj. Gen. Edward “Allegheny” Johnson’s division in an unsuccessful assault on Culp’s Hill. Elements of Early’s division then covered the rear of Lee’s army during its retreat from Gettysburg. Over the winter of 1863-64, Early served in the Shenandoah Valley occasionally filling in as corps commander during Ewell’s absences due to illness. On 31 May 1864, Lee expressed confidence in Early and promoted him to the temporary rank of lieutenant general. Early fought in the Battle of the Wilderness and assumed command of the ailing A.P. Hill’s Third Corps during the march to intercept Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant at Spotsylvania Court House. At Spotsylvania, his division occupied the relatively quiet right flank of the Mule Shoe. At the Battle of Cold Harbor, Lee replaced the ineffectual Ewell with Early as commander of the Second Corps. During the Valley Campaigns of 1864, Early commanded the Confederacy’s last invasion of the North. Lee ordered Early to menace Washington, D.C. He was delayed attempting to capture a small force under Franz Sigel at Maryland Heights near Harpers Ferry. Grant was able to send two divisions from VI Corps to reinforce Maj. Gen. Lew Wallace, and he was able to delay Early at the Battle of Monocacy, allowing more Union troops to strengthen Washington’s defenses. Early led skirmishes at Fort Stevens and Fort DeRussy. Lincoln watched the fighting on 11 and 12 July from Fort Stevens. Early withdrew to the Valley. He defeated Brig. Gen. George Crook at Kernstown on 24 July 1864. He then ordered his cavalry to burn the city of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, in retaliation for Maj. Gen. David Hunter’s burning of the homes of several prominent Southern sympathizers in Jefferson County, West Virginia earlier that month. His cavalry and guerrilla forces also attack the B&O Railroad. Grant sent out an army under Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan to subdue Early’s forces. Sheridan defeated Early in three battles and laid waste to the Valley. In a brilliant surprise attack, Early initially routed two thirds of the Union army at the Battle of Cedar Creek on 19 October. Early’s troops fell out of rank to pillage the Union camp giving Sheridan critical time to rally his demoralized troops and turn their morning defeat into victory over the Confederates that afternoon. One of Early’s key subordinates, Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon, claimed it was Early who halted the attack, not disorganization in the ranks. Most of Early’s men rejoined Lee at Petersburg in December, while Early remained in the Valley. When his force was nearly destroyed at Waynesboro in March 1865, Early barely escaped capture. Lee relieved Early of his command soon after, because he doubted Early’s ability to inspire confidence in the men he would have to recruit to continue operations. When the Army of Northern Virginia surrendered on 9 April 1865, Early escaped to Texas. He then went to Mexico, Cuba, and Canada. In Canada, he wrote his memoir which focused on his Valley Campaign. President Andrew Johnson pardoned Early in 1868, but he remained an “unreconstructed rebel”. In 1869, he returned to Virginia and resumed his law practice. He championed the Lost Cause movement and criticized the actions of Lt. Gen. James Longstreet and his direct superior Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell at the Battle of Gettysburg. He died in Lynchburg, Virginia on 2 March 1894.