Ivan and Nadine Turchin: Russian Revolutionary Aristocrats at Chickamauga

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5fish

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Here I found this Russian Aristocrat in our Union army and earned the ranks of Brigadier General. His wife was with him during the war at many battles like Chickamauga and she kept a diary. She the only women to see and write about the battle of Chickamauga.

Link: https://longislandwins.com/columns/immigrants-civil-war/ivan-and-nadine-turchin-russian-revolutionary-aristocrats-at-chickamauga/

His Russian name: Ivan Vasilyevich Turchaninov, shorten to John Turchin...

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Turchin had been born to the Crimean aristocracy in 1821. He received a military education while in his teens and served in the Tsar’s army that suppressed the nationalist uprising in Poland and the Liberal rising in Austria during the late 1840s. Already absorbing radical ideas from the West, he was attracted to dissident currents in Russian thought, but his duty as a soldier was at odds with his developing ideals. In 1850 Turchin was accepted into the elite Russian General Staff Academy and he was promoted to captain of the Imperial Guards. He then served in the Crimean War, where he met George McClellan who had come to the peninsula to observe the fighting. The war was a disaster for the country as the West united against Russian expansionism. 2


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After some unsuccessful attempts at making a living in New York and Washington, the couple moved to Illinois and Anglicized their names. Nadezhda became Nadine and Ivan became John Basil Turchin. George McClellan, then chief engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, offered Turchin a coveted job as a construction engineer on the rail line. Turchin soon joined the Republican Party because he opposed the Southern aristocracy that he said combined an insistence on the white man’s “right to be free” with a “firm determination to hold millions of blacks in bondage.”4

Snippet...

In June 1861, the young officer has commissioned colonel of the 19th Illinois. Turchin soon rose to command a brigade, which he led to Athens, Alabama in April and May of 1862. When Confederate troops fired at Union soldiers from houses in the village and after some prisoners were reportedly executed by the Rebels, Turchin’s troops pillaged the town.6

Turchin was court-martialed and found guilty of not maintaining discipline in his unit when it was in Athens, Alabama. He was also tried for allowing his wife to accompany him with the army. Turchin was dismissed from the service. He returned to Chicago, where he was hailed by Radical Republicans as a hero for his abolitionism and his “hard war” approach to wealthy Southerners. During a welcoming celebration, an officer arrived and delivered a commission promoting to Brigadier General sent by President Lincoln.7

Snippet...

Nadine accompanied her husband on the new Tullahoma military campaign in Tennessee in June of 1863. She had been Ivan’s partner since they married and he encouraged her to seek an independent career as a writer in the 1850s. They both seem to have held what would today be described as feminist views on the rights of women. When Ivan had been ill in 1862, she took over some of his duties with the army. She nursed the wounded and was always close to the battlefield. Nadine was also a fierce believer in democracy. She described the virtues of the American soldier as an outgrowth of the democratic experience writing that; “Only a free man can endure hunger, cold, and injustice with such boundless patience.” 9

Snippet...

Nadiane saw the Southern slave owner as kin to the Russian aristocrat writing that “The…owner of Negro slaves, resembles very closely the imperial gentleman, owner of white serfs. Social conditions created by these two dominating classes are quite similar. Negligence, arbitrary ignorance, primitive instincts given free rein,…even racial mixture, having one father for an unlimited number of servile mothers.” The fact that many black women were raped by their white “masters” was the greatest indication of the moral degeneracy of these American aristocrats.11

Snippett...

July 14-As the Union army marched south in June, July, and August, she heard it called the Abolitionist Army by Southerners. She wrote that in fact the “heterogeneous army” was “composed of all and sundry elements of Northern society-freethinkers, humanitarians, Puritans, autocrats, Democrats,…and even Copperheads.” While she said that while the men had not been abolitionists when they entered the army “it seems to me that this reproachful baptismal name given [to the army] is well chosen to consolidate the people and weld divergent ideas and opinions into one general feeling: the resentment of the free man living off the fruits of his work…against the despot, exploiting the slave, living as a parasite…”17

There is much more in the article about Nadine. She was a true Liberal of her day... John men were some of the first up Missionary ridges...

Nadine Diary...
Abstract On June 27th, 1863, while camped at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Nadine Turchin, wife of Brigadier General John Turchin of the Army of the Cumberland, wrote an irate entry in her journal. "Really, I think that the commanding general should take me as his chief of staff," she began, "or at least as his personal advisor." She went on to discuss the movements of her husband’s regiment as they campaigned in the west, criticizing the orders given to him by his superiors that had resulted in several deaths within the regiment and offering her own take on how they should have proceeded. "Oh, uncivilized beasts!" she concluded, in reference to the army’s leaders: "They are dedicated to sacrificing this unfortunate army." [excerpt]

This is from Wiki about John...

Turchin received a hero's welcome upon his return to Chicago. Prominent figures called for the removal of Buell and a more aggressive conduct of the war such that it be brought to a swift end. Turchin was given command of a new brigade. He distinguished himself during the battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and in the Atlanta Campaign.

Turchin's wife, known in the army as Madame Turchin, always stood by him and followed her husband on the field during his campaigns, witnessing the battles (as at Chickamauga and at the battle of Missionary Ridge), and writing the only woman's war diary of the military campaigns.[13]

The song "Turchin's got your mule" (stemming from the catchphrase "Here's your mule") was popular during the war, and its chorus is said to have been used by disheartened troopers as a derisive answer to General Braxton Bragg's endearments at Missionary Ridge.[14]

Turchin resigned from service in October 1864 after suffering heatstroke on the campaign.

Turchin returned to Chicago and worked for a time as a patent solicitor and civil engineer. He later was involved in real estate and the settlement of immigrants in southern Illinois. In 1900, he was awarded a pension under a private pension act approved by Congress. He suffered severe dementia, attributed to his heatstroke, and died penniless in an institution in Anna, Illinois, at the age of 79. He is buried next to his wife in the Mound City National Cemetery in southern Illinois.[20][21]

Turchin has been portrayed by many in the South as a villainous figure for the so-called "Rape of Athens," however his actions presaged those that other Union commanders, in particular William Tecumseh Sherman, would adopt in prosecuting total war against the Confederacy.
 

5fish

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Here is one look at the Sack of Athens, Alabama... https://www.lib.niu.edu/1997/iht429748.html

snippet...

The incident occurred in the wake of the costly Union victory at Shiloh. The federal Army of the Ohio pushed deep into the Confederacy after capturing and using the Memphis and Charleston Railroad. The sudden occupation of northern Alabama shocked Southern civilians. Among the many towns garrisoned by the Yankees was Athens, the seat of Limestone County and home to nine hundred civilians. Many of the townspeople professed to being pro-union and offered to cooperate with the Army of the Ohio. That may have lulled the soldiers into a false sense of security because on the morning of May 1,1862, the First Louisiana Cavalry mounted a surprise attack on the garrison, driving the Union soldiers from the town. Residents of Athens delighted in the blue coats' rout, aiming curses and spit at the fleeing foe. The rebel cavalry was "greeted with cheers and a waving of hats and handkerchiefs... the ladies at the tavern brought to light a Confederate flag that hasn't seen the light in some time...," wrote diarist Mary Fielding. As many as one hundred townsmen joined with the Confederate soldiers in a six-mile pursuit of the retreating federal garrison.

Rebel commander Colonel J. S. Scott reported, "My boys took few prisoners, their shots proving singularly fatal."

The fortunes of war swung just as suddenly the next day when the Eighth Brigade (consisting of the Eighteenth Ohio, Thirty-seventh Indiana, Nineteenth Illinois, and Twenty-fourth Illinois) forced the Confederates to once again abandon Athens. Colonel John Basil Turchin led the counterattack. Determined to punish the citizens of the town for what he regarded as treacherous conduct, Turchin strode into the town square and loudly told his officers and men: "I shut my eyes for two hours." The angry and tired soldiers required no further clarification, and they proceeded to sack the town. Shop windows were shattered, and in short order jewelry stores, druggists, and dry goods stores were relieved of their wares. With enthusiasm the troops then turned to the private homes of Athens. Bureau drawers were pulled to the floor and trunks were pried open with bayonets and rifled in the quest for valuables. Some men feverishly pocketed silver utensils, gold watches, and jewelry. Others simply sought the tobacco, sugar, or molasses that would improve their rations. Most— even officers— seemed to have delighted in insulting the men and women of the town. Although physical violence was kept to a minimum, troops firing their guns into one home unknowingly caused a pregnant women to suffer a miscarriage, resulting in both the mother's and fetus's death. "Indecent and beastly propositions" were made to many of the women, and at least one "servant girl" was raped. When night came, the soldiers appropriated private homes and completed their despoilment by chopping roasts on pianos and cutting bacon on rugs before retiring. "Men who had been sleeping in th
e

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John Basil Turchin sat before the court-martial for ten days while the citizens of Athens enumerated the abuse they suffered at the hands of his Eighth Brigade. Turchin made an appealing villain. He was born Ivan Turchinenoff and was educated in a Russian military academy. After rising to a post on the Czar's staff during the Crimean War, Turchin immigrated to the United States. He settled in Chicago, where he was one of the leading construction engineers for the Illinois Central Railroad. Testimony by the Alabamians, however, painted Turchin "as fierce and brutal a Muscovite as the dominions of the Czar could produce." Such descriptions reveal native-born Americans' suspicion of immigrant soldiers as potentially more brutal and less honorable than native-born Americans. This suspicion was reenforced by the fact that the Twenty-fourth Illinois, which participated in the sack of Athens, was a largely German unit. Its Colonel, Geza Mihalotzy, also a veteran of European armies, was reprimanded for having "behaved rudely and coarsely to the ladies" of Athens.

Snippet...

But Colonel Turchin had no intention of quietly subjecting himself to General Buell's discipline. In the weeks after Athens, Turchin openly disobeyed Buell's orders to protect all private property, by ordering his men to burn the nearest farm house whenever they were fired on from ambush. In his defense before the court he refused to refute the bulk of the charges against him. "I have tried to teach rebels that treachery to the Union was a terrible crime," he said. "My superior officers do not agree with my plans. They want the rebellion treated tenderly and gently. They may cashier me, but I shall appeal to the American people and implore them to wage this war in such a manner as will make humanity better for it."

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Pat Young

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Here I found this Russian Aristocrat in our Union army and earned the ranks of Brigadier General. His wife was with him during the war at many battles like Chickamauga and she kept a diary. She the only women to see and write about the battle of Chickamauga.

Link: https://longislandwins.com/columns/immigrants-civil-war/ivan-and-nadine-turchin-russian-revolutionary-aristocrats-at-chickamauga/

His Russian name: Ivan Vasilyevich Turchaninov, shorten to John Turchin...

Snippet...

Turchin had been born to the Crimean aristocracy in 1821. He received a military education while in his teens and served in the Tsar’s army that suppressed the nationalist uprising in Poland and the Liberal rising in Austria during the late 1840s. Already absorbing radical ideas from the West, he was attracted to dissident currents in Russian thought, but his duty as a soldier was at odds with his developing ideals. In 1850 Turchin was accepted into the elite Russian General Staff Academy and he was promoted to captain of the Imperial Guards. He then served in the Crimean War, where he met George McClellan who had come to the peninsula to observe the fighting. The war was a disaster for the country as the West united against Russian expansionism. 2


Snippet...

After some unsuccessful attempts at making a living in New York and Washington, the couple moved to Illinois and Anglicized their names. Nadezhda became Nadine and Ivan became John Basil Turchin. George McClellan, then chief engineer of the Illinois Central Railroad, offered Turchin a coveted job as a construction engineer on the rail line. Turchin soon joined the Republican Party because he opposed the Southern aristocracy that he said combined an insistence on the white man’s “right to be free” with a “firm determination to hold millions of blacks in bondage.”4

Snippet...

In June 1861, the young officer has commissioned colonel of the 19th Illinois. Turchin soon rose to command a brigade, which he led to Athens, Alabama in April and May of 1862. When Confederate troops fired at Union soldiers from houses in the village and after some prisoners were reportedly executed by the Rebels, Turchin’s troops pillaged the town.6

Turchin was court-martialed and found guilty of not maintaining discipline in his unit when it was in Athens, Alabama. He was also tried for allowing his wife to accompany him with the army. Turchin was dismissed from the service. He returned to Chicago, where he was hailed by Radical Republicans as a hero for his abolitionism and his “hard war” approach to wealthy Southerners. During a welcoming celebration, an officer arrived and delivered a commission promoting to Brigadier General sent by President Lincoln.7

Snippet...

Nadine accompanied her husband on the new Tullahoma military campaign in Tennessee in June of 1863. She had been Ivan’s partner since they married and he encouraged her to seek an independent career as a writer in the 1850s. They both seem to have held what would today be described as feminist views on the rights of women. When Ivan had been ill in 1862, she took over some of his duties with the army. She nursed the wounded and was always close to the battlefield. Nadine was also a fierce believer in democracy. She described the virtues of the American soldier as an outgrowth of the democratic experience writing that; “Only a free man can endure hunger, cold, and injustice with such boundless patience.” 9

Snippet...

Nadiane saw the Southern slave owner as kin to the Russian aristocrat writing that “The…owner of Negro slaves, resembles very closely the imperial gentleman, owner of white serfs. Social conditions created by these two dominating classes are quite similar. Negligence, arbitrary ignorance, primitive instincts given free rein,…even racial mixture, having one father for an unlimited number of servile mothers.” The fact that many black women were raped by their white “masters” was the greatest indication of the moral degeneracy of these American aristocrats.11

Snippett...

July 14-As the Union army marched south in June, July, and August, she heard it called the Abolitionist Army by Southerners. She wrote that in fact the “heterogeneous army” was “composed of all and sundry elements of Northern society-freethinkers, humanitarians, Puritans, autocrats, Democrats,…and even Copperheads.” While she said that while the men had not been abolitionists when they entered the army “it seems to me that this reproachful baptismal name given [to the army] is well chosen to consolidate the people and weld divergent ideas and opinions into one general feeling: the resentment of the free man living off the fruits of his work…against the despot, exploiting the slave, living as a parasite…”17

There is much more in the article about Nadine. She was a true Liberal of her day... John men were some of the first up Missionary ridges...

Nadine Diary...
Abstract On June 27th, 1863, while camped at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, Nadine Turchin, wife of Brigadier General John Turchin of the Army of the Cumberland, wrote an irate entry in her journal. "Really, I think that the commanding general should take me as his chief of staff," she began, "or at least as his personal advisor." She went on to discuss the movements of her husband’s regiment as they campaigned in the west, criticizing the orders given to him by his superiors that had resulted in several deaths within the regiment and offering her own take on how they should have proceeded. "Oh, uncivilized beasts!" she concluded, in reference to the army’s leaders: "They are dedicated to sacrificing this unfortunate army." [excerpt]

This is from Wiki about John...

Turchin received a hero's welcome upon his return to Chicago. Prominent figures called for the removal of Buell and a more aggressive conduct of the war such that it be brought to a swift end. Turchin was given command of a new brigade. He distinguished himself during the battles of Chickamauga and Chattanooga, and in the Atlanta Campaign.

Turchin's wife, known in the army as Madame Turchin, always stood by him and followed her husband on the field during his campaigns, witnessing the battles (as at Chickamauga and at the battle of Missionary Ridge), and writing the only woman's war diary of the military campaigns.[13]

The song "Turchin's got your mule" (stemming from the catchphrase "Here's your mule") was popular during the war, and its chorus is said to have been used by disheartened troopers as a derisive answer to General Braxton Bragg's endearments at Missionary Ridge.[14]

Turchin resigned from service in October 1864 after suffering heatstroke on the campaign.

Turchin returned to Chicago and worked for a time as a patent solicitor and civil engineer. He later was involved in real estate and the settlement of immigrants in southern Illinois. In 1900, he was awarded a pension under a private pension act approved by Congress. He suffered severe dementia, attributed to his heatstroke, and died penniless in an institution in Anna, Illinois, at the age of 79. He is buried next to his wife in the Mound City National Cemetery in southern Illinois.[20][21]

Turchin has been portrayed by many in the South as a villainous figure for the so-called "Rape of Athens," however his actions presaged those that other Union commanders, in particular William Tecumseh Sherman, would adopt in prosecuting total war against the Confederacy.
Nice to see one of my old posts resurrected.
 

5fish

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Nice to see one of my old posts resurrected.
I did not even know it was your original work... I hope you like seeing it again...

Here an article about him the in the Russian Beyond web site ...

https://www.rbth.com/history/328975-russian-collusion-us-civil-war-john-basil-turchin

Snippet...

“America helped me to get rid of my aristocratic prejudices, and reduced me to the rank of a mere mortal. I was reborn. I fear no work; no sphere of business scares me away, and no social position will put me down,” wrote Turchaninov to Alexander Herzen, the famous Russian political émigré, who was then living in London.

Snippet...

Turchin, however, was not completely enamored by life in America. In the same letter to Herzenhe complained: “I’m fully disappointed; I don’t see a fraction of real freedoms here… this republic is a paradise for the rich; they are the ones who are really independent here, and wicked crimes can be redeemed with money.”

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“By the end of the [Crimean] war Turchaninov was a colonel, with the prospects of a wealthy life, and perhaps an outstanding career, ahead of him,” publicist David Zaslavsky wrote. “But he rejected it.”
 

5fish

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I have seen the paragraph in others from saying John Turchin help bring the armored train to life...

However, this experiment, although successful, did not havecontinuation, and the full idea was realized already beyond the ocean during the civil war in the USA (1861-1865). Its initiator was the American general of Russian descent Ivan Vasilievich Turchaninov, better known by his American name John Basil Turchin.

More details... http://www.dieselpunks.org/profiles/blogs/armored-trains-part-

Tank vs. Train? Not a vicious fantasy, but a WWII reality. The story of armored trains begins in the mid-19th century. Most sources will tell you that that the trains saw their first combat in the Boer War. Don't you believe it, ever - they were used by the Austrians during the 1848 siege of Vienna, by the Federal forces in the American Civil Wat (Col. Turchin was the first to put a mortar on the railway platform), in the Franco-Prussian War etc. Here's a South African protected rail car, built before the Great War:

Add this...

Colonel Ivan Turchaninov ( who later adopted the name John Turchin), a Russian Army officer who emigrated to the U.S. and served in the Union Army in the Civil War armed trains with 13-inch mortars that could fire 100 kg shells to a range of 4.5 km.
 
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5fish

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I found this ... I do know which picture goes with the words... https://bashny.net/t/en/100281

For the first time guns were put on the railway platform during the Civil in the US (1861-1865), in 1861 the army commander of the northern states of the 19th Illinois Regiment volunteer, Colonel IV Turchaninov (John Basil Turchin).

2276839c70.jpg



The artillery was quickly taken to the camp at the railway troops to the Southern states and made sudden devastation in their camp. This successful experience then re

1559746295752.png
 

James N.

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I found this ... I do know which picture goes with the words... https://bashny.net/t/en/100281

For the first time guns were put on the railway platform during the Civil in the US (1861-1865), in 1861 the army commander of the northern states of the 19th Illinois Regiment volunteer, Colonel IV Turchaninov (John Basil Turchin).

View attachment 310692


The artillery was quickly taken to the camp at the railway troops to the Southern states and made sudden devastation in their camp. This successful experience then re

View attachment 310691
The bottom picture is the famous 13" seacoast mortar known as The Dictator on its purpose-built RR spur at the siege of Petersburg in 1864, so that's not the one.
 

USS ALASKA

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Collection; Master of Military Art and Science Theses
Title; John B. Turchin: a Russian views the American Civil War.
Author; Van Alstyne, John A.

Abstract; John Basil Turchin, a colonel in the Russian Army of Czar Nicholas I, immigrated to the United States and served in the Union Army from May 1861 until July 1864. Initially, he was appointed commander of the 19th Illinois Infantry Regiment, and subsequently given command of the 8th Brigade, Army of the Ohio. Turchin believed the Union should be more vigorous in carrying the war to the Confederacy. His methods in this regard eventually led to controversy with superiors and ultimately to his court-martial. Following his court-martial conviction, he was pardoned by President Lincoln, promoted to brigadier general, and given command of a brigade in the Army of the Cumberland. There, he served with distinction until July 1864 when he became ill and resigned his commission. Later, Turchin was co-founder of a successful Polish colony at Radom, Illinois. In 1888, he published his major work, Chickamauga, in which he discussed the battle in detail. Much of this work, however, was a general criticism of the Unions prosecution of the war and specific criticism of key Union commanders. General Turchin was an experienced and successful commander who understood the nature of war and was one of the earliest advocates of the total war concept for which Generals William T. Sherman and Phillip H. Sheridan later became famous.

Series; Command and General Staff College (CGSC) MMAS thesis
Publisher; Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College,
Date, Original; 1976-06-11
Date, Digital; 2008
Call number; ADA 029841
Release statement; Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student-authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to these studies should include the foregoing statement.)
Repository; Combined Arms Research Library
Library; Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library
Date created; 2008-09-24
158

Cheers,
USS ALASKA
 

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