Restricted I came across an academic who found this out. Thoughts? Comments?

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Fire Eater25

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I was wondering if anyone ever heard or has knowledge about this cause I never heard this before and was kinda curious I guess.
So an academic posted this to twitter.

In the process of attacking Sherman's supply lines, Hood encountered the 44th United States Colored Troops garrisoning a Federal position at Dalton. Hood demanded their surrender. Refusal, he promised, would be met with no quarter. The 44th USCT's CO, Col. Lewis Johnson, worried about the lives of his men and, under a truce flag, asked Hood whether his African-American troops would be treated as prisoners of war or slaves if surrendered.

Col. Johnson reported, "I was told by General Hood that he would return all slaves belonging to persons in the Confederacy to their masters, and when I protested against this... he said I might surrender them as whatever I pleased."

"Although assured by General Hood in person that the terms of the agreement should be strictly observed, my men, especially the colored soldiers, were immediately robbed and abused in a terrible manner..." heaping insults upon me and my officers. He had my colored soldiers robbed of their shoes (this was done systematically and by his order), and sent them down to the railroad and made them tear up the track for a distance of nearly two miles..." One of my soldiers, who refused to injure the track, was shot on the spot, as were also five others shortly after the surrender, who, having been sick, were unable to keep up with the rest on the march..." A number of my soldiers were returned to their former masters.

This I know was done, because I saw it done in a number of instances myself. When about to be paroled, I tried to get the free servants and soldiers in the regiment... released, but to no avail..." From the treatment I received, and what I observed after my capture, I am sure that not a man would have been spared had I not surrendered when I did, and several times on the march soldiers made a rush upon the guards to massacre the colored soldiers and their officers..."

Mississippians did this principally (belonging to Stewart's corps), and were often encouraged in these outrages by officers of high rank. I saw a lieutenant colonel who endeavored to infuriate a mob, and we were only saved from massacre by our guards’ greatest efforts."

This was discovered during his research he said and I was wondering what y’all thought
 
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5fish

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From wiki...

Post and garrison duty at Chattanooga, Tennessee, until November, 1864. Action at Dalton, Georgia, October 13, 1864. Battle of Nashville, December 15-16. Pursuit of Hood to the Tennessee River December 17-28. Post and garrison duty at Chattanooga in the District of East Tennessee, and in the Department of Georgia until April 1866.

The regiment was captured at Dalton, Georgia. Although the white officers were soon paroled, approximately 250 enlisted men were returned to their former owners. Another 350 enlisted men were pressed into Confederate service as engineer labor in Mississippi. By December 1, 1865, only 125 of these men were still alive. Col. Johnson returned to Tennessee as soon as he was able and recruited again for the regiment, mustering approximately 300 men.


Here is a short bio from one of the color troops that survived the ordeal in captivity with photos of him...

Snip... http://civil-war-picket.blogspot.com/2010/10/44th-usct-from-slaves-to-warriors.html

Although Johnson claimed that his black troops displayed the "greatest anxiety to fight," he surrendered to Hood and secured paroles for himself and the 150 or so other white troops.

The regiment's 600 African-American enlisted men suffered a harsh fate. Some were re-enslaved, while others were sent to work on fortification projects in Alabama and Mississippi. Many ended the war as prisoners in Columbus and Griffin, Ga., where they were released during May 1865 in what one of them described as a "sick, broken down, naked, and starved" condition, the encyclopedia says.
 

ForeverFree

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I was wondering if anyone ever heard or has knowledge about this cause I never heard this before and was kinda curious I guess.
So an academic posted this to twitter... This was discovered during his research he said and I was wondering what y’all thought
I had heard of this incident, don't recall when or where. However, I didn't know all the details of what eventually happened to the USCT, so this was interesting.

I'm not sure that this treatment of the USCT is a surprise to those who have studied the black soldier experience during the war. In his 2010 book Diehard Rebels: The Confederate Culture of Invincibility, Southern historian Jason Philips writes
The emancipation and Federal enlistment of thousands of slaves further enraged Confederates and confirmed their perception of Yankees… Emancipation and black Union soldiers verified Confederate fears that Yankees were racial fanatics…​
…Rebels ridiculed Federals’ involvement with blacks. One Confederate denigrated the enemy with remarks such as, “The Yankees marched a line of battle, composed of white negroes and black negroes.” In his eyes, white northerners had descended to blacks’ racial status because of their association in a biracial army. A South Carolina soldier laughed at a dream he had in which Henry Ward Beecher and other abolitionists were “married to the blackest, dirtiest, stinkiest… negro wench[es] that can be found.” A Virginia officer wished that “all the Yanks and all the negroes were in Africa.”​
Rebels’ pity and ridicule ended, however, when African Americans entered the fray. Facing black opponents implied a parity between former slaves and Confederate soldiers that many Rebels could not stomach. When Confederate soldier Nugent learned that “Lincoln demands that we treat negro soldiers upon an equality with whites,” he predicted that “the war will not be conducted in a civilized way hereafter.”​
Black federal troops meant race war. Armed blacks roaming the countryside, murdering and raping whites-the nightmare that had terrified white southerners for centuries-seemed to be coming true. A soldier manning Lee’s trenches confessed that the men in his unit abruptly ended cease-fire when they realized that black Union troops had replaced white ones.​
Other Rebels showed no remorse over the murdering of black prisoners at Fort Pillow. A South Carolina soldier was “glad that Forrest had it in his power to execute such swift & summary vengeance upon the negroes, & I trust it will have a good influence in deterring others from similar acts.” By killing black prisoners, Rebels revealed not only racist rage but also a chilling psychological distance from their victims. A Confederate song that celebrated Fort Pillow expressed the dehumanizing effects of war:​
The dabbled clots of brain and gore
Across the swirling sabers ran;
To me each brutal visage bore,
The front of one accursed man

History.com writes about Hood's command in Tennessee in late 1864:

During the subsequent Franklin-Nashville Campaign, Hood was initially successful in driving back General John M. Schofield’s Army of the Ohio, but he suffered a devastating defeat at the Battle of Franklin in late November of 1864. In what is often known as the “Pickett’s Charge of the West,” Hood made the brash decision to dispatch almost 20,000 men in an offensive against a fortified Union position. The attack resulted in staggering casualties, and Schofield then succeeded in linking up with General George H. Thomas in Nashville. Despite his inferior numbers and battered army, Hood attempted to lay siege to the city. Thomas would eventually launch a major assault on Hood during the Battle of Nashville in mid-December 1864, crippling Hood’s forces and inflicting over 6,000 casualties.​
Having been decisively defeated, Hood was replaced as commander of the Army of Tennessee in January 1865. He was later sent to report on military affairs in Mississippi, where he surrendered to Union forces in May 1865.​

It is of note that USCT were a part of the various Union forces fighting in and around Nashville, and were commemorated in this image:

01886v.jpg

The Battle of Nashville, by Kurz & Allison, created/published circa 1891
An artistic rendering of the US Colored Troops at this key Civil War Battle
Source: Library of Congress, Reproduction Number: LC-DIG-pga-01886,LC-USZC4-506, LC-USZ62-1289


The Battle of Nashville was a two-day battle fought on December 15–16, 1864. It is considered a major success by the Union army over Confederate forces in the Western Theater of the Civil War. African Americans, who as laborers helped to build fortifications for the city, fought as soldiers to protect it in that decisive battle. They, and the Union, won.

The Union entered the battle with a contingent of some 55,000 men, and ended the battle with just over 3,000 casualties, including 400 dead and 2,558 wounded. Confederates, from a contingent of 30,000 men, had an estimated 6,000 casualties, with 1,500 killed/wounded and 4,500 missing/captured, although some casualty estimates are higher. The Confederate forces in the Army of Tennessee were effectively decimated.

The United States Colored Troops had eight regiments with a combined 5,000+ men at the Battle of Nashville:
• 12th US Colored Infantry – organized in Tennessee at large
• 13th US Colored Infantry – organized in Nashville, TN
• 14th US Colored Infantry – organized in Gallatin, TN
• 16th US Colored Infantry – organized in Nashville, TN
• 17th US Colored Infantry – organized in Nashville, TN
• 18th US Colored Infantry – organized in Missouri at large
• 44th US Colored Infantry – organized in Chattanooga, TN
• 100th US Colored Infantry – organized in Kentucky at large

Many of these black soldiers were from Tennessee. They were fighting not just to defend Nashville and Tennessee for the Union, but also for the cause of freedom for their fellow African Americans in their home state. Nashville is easily one of the most important and decisive battles that black troops were involved in during the war, yet it is not as well known as, for example, the failed attack on Battery Wagner in South Carolina by the 54th Massachusetts Infantry regiment (which was made famous by the movie Glory).

It's probably too glib to say that concerning Hood, the USCT had the last laugh. Perhaps it's better said that victory is the best revenge.

- Alan
 
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5fish

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Here is another amazing story where the 44th Color Troop on December 2, 1864, while taking a train to Nashville was attacked and stopped and the $$th had to fight for survival... this was after Dalton... they fought this time...

Link: I would start on page 283 with the paragraph that starts with General Grant read from there...



Top of the middle of the page more on the train attack...

 
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5fish

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Here a mini-bio on Col. Lewis. He went on to be an Indian fighter...

Having arrived in Dalton only in mid-September, Johnson’s total command was comprised of his own 44th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment, numbering about 600 officers and men, together with another 150 white soldiers scraped up from around the area. Closing in from the south was the Confederate Army of Tennessee under Gen. John Bell Hood, 40,000 strong. Having lost Atlanta on Sept. 2, Hood was now on his way north in an effort to draw Union Gen. William T. Sherman away from the heart of Georgia.

In what would become the most memorable day in his 40-year military career, Johnson must have wondered how he had gotten himself into this predicament. Born in Germany in 1841, Johnson spent two years as a cadet in the Prussian Navy before immigrating to the United States. From New York City, Johnson eventually made his way to Lafayette, Ind. At the outbreak of war in 1861, Johnson enlisted as a private in the 10th Indiana Volunteer Infantry. Soon thereafter the 10th and a number of other Indiana regiments were sent to Western Virginia as part of a larger force whose objective was to keep the mountain counties loyal to the Union. This effort resulted in the new state of West Virginia.

Johnson soon gained a commission as first lieutenant in his regiment and in August 1862 was promoted to captain. By this time the 10th Indiana had been sent west, where Johnson and his regiment participated in a number of engagements throughout northern Mississippi, central Kentucky and middle Tennessee. In mid-1863 Johnson and the 10th became part of Gen. William S. Rosecrans’ campaign for Chattanooga that resulted in conquest of the city but subsequent defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga.

Johnson saw his chance and in April 1864 gained appointment as commander of the new 44th U.S. Colored Infantry Regiment at the rank of colonel.


Snip... He led the Buffalo Soldier regiment...

After the war Johnson won appointment to the regular army at the rank of lieutenant and in 1869 was promoted to captain in the 24th U.S. Infantry Regiment. The 24th was one of four African-American regiments in the entire U.S. Army at that time (the others were the 25th Infantry and the 9th and 10th Cavalry) and all of them served in the Great Plains. Native Americans referred to them as the “Buffalo Soldiers,” a name that they retained through the opening years of the 20th century. Johnson remained with the 24th until the late 1880s, when he became a post commander in the Arizona Territory and later an Indian agent. He retired from the army in 1898 and died in 1900.
 
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