Discussion Home Guard and militia

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leftyhunter

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Uh, at our next SCV meeting, I must remember to tell a friend and a Viet Nam Special Forces soldier that someone is comparing George Kirk's roguery to his old outfit. :eek:
I am just stating that leading enemy defectors behind enemy lines and engaging the enemy in combat is one of the missions of a special force. If said special forces need to forage off the land at the expense of enemy civilians that's just a day at the office.
Leftyhunter
 

TnFed

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Interesting yet they were not granted a pension even though they did participate in combat but not as long as the full time Missouri State Militia.
Leftyhunter
Lefty, I have the full roster of the 10th Kentucky Mounted Rifles CSA. Later designated the 13th Calvary CSA ( Caudill's Army ). Hope to find a listing of their sworn foes, the Harlan Battalion State Milita USA sometime. There were family members and relatives on both sides, firing away at each other.
TnFed.
 
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archieclement

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Interesting yet they were not granted a pension even though they did participate in combat but not as long as the full time Missouri State Militia.
Leftyhunter
Well the MSM werent your typical state militia, they were hybrid.

Prewar the Missouri militia was the MVM (Missouri Volunteer Militia) after Camp Jackson the Missouri State Guard is raised, the majority of what little prewar MVM arms and equipment there was went to the MSG, with isolated areas where Home Guard got it. So after this the Missouri government is declared vacant and a Pro Union government appointed.......so at this point theres nothing left to arm a militia.

"Governor Hamilton Gamble developed a plan that shifted the cost to the national government while at the same time allowing him to maintain personal control of the force himself. Meeting with President Abraham Lincoln in the fall of 1861, an agreement was finalized on November 6 wherein a force called the Missouri State Militia was created that was “armed, equipped, clothed, subsisted, transported, and paid by the United States,” but at the same time was not subjected to duty outside of Missouri except in “the immediate defense of the State.” Orders were issued out of the War Department the next day formalizing this agreement, which was further sanctioned by an act of Congress.

Gamble appointed the field officers of this organization, and had the power to remove them at his discretion. The MSM leadership reported to the senior U.S. military officers in the state, who were also given commissions in the MSM to bridge a military chain of command that reached directly to Washington D.C. Consequently the precise nature of this entity, according to President Lincoln, was that it “is not strictly either ‘State troops’ or ‘United States troops.’ It is a mixed character.”

Civil war St Louis---source
 
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leftyhunter

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Well the MSM werent your typical state militia, they were hybrid.

Prewar the Missouri militia was the MVM (Missouri Volunteer Militia) after Camp Jackson the Missouri State Guard is raised, the majority of what little prewar MVM arms and equipment there was went to the MSG, with isolated areas where Home Guard got it. So after this the Missouri government is declared vacant and a Pro Union government appointed.......so at this point theres nothing left to arm a militia.

"Governor Hamilton Gamble developed a plan that shifted the cost to the national government while at the same time allowing him to maintain personal control of the force himself. Meeting with President Abraham Lincoln in the fall of 1861, an agreement was finalized on November 6 wherein a force called the Missouri State Militia was created that was “armed, equipped, clothed, subsisted, transported, and paid by the United States,” but at the same time was not subjected to duty outside of Missouri except in “the immediate defense of the State.” Orders were issued out of the War Department the next day formalizing this agreement, which was further sanctioned by an act of Congress.

Gamble appointed the field officers of this organization, and had the power to remove them at his discretion. The MSM leadership reported to the senior U.S. military officers in the state, who were also given commissions in the MSM to bridge a military chain of command that reached directly to Washington D.C. Consequently the precise nature of this entity, according to President Lincoln, was that it “is not strictly either ‘State troops’ or ‘United States troops.’ It is a mixed character.”

Civil war St Louis---source
Quite true that the MSM was a unique military organization. They certainly per Dyer's Compendium served outside the State of Missouri in both conventional and counterinsurgency combat.
Leftyhunter
 

Patrick H

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Getting back to the original question, I can answer best by describing the various units around my home town in central Missouri.

We have a large community of German immigrant families all along the Missouri River. This group was well established by the time of the war but still seen as outsiders by many people. The Home Guard unit in my town was commanded by Capt. (later Col.) Joseph Eppstein, and consisted primarily of Germans. One exception was Walter Barron, an Irish immigrant. This unit was well drilled, apparently well supplied and was garrisoned in an earthen fort that has been discussed in other threads here. They did, indeed, fight a significant battle against a numerically superior force of Missouri State Guard cavalry, and they repulsed the attack on their fort. Eppstein had operated somewhat beyond the law by arresting several prominent southern-leaning business leaders and keeping them as hostages inside his fort. Using them as leverage (and one of the hostages as a spokesman), he was able to negotiate the withdrawal of the State Guard to three miles outside of town! Later in the war, Eppstein's unit did serve with militia and perhaps regular forces elsewhere in the state. Our town had various companies of regular occupying troops by then.

A second unit that we've discussed here several times was the Missouri State Militia garrisoned in Fayette, Missouri and commanded by Major Reeves Leonard. This was a federally sanctioned, supplied and paid force that was well trained and disciplined. They were engaged in numerous fights with guerrillas and occasionally against regular forces. Another excellent company of MSM was garrisoned in Columbia, Missouri and commanded by Col (later General) Odon Guitar. (Yes, that's his real name.) One interesting condition placed on the formation of the Missouri State Militia is that they could not be forced to operate out of state. They were seen as a federally sanctioned and supported defense force within the state. Some MSM units did serve occasionally outside the borders of Missouri, but this would have been voluntary service. Presumably, with the agreement of the Governor and the legislature.

A third type of unit that became sort of a plague on the state was variously known as the Enrolled Missouri Militia or the Missouri Enrolled Militia. This organization was formed under state law and service was compulsory. The various companies were often poorly led, poorly trained and poorly supplied. They were frequently corrupt and were little better than some of the worst bushwhackers. Some men who had returned from service in the Missouri State Guard (southern) and had taken their oath of allegiance did join the EMM, but not with the intention of actually fighting against their former comrades. Some units consisting almost entirely of former southern men were sympathetic to the Missouri guerrilla cause. They became known as the Paw Paw militia. When the opportunity arose, many deserted and went back into Confederate service. Other former State Guard men refused to join the EMM, and eventually joined a guerrilla band or left the state. The noted Quantrill man, John McCorckle, discussed the problem of the EMM and his decision to "go to the bush" in his memoir.

As I said, the answer to the original question is somewhat complicated. I can't speak for Home Guards or Militias in other states. I suspect they varied, too.
 
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TnFed

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Getting back to the original question, I can answer best by describing the various units around my home town in central Missouri.

We have a large community of German immigrant families all along the Missouri River. This group was well established by the time of the war but still seen as outsiders by many people. The Home Guard unit in my town was commanded by Capt. (later Col.) Joseph Eppstein, and consisted primarily of Germans. One exception was Walter Barron, an Irish immigrant. This unit was well drilled, apparently well supplied and was garrisoned in an earthen fort that has been discussed in other threads here. They did, indeed, fight a significant battle against a numerically superior force of Missouri State Guard cavalry, and they repulsed the attack on their fort. Eppstein had operated somewhat beyond the law by arresting several prominent southern-leaning business leaders and keeping them as hostages inside his fort. Using them as leverage (and one of the hostages as a spokesman), he was able to negotiate the withdrawal of the State Guard to three miles outside of town! Later in the war, Eppstein's unit did serve with militia and perhaps regular forces elsewhere in the state. Our town had various companies of regular occupying troops by then.

A second unit that we've discussed here several times was the Missouri State Militia garrisoned in Fayette, Missouri and commanded by Major Reeves Leonard. This was a federally sanctioned, supplied and paid force that was well trained and disciplined. They were engaged in numerous fights with guerrillas and occasionally against regular forces. Another excellent company of MSM was garrisoned in Columbia, Missouri and commanded by Col (later General) Odon Guitar. (Yes, that's his real name.) One interesting condition placed on the formation of the Missouri State Militia is that they could not be forced to operate out of state. They were seen as a federally sanctioned and supported defense force within the state. Some MSM units did serve occasionally outside the borders of Missouri, but this would have been voluntary service. Presumably, with the agreement of the Governor and the legislature.

A third type of unit that became sort of a plague on the state was variously known as the Enrolled Missouri Militia or the Missouri Enrolled Militia. This organization was formed under state law and service was compulsory. The various companies were often poorly led, poorly trained and poorly supplied. They were frequently corrupt and were little better than some of the worst bushwhackers. Some men who had returned from service in the Missouri State Guard (southern) and had taken their oath of allegiance did join the EMM, but not with the intention of actually fighting against their former comrades. Some units consisting almost entirely of former southern men were sympathetic to the Missouri guerrilla cause. They became known as the Paw Paw militia. When the opportunity arose, many deserted and went back into Confederate service. Other former State Guard men refused to join the EMM, and eventually joined a guerrilla band or left the state. The noted Quantrill man, John McCorckle, discussed the problem of the EMM and his decision to "go to the bush" in his memoir.

As I said, the answer to the original question is somewhat complicated. I can't speak for Home Guards or Militias in other states. I suspect they varied, too.
It seems very complicated to an outsider. Also very interesting. Good post.
 

archieclement

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Getting back to the original question, I can answer best by describing the various units around my home town in central Missouri.

We have a large community of German immigrant families all along the Missouri River. This group was well established by the time of the war but still seen as outsiders by many people. The Home Guard unit in my town was commanded by Capt. (later Col.) Joseph Eppstein, and consisted primarily of Germans. One exception was Walter Barron, an Irish immigrant. This unit was well drilled, apparently well supplied and was garrisoned in an earthen fort that has been discussed in other threads here. They did, indeed, fight a significant battle against a numerically superior force of Missouri State Guard cavalry, and they repulsed the attack on their fort. Eppstein had operated somewhat beyond the law by arresting several prominent southern-leaning business leaders and keeping them as hostages inside his fort. Using them as leverage (and one of the hostages as a spokesman), he was able to negotiate the withdrawal of the State Guard to three miles outside of town! Later in the war, Eppstein's unit did serve with militia and perhaps regular forces elsewhere in the state. Our town had various companies of regular occupying troops by then.

A second unit that we've discussed here several times was the Missouri State Militia garrisoned in Fayette, Missouri and commanded by Major Reeves Leonard. This was a federally sanctioned, supplied and paid force that was well trained and disciplined. They were engaged in numerous fights with guerrillas and occasionally against regular forces. Another excellent company of MSM was garrisoned in Columbia, Missouri and commanded by Col (later General) Odon Guitar. (Yes, that's his real name.) One interesting condition placed on the formation of the Missouri State Militia is that they could not be forced to operate out of state. They were seen as a federally sanctioned and supported defense force within the state. Some MSM units did serve occasionally outside the borders of Missouri, but this would have been voluntary service. Presumably, with the agreement of the Governor and the legislature.

A third type of unit that became sort of a plague on the state was variously known as the Enrolled Missouri Militia or the Missouri Enrolled Militia. This organization was formed under state law and service was compulsory. The various companies were often poorly led, poorly trained and poorly supplied. They were frequently corrupt and were little better than some of the worst bushwhackers. Some men who had returned from service in the Missouri State Guard (southern) and had taken their oath of allegiance did join the EMM, but not with the intention of actually fighting against their former comrades. Some units consisting almost entirely of former southern men were sympathetic to the Missouri guerrilla cause. They became known as the Paw Paw militia. When the opportunity arose, many deserted and went back into Confederate service. Other former State Guard men refused to join the EMM, and eventually joined a guerrilla band or left the state. The noted Quantrill man, John McCorckle, discussed the problem of the EMM and his decision to "go to the bush" in his memoir.

As I said, the answer to the original question is somewhat complicated. I can't speak for Home Guards or Militias in other states. I suspect they varied, too.
In my area I would rate the EMM higher then the home guard as far as reliable and effective, the 38th EMM organized in Hannibal was used extensively to protect the Hannibal and St Jo RR. Several Home Guard here surrendered to MSG without a fight, and generally wouldn't leave town to actually look for anyone.....The main knock I generally have read of EMM is they mainly would fight outsiders. they would fight both Jayhawkers and guerrillas from out of the area. but generally didnt want to fight people from their own communities. But the EMM would vary as they were all local units, so would reflect in large part the politics of wherever they were raised.

TJ Stiles notes it was a hated EMM unit that raided the James homestead and whipped Jesse and then dry hung Rueben Samual repeatedly, that led to Jesse joining the guerillas. EMM units often picked on Pro southerners, Even within an EMM regt there could be companies of differing loyalites, Stiles notes that of the EMM James Moss raised as well

The EMM would be the closest of the Missouri Militias to that of other states militias in that it was made up the men not already in service to defend their local areas and enforce the law.

I have read of republicans complaining about the EMM, but they complained about anyone who enforced the law, as they had Odon Guitar replaced, who certainly wasnt disloyal.......his only offense was he went after the criminals of both sides politically equally, which some of the EMM did as well. Each side (which among civilians was mainly democrat/republican) only wanted the other sides criminals arrested...and would complain if theirs were

By criminals, each side would practice vigilantism, which was illegal regardless of ones politics, but each group politically generally thought their vigilantism shouldn't be punished...….and they should be above the law...….
 
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archieclement

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I should add that the knock the EMM didnt want to fight people from their own community, makes perfect sense to me.....

The EMM was part time, "On average, most men in the EMM served only a few weeks of active duty over the course of the next two and a half years." and generally poorly armed as well.......No matter which side you identified with, it would make sense not to want to make enemies in ones own area, when the next week you'd be dismissed to go home......alone.......and vulnerable to any you had created to have an axe to grind with you

Just being in the EMM could be a death sentence. An example would be Cyrus Lyons, hes out digging a well with the help of two neighbors, when Anderson and some men ride up and ask" Why aint you in the service?"
Lyon replies"I do belong to the militia"
Anderson asks "Well why in the hell aint you out trying to drive out the bushwhackers? Didn't you know they were in the country?"
Lyon said he hadn't been told he was needed and called up, but while in the service he had always done his duty, and was ready to do so again

Anderson says "well I guess you have done enough , I am Bill Anderson by God"

Lyons militia service was terminated.......that of the neighbors as well
 
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Patrick H

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In my area I would rate the EMM higher then the home guard as far as reliable and effective, the 38th EMM organized in Hannibal was used extensively to protect the Hannibal and St Jo RR. Several Home Guard here surrendered to MSG without a fight, and generally wouldn't leave town to actually look for anyone.....The main knock I generally have read of EMM is they mainly would fight outsiders. they would fight both Jayhawkers and guerrillas from out of the area. but generally didnt want to fight people from their own communities. But the EMM would vary as they were all local units, so would reflect in large part the politics of wherever they were raised.

TJ Stiles notes it was a hated EMM unit that raided the James homestead and whipped Jesse and then dry hung Rueben Samual repeatedly, that led to Jesse joining the guerillas. EMM units often picked on Pro southerners, Even within an EMM regt there could be companies of differing loyalites, Stiles notes that of the EMM James Moss raised as well

The EMM would be the closest of the Missouri Militias to that of other states militias in that it was made up the men not already in service to defend their local areas and enforce the law.

I have read of republicans complaining about the EMM, but they complained about anyone who enforced the law, as they had Odon Guitar replaced, who certainly wasnt disloyal.......his only offense was he went after the criminals of both sides politically equally, which some of the EMM did as well. Each side (which among civilians was mainly democrat/republican) only wanted the other sides criminals arrested...and would complain if theirs were

By criminals, each side would practice vigilantism, which was illegal regardless of ones politics, but each group politically generally thought their vigilantism shouldn't be punished...….and they should be above the law...….
I am not sure they succeeded in having Guitar replaced as the military man in charge of the northern half of Missouri. Maybe so. They certainly tried.
 
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archieclement

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The republicans of St Jo had him replaced, he went to rolla for awhile, then I think he resigned, think being sacked for simply enforcing the law fairly didn't set well with him, he had certainly done well against guerrillas in 1862, his loyalty should have been unquestionable

 
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