• Welcome to the Receipts of the Blue & Gray. - The receipts you will find here are original Antebellum, and Civil War period receipts, as originally published between the years 1796 and 1880. One exception, is: Newspaper Clippings & Periodical Receipts are limited to a publishing period from 1858 to 1866.

    Some receipts from this era attempted to give medicinal advice. Many dangerous, and in some cases, deadly, "cures" were given, reflecting the primitive knowledge of that time period. Don't assume everything you read here is safe to try! Recipes and Receipts posted here are for Historic Research Purposes, enjoy them, learn from them, discuss them!

    ★ If you attempt to try one of these recipes / receipts, you do so at your own risk! ★

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Reference Glossary of 19th Century Recipe Terms

19th century recipe terms
Ardant spirits: alcohol​
Arrow root: a starch obtained from the rhizomes (rootstock) of several tropical plants.​
Bitter almonds: a variety of almond with a bitter taste sometimes used as flavoring or in oils. The almond variety sold by the food industry today is the sweet almond.​
Black butter: a sauce made by heating butter until it is dark brown, often flavored with vinegar and herbs.​
Blancmange: a sweet dessert made of milk or cream, thickened with gelatin, cornstarch, or Irish moss.​
Blood heat: 98 degrees Fahrenheit.​
Browned flour: flour that is evenly browned in the oven, stored in a jar when cooled, and kept to stir into gravies to thicken and color them.​
Buttermilk: the liquid left over after churning butter, using cream from fresh milk. Most modern buttermilk is cultured, using pasteurized milk.​
Compote: A mixture of stewed fruit and/or vegetables; a preserve; in compost, stewed or preserved​
Cornflour: finely ground cornmeal​
Corning: a process similar to brining or pickling, using large grained rock salt; also called “corns” of salt.​
Cracklings: crisp, fried bits of fat pork.​
Cream of Tartar: Potassium Bitartrate, a compound made of potassium and tartaric acid, a naturally occurring acid found in grapes. Cream of tartar or pure tartaric acid may be added to wine, beer, etc., prior to fermentation to increase acidity.​
Decoction: A tea (usually made from a medicinal plant), but instead of pouring the hot water over the vegetable matter, you boil the vegetable matter in the water.​
Drawn butter: butter melted until it foams and the solids sink. Foam is skimmed off and the solids discarded, leaving clear butter.​
Dripping/drippings: the fat and juices from the roasting pan when cooking meat.​
Drosse, dross: scum​
Dutch oven: a large, heavy cooking pot with a lid serving as a simple oven, heated by being placed under or next to hot coals.​
Forcemeat: a stuffing, often, but not always, made from meat. By extension, various foods such as the mixture from which veal, poultry, or fish quenelles are made, are also considered forcemeats.​
Fortnight: a period of two weeks​
Fresh milk: milk fresh from the cow; not pasteurized​
Graham flour: ground wheat from which the bran has not been removed​
Green corn: refers to the husks of the corn being green. Sweet, fresh corn, not field corn fed to animals, or popcorn.​
Hearth: a brick or stone-lined fireplace used for heating and cooking food. Also the floor or area in front of the fireplace.​
Hogshead: a large wooden cask usually used to hold alcoholic beverages in colonial times. In the U.S., a hogshead was equal to 63 gallons​
Indian meal: coarsely ground corn, or cornmeal​
Isinglass: a kind of gelatin obtained from fish, especially sturgeon, and used in making jellies, glue, etc., and for clarifying ale. Used before powdered gelatin was available.​
Lard: fat from the abdomen of a pig that is rendered and clarified for use in cooking​
Lights: lungs of livestock used in cooking.​
Liquor: cooking liquid​
Loaf sugar: sugar sold in a hard block, which has to be broken and then pounded into sugar granules.​
Lye: water which has percolated through ashes, earth, or other substances, dissolving and absorbing a part of their contents​
Mace: a spice made from the waxy red covering that surrounds nutmeg seeds. The flavor is similar to nutmeg with a hint of pepper.​
Made-mustard (prepared mustard): made from mustard seeds and/or powder.​
Marrow: a soft fatty substance in the cavities of bones, often used in soups.​
Methylated spirits: denatured alcohol.​
Milk-warm: temperature as it comes from the cow.​
Mustard flour: dry mustard, ground mustard seed, or mustard seed powder.​
Oil of Lucca: olive oil, originally from Province of Lucca, Italy​
Panada: a dish consisting of bread boiled to a pulp and flavored​
Paste: crust or dough, like for pies.​
Pomade: a greasy, waxy, or a water-based substance that is used to style hair. Pomade generally gives the user's hair a shiny and slick appearance.​
Potted meat: a way to preserve cooked meat by placing it in a pot, excluding the air, and covering with hot fat​
Put them up: to preserve for long-term storage​
Quartern: a quarter of a pint​
Raising: one of these four ingredient biproducts or methods to produce bubbles in a dough... carbon dioxide – yeast fermentation, baking powder, self raising flour; chemicals – bicarbonate of soda, baking powder; steam – profiteroles, choux pastry, Yorkshire pudding; air – egg whites, beating creaming, rubbing in.​
Receipt: a recipe​
Rectified spirit of wine: alcohol purified by distillation​
Rose-water: water to which essential oil of rose has been added. Rosewater is readily available in herb stores, gourmet shops, and some pharmacies.​
Saleratus: A naturally occurring high alkaline mineral found in the western United States. Also known as sodium bicarbonate or sodium hydrogen carbonate, its chemical compound formula is NaHCO3. The product which we call baking soda today was referred to as saleratus from around 1860.​
Salsify (oyster plant): a popular vegetable in the 1800s. It’s supposed to taste slightly like an oyster, but some people say it tastes more like an artichoke​
Saltpeter: Potassium nitrate​
Scant: not quite a full measure​
Scum: 1- (noun) the froth that rises to the surface of the boiling liquid. 2- (verb) to skim the froth that rises to the surface of the boiling liquid​
Semolina: the portions of hard wheat kernels not ground into flour by the millstones.​
Shortening: a general term for butter or other fat used to make pastry or bread.​
Soda: baking soda​
Sour milk: fresh whole milk that was left to ferment and sour by keeping it in a warm place for a day, often near a stove. Pasteurized milk may spoil rather than sour.​
Sweetmeats: An item of confectionery or sweet food​
Sweet milk: whole milk; it was called sweet milk to distinguish it from buttermilk.​
Tartaric acid: a vegetable acid which exists in the grape​
Vinegar: Sour wine​
Water glass: liquid sodium silicate, an old way of preserving eggs. Can also be used to seal concrete floors, as an adhesive, or for cleaning purposes.​
Whey: the liquid remaining after milk has been curdled and strained (as when making cheese).​
White stock: a soup stock of veal bones, vegetables, herbs, and seasonings: used as the basis for sauces and soups.​
White-wash: a type of paint made from slaked lime or chalk calcium carbonate.​
Wine glass: one-fourth cup.​
Yeast powder: this is not yeast. It is a name used for an early baking powder. Substitute baking powder.​

Links to Sites that Have More Information About 19th Century Cooking Terms:

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