German "Forty-Eighters" Impact the Civil War and Nation.

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#1
In 1848, political revolution swept across Europe, the leaders of this movement were called "Forty-Eighters". The revolution of 1848 in Germany had early successes but it failed in the end. Many of the leaders of the German 1848 revolution after its failure left or fled to America, where they had an impact on our nation and our Civil war. Many of the names listed below will be recognized by many on this board.


The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In Germany, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the country, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights.[1] Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austro-Hungarian Empire and sometimes on the government's wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australia after the revolutions failed. They included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected, wealthy, and well-educated; as such, they were not typical migrants. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.

Forty-Eighters in the USA

In the United States, many Forty-Eighters opposed nativism and slavery, in keeping with the liberal ideals that had led them to flee Germany. Several thousand enlisted in the Union Army, where they became prominent in the Civil War.
Many Forty-Eighters settled in the Texas Hill Country in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, and voted heavily against Texas's secession. In the Bellville area of Austin County, another destination for Forty-Eighters, the German precincts voted decisively against the secession ordinance. [2]
More than 30,000 Forty-Eighters settled in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. There they helped define the distinct German culture of the neighborhood, but in some cases also brought a rebellious nature with them from Germany. During violent protests in 1853 and 1854, Forty-Eighters were responsible for the murders of two law enforcement officers.[3]
After the Civil War, Forty-Eighters supported improved labor laws and working conditions. They also advanced the country's cultural and intellectual development in such fields as education, the arts, medicine, journalism, and business.
Famous German Forty-Eighters in the US
These German "Forty-Eighters" had an impact on our nation and on our Civil War. These last paragraphs were taken form Wiki---


Why is it always the liberals that change the world for the better....

A thought to ponder...
 

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#2
In 1848, political revolution swept across Europe, the leaders of this movement were called "Forty-Eighters". The revolution of 1848 in Germany had early success but it failed in the end. Many of the leaders of the German 1848 revolution after its failure left some fled to America and had an impact on our nation and our Civil war. Many of the names listed below will be recognized by many on this board.


The Forty-Eighters were Europeans who participated in or supported the revolutions of 1848 that swept Europe. In Germany, the Forty-Eighters favored unification of the country, a more democratic government, and guarantees of human rights.[1] Disappointed at the failure of the revolution to bring about the reform of the system of government in Germany or the Austro-Hungarian Empire and sometimes on the government's wanted list because of their involvement in the revolution, they gave up their old lives to try again abroad. Many emigrated to the United States, Canada, and Australia after the revolutions failed. They included Germans, Czechs, Hungarians, and others. Many were respected, wealthy, and well-educated; as such, they were not typical migrants. A large number went on to be very successful in their new countries.

Forty-Eighters in the USA

In the United States, many Forty-Eighters opposed nativism and slavery, in keeping with the liberal ideals that had led them to flee Germany. Several thousand enlisted in the Union Army, where they became prominent in the Civil War.
Many Forty-Eighters settled in the Texas Hill Country in the vicinity of Fredericksburg, and voted heavily against Texas's secession. In the Bellville area of Austin County, another destination for Forty-Eighters, the German precincts voted decisively against the secession ordinance. [2]
More than 30,000 Forty-Eighters settled in the Over-the-Rhine neighborhood of Cincinnati, Ohio. There they helped define the distinct German culture of the neighborhood, but in some cases also brought a rebellious nature with them from Germany. During violent protests in 1853 and 1854, Forty-Eighters were responsible for the murders of two law enforcement officers.[3]
After the Civil War, Forty-Eighters supported improved labor laws and working conditions. They also advanced the country's cultural and intellectual development in such fields as education, the arts, medicine, journalism, and business.



Famous German Forty-Eighters in the US
These German "Forty-Eighters" had an impact on our nation and on our Civil War. These last paragraphs were taken form Wiki---


Why is it always the liberals that change the world for the better....

A thought to ponder...
Were these not the forerunners of the communists of the 20th century? who slaughtered 100,000,000 people for 'progress?'
 

ole

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#3
Why is it always the liberals that change the world for the better....
This is not a forum where politics may be discussed.
Were these not the forerunners of the communists of the 20th century? who slaughtered 100,000,000 people for 'progress?'
Ditto.

Thanks for the list, 5fish.
 
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#4
Not!

Were these not the forerunners of the communists of the 20th century? who slaughtered 100,000,000 people for 'progress?'
I have notice over the years that the right wing picks the revolution of 1848 that swept over Europe as a forerunner to the communist revolutionary of the early 1900. The 1848 revolt was middle class based revolting for democratic principles. They were fighting for freedoms like freedom of press and freedom of assembly. They wanted Parliaments that had power and wanted the noble rulers in Germany of give up some of their powers. I admit that there may have been some early communist among but that does not make it a communist revolution...It was lead by the middle class the revolution of 1848..

A muse....
 

trice

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#5
Were these not the forerunners of the communists of the 20th century? who slaughtered 100,000,000 people for 'progress?'
What makes you say that? Among the Germans coming here in the 1850s were Adolphus Busch I and three of his brothers (he had 21 brothers and sisters). Besides serving 14 months in the Civil War, young Adolphus married into the Anheuser family and helped build what was Anheuser & Co. before becomeing the Anheuser Busch Company. An awful lot of other German brewers came here and started businesses in those days. Joseph Schlitz ("The Beer That Made Milwaukee Famous") was another. I am sure we'll find more Germans starting breweries in those days. I find it a little hard to categorize businessmen who start breweries as "communists"; these guys look more like "capitalists" to me.

Tim
 

ole

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#6
ONE more time. No modern politics in this forum. That Shurz was a polititian is acceptable, that the immigrants' countrymen may have been involved in subsequent movements toward Marxism is not. The very next time I see liberal or conservative or any label that means the same, this thread goes away.

Ole
 

matthew mckeon

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#7
I'll go looking, but there was an excellent article in North and South magazine a couple of years ago about German immigrants in the Civil War Era. They weren't a monolithic group by any means, and the article did a good job describing the differing German subgroups.

Trice,
I will again quote Benjamin Franklin, "Beer is evidence that there is a God. And that he loves us."
 

trice

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#9
I will again quote Benjamin Franklin, "Beer is evidence that there is a God. And that he loves us."
More of a wine guy these days ... but I drank enough beer in my life to agree with Ben Franklin completely. There are still days and tasks (like mowing the lawn) that simply require a beer when you finish, IMHO.:smile:

Tim
 

M E Wolf

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#10
Dear List Members;

There were several countries that were having their growing pains overseas, before coming to the United States.

Some of these Generals came from the unrest overseas:

Name ASBOTH, Alexander Sandor
Born December 18 1811, Keszthely, Hungary
Died January 21 1868, Buenos Aires, Argentina
Pre-War Profession Engineer, emigrated to US in 1851 following revolutionary activities.
War Service September 1861 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers and chief of staff to Fremont, appointment lapsed, March 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 2nd Divn at Pea Ridge (w), commanded at Columbus KY, commanded Dist. of West Florida, Marianna (w).
Brevet Promotions Maj. Gen. U.S.V. March 13 1865.
Post War Career US minister to Argentine Republic and Uruguay.
Notes Died of wounds contracted at the battle of Marianna.

Name BLENKER, Louis (Ludwig)
Born May 12 1812, Worms, Germany
Died October 31 1863, Rockland Cty NY
Pre-War Profession Jeweler's apprentice, soldier, revolutionary, emigrated to US 1849, farmer, businessman.
War Service April 1861 recruited 8th New York - Col., commanded a brigade at First Bull Run, August 1861 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded a division which was assigned to Fremont in Western Virginia, Cross Keys, relieved from duty, discharged March 1863.
Notes His march to Fremont's forces was somewhat of a shambles, partly as a result of poor planning by McClellan.

Name BOHLEN, Henry
Born October 22 1810, Bremen, Germany
Died August 22 1862, Freeman's Ford VA
Pre-War Profession Liquor dealer, Mexican war.
War Service September 1861 helped recruit 75th Pennsylvania, Col., served in Blenker's division, April 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 3rd Bde/Blenker's Divn at Cross Keys, killed while conducting a reconnaissance before Jackson's forces.
Notes

Name KAUTZ, August Valentine
Born January 5 1828, Baden, Germany
Died September 4 1895, Seattle WA
Pre-War Profession Mexican War, Graduated West Point 1852, service on Pacific coast.
War Service May 1861 Capt. in 6th US Cavalry, defences of Washington, Peninsula campaign, Seven Days, September 1862 Col. of 2nd Ohio Cavalry, served in Kansas, fought in Morgan's raid into Kentucky and Indiana, May 1864 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded the Cavalry Division in the Petersburg campaign, Reams's Station, commanded 1st Divn/XXV Corps in Richmond.
Brevet Promotions Maj. Gen. U.S.V. October 28 1864, Brig. Gen. U.S.A. March 13 1865, Maj. Gen. U.S.A. March 13 1865.
Post War Career Army service, frontier duty, retired 1892.
Notes
Further reading
Wallace, Andrew Gen. August V. Kautz and the southwestern frontier Tucson, 1967
Would write the U.S. Cavalry Manual updating tactics

Name MATTHIES, Charles (Karl) Leopold
Born May 31 1824, Bromberg, Prussia
Died October 16 1868, Burlington IA
Pre-War Profession Farm worker, served in Prussian army, emigrated to US 1849, businessman.
War Service May 1861 Capt. of 1st Iowa, Lt. Col., Island No 10, May 1862 Col., Corinth, Iuka, November 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 3rd Bde/3rd Divn/XV Corps in Vicksburg campaign, Chattanooga, Missionary Ridge (w), served at the start of Atlanta campaign, assigned to the post at Decatur AL, resigned May 1864 due to ill health.
Post War Career Politician.
Notes

Name OSTERHAUS, Peter Joseph
Born January 4 1823, Coblenz, Prussia
Died January 2 1917, Duisburg, Germany
Pre-War Profession Served in Prussian army, emigrated to US 1849, businessman.
War Service April 1861 Maj. in Missouri Bn, Wilson's Creek, December 1861 Col. of 12th Missouri, commanded 2nd Bde at Pea Ridge, June 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 9th Divn/XIII Corps in Vicksburg campaign, Big Black River (w), commanded 1st Divn/XIV Corps at Missionary Ridge, July 1864 promoted Maj. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 1st Divn/XV Corps in Atlanta campaign, commanded XV Corps in March to the Sea, Carolinas campaign, served in Divn. of West Mississippi.
Post War Career Army service, US consul to France, factory owner and exporter, US deputy consul at Mannheim, Germany.
Notes

Name SALOMON, Friedrich (Frederick)
Born April 7 1826, Strobreck, Saxony
Died March 8 1897, Salt Lake City UT
Pre-War Profession Surveyor, service in Prussian Army, emigrated to US in 1848, surveyor, railroad engineer.
War Service May 1861 Capt in 5th Missouri, Wilson's Creek, Col. of 9th Wisconsin, served in Missouri and Arkansas, June 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, served in Kansas, defended Helena, Jenkins Ferry.
Brevet Promotions Maj. Gen. U.S.V. March 13 1865.
Post War Career Surveyor general in Missouri and Utah Territory.
Notes


Name SCHIMMELFENNIG, Alexander "Schimmel"
Born July 20 1824, Lithauen, Prussia
Died September 5 1865, nr Wernersville PA
Pre-War Profession Officer in Prussian army, emigrated to US 1853, writer, engineer, draftsman.
War Service September 1861 Col. of 74th Pennsylvania, commanded 1st Bde/3rd Divn/I Corps at Second Bull Run, November 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 1st Bde/3rd Divn/IX Corps at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg (w), served in South Carolina, Charleston.
Notes Although born a Junker, he was a devoted socialist and changed his name from Von Schimmelfennig. Contracted tuberculosis around the end of the War.

Name SCHURZ, Carl
Born March 2 1829, Liblar, Prussia
Died May 14 1906, New York NY
Pre-War Profession Journalist, soldier and revolutionary in Germany, emigrated to US 1852, politician, minister to Spain.
War Service April 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded a division under Fremont in the Shenandoah, commanded 3rd Divn/I Corps at Second Bull Run, March 1863 promoted Maj. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 3rd Divn/XI Corps at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga, commanded a depot at Nashville, was Slocum's chief of staff in Carolinas campaign.
Post War Career US senator, secretary of the interior, journalist.
Notes
Further reading
Donner, Barbara Carl Schurz and the Civil War Chicago, 1933
Trefousse, Hans L Carl Schurz, a biography Knoxville, University of Tennessee Press, 1982

Name SIGEL, Franz
Born November 18 1824, Baden, Germany
Died August 21 1902, New York NY
Pre-War Profession German army officer, revolutionary, emigrated to US, teacher.
War Service May 1861 Col. of 3rd Missouri, May 1861 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 4th Bde/Army of Southwest Missouri at Wilson's Creek, commanded 1st Divn/Army of Southwest Missouri at Pea Ridge, March 1862 promoted Maj. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded a division in Shenandoah Valley campaign, commanded I Corps at Second Bull Run, commanded XI Corps but left because of ill health, commanded Dept of West Virginia, New Market, removed from field duty, May 1865 resigned commission.
Post War Career Journalist, pension agent.
Notes
Further reading
Engle, Stephen Douglas The Yankee Dutchman : the life of Franz Sigel Fayetteville, University of Arkansas Press, 1993

Name VON STEINWEHR, Baron Adolph Wilhelm August Friedrich
Born September 25 1822, Brunswick, Germany
Died February 25 1877, Buffalo NY
Pre-War Profession Prussian officer, Mexican war, worked on the US/Mexico border survey, farmer.
War Service June 1861 Col. of 29th New York, October 1861 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commanded 2nd Bde/Blenker's Divn in Shenandoah Valley campaign, commanded 2nd Divn/I Corps at Second Bull Run, commanded 2nd Divn/XI Corps at Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, Chattanooga, Wauhatchie.
Post War Career Cartographer, geographer, teacher, writer.
Notes
On the Internet Adolph Von Steinwehr

Name WEBER, Max (aka Von Weber)
Born August 27 1824, Achern (Baden Baden) Germany
Died June 15 1901, Brooklyn NY
Pre-War Profession Lt. in Grand Duke's Army, emigrated to US, conducted Hotel Constanz in New York.
War Service May 1861 organized "Turner Rifles" later known as the 20th New York Infantry, April 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, commandant at Fort Monroe, commanded 3rd Bde/3rd Divn/II Corps at Antietam (w), duty in Washington, post commander of Harper's Ferry and troops between Sleepy Creek and Monocracy River, fought against Early's raid on Washington.
Post War Career US consul at Nantes France, tax assessor, collector of internal revenue.
Notes

Name WILLICH, August (aka Von Willich)
Born November 19 1810, Braunsberg Prussia
Died January 22 1878, Cincinnati OH
Pre-War Profession 1st Lt. and Capt. in Prussian Army, resigned commission, communist, carpenter, labor newspaper editor in Cincinnati.
War Service 1861 recruited German immigrants, 1st Lt. in 9th Ohio, Maj., August 1861 Col. of 32nd Indiana, Shiloh, July 1862 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, Perryville, commanded 1st Bde/2nd Divn/XIV Corps at Stone's River (c), paroled and exchanged, commanded 1st Bde/2nd Divn/XX Corps at Chickamauga, Resaca (w), commanded combined post of Cincinnati, Covington KY and Newport Barracks KY.
Brevet Promotions Maj. Gen. U.S.V. October 21 1865.
Post War Career County auditor, traveled to Europe.
Notes
Further reading
Easton, Loyd David Hegel's first American followers: the Ohio Hegelians: John B. Stallo, Peter Kaufmann, Moncure Conway, and August Willich, with key writings Athens, Ohio University Press, 1966

There were several French and a lot of Irish born Generals. General Meade, was born in Spain.

The U.S. was a melting pot of ethnic groups then as it is today.

Just some thoughts.

Respectfully submitted for consideration,
M. E. Wolf
 

M E Wolf

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#11
Thought this may be of interest:

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 1 [S# 1] CHAPTER I.
OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, S.C.
No. 9. -- Report of Brig. Gen. R. G. M. Dunovant, South Carolina Army, of operations against Fort Sumter.
HEADQUARTERS, SOUTH CAROLINA ARMY,
Sullivan's Island, April 21, 1861.
MAJOR: I have the honor to report that on Tuesday morning, April 9, in obedience to orders from your headquarters, I came down to Sullivan's Island attended by the following members of my staff: Maj. N. G. Evans, S.C. A., adjutant-general; First Lieut. Warren Adams, S.C. A., and Second Lieut. Robert Pringle, S. C. A., aides-de-camp; Maj. W. D. De Saussure and Capt. J. D. Bruns, special aides-de-camp.
[excerpt]
On the morning of the 11th I reviewed the entire forces under my command, Colonel Pettigrew's regiment of rifles occupying and defending the eastern third of the island with the assistance of the Charleston Light Dragoons, and the German Flying Artillery in charge of a field battery attached to his command, and Colonel Anderson's regiment of the First Infantry being held in readiness to act as a reserve or to be thrown on any point where their services were required.
--------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 1 [S# 1] CHAPTER I.
OPERATIONS IN CHARLESTON HARBOR, S.C.
No. 12. -- Report of Lieut. Col. Wilmot G. De Saussure, South Carolina Army, commanding Artillery.
HEADQUARTERS BATTALION OF ARTILLERY,
Morris Island, April 22, 1861.
SIR: I have the honor to transmit herewith the reports of Maj. P. F. Stevens, of the Citadel Academy, assigned under Special Orders No. 8, from Headquarters Provisional Forces, to the Iron and Point batteries at this post, of Capt. George B. Cuthbert, commanding Palmetto Guard-by which corps the above batteries were manned, and of Capt. J. G. King, commanding Marion Artillery, by which corps the Trapier battery was manned. These several reports contain the events connected with the bombardment and fall of Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, on Friday, 12th, and Saturday, 13th instants, so far as the above-named batteries and corps were engaged.
[excerpt]
To the Wee Nee Riflemen, Capt. J. G. Pressley, Lieut. A. F. Warley, and the detachment of the Wee Nee Riflemen, Lieutenant Keils under him; the Columbia, Artillery, Capt. A. J. Green; the German Artillery, Capt. C. Nohrden, and Lieut. Col. Thomas G. Lamar, with the volunteer detachment under him, I desire to pay the highest commendation for a vigilance unsleeping and untiring. The gallant bearing of these troops while standing as silent spectators of the bombardment evinces that if it had been their good fortune to have been actively engaged they would have rendered for themselves a faithful account.
Without invidious distinction I desire particularly to call to your attention the services of the Columbia Artillery, Capt. A. J. Green, which has been on duty unrelieved since 1st January last, and of the German Artillery, Capt. C. Nohrden, which, with but short relief, has been on duty since 27th December last. To Captain Green, as the company longest in service, was given the choice of the batteries, and with characteristic gallantry he chose the post which he believed certain of action.
--------------

O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 2 [S# 2] -- CHAPTER IX.
CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN MARYLAND, PENNSYLVANIA, VIRGINIA, AND WEST VIRGINIA FROM APRIL 16 TO JULY 31, 1861.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.--#5
WASHINGTON, July 29, 1861.
Capt. G. STONEMAN:
SIR: In conformity with your request, I transmit an informal statement of the present condition of the artillery south of the Potomac. Fort Corcoran, above Arlington, with its two redoubts, has an armament of twelve 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, seven 24-pounder barbette guns, two 12-pounder field guns, and two 24-pounder howitzers. About two hundred light artillerists, under Captains Carlisle and Ayres, are at these works; also the German regiment (De Kalb); which has in its ranks many artillerists. Fort Albany, on the Fairfax road, has eighteen guns, of various caliber (twelve being 24-pounders), Griffin's and Edwards' companies light artillery, and a Massachusetts regiment. Fort Runyon, at the forks of the Alexandria and Fairfax roads (end of Long Bridge), one 30-pounder Parrott rifled gun, eight 8-inch seacoast howitzers, ten 32-pounders, and four 6-pounder field guns. Garrison'--Colonel Rogers' Twenty-fifth New York; artillery officer in charge--Captain Seymour, Fifth Artillery. Fort Ellsworth, Alexandria, two 30-pounder and two 10-pounder Parrott rifles, twelve 8-inch sea-coast howitzers, four 24-pounder siege guns, one 24-pounder field howitzer, three 6-pounder guns. Garrison--Captain Arnold's light company, one hundred and twenty men, and Seventeenth New York, Colonel Lansing. The supply of ammunition for these forts, although not complete,, is sufficient for an emergency, averaging about one hundred rounds per gun, and the amount is being increased as rapidly as possible. The field batteries are in a very unsatisfactory condition, many of them, but as fast as the materials can be procured they are refitting. Platt has four light 12-pounders, 107 men, in good condition; Tidball has two 6-pounders, two 12-pounder howitzers, 127 men, in good condition; Greene has four Parrott 10-pounders, rifled, 130 men, in good condition: Carlisle has 100 men, no guns; Arnold has 120 men, no guns; Ayres has two 6-pounders, two 12-pounder howitzers, 120 men; Edwards has two 10-pounder Parrott guns, 75 men; Griffin has one 10. pounder, rifled, 120 men.
[excerpt]
I further propose to equip Captain Bookwood's company, of Von Steinwehr's German regiment, with four 6-pounder guns and two 12-pounder howitzers. Captain Bookwood brought off the Varian battery from the field--that is, the guns and one caisson--when that battery was abandoned by its company. His company has a number of German artillerists, and he can easily fill up with instructed men from the brigade of German regiments (Blenker's) to which I propose the battery be attached.
The German regiments contain a number of artillery officers and soldiers. I suggested the propriety of placing, for the present at least, those regiments in the forts, that the guns may be served by drafts from the instructed men. One company, Captain Morozowicz's, of the De Kalb regiment, is composed almost exclusively of old German artillery soldiers, and should there be a lack of field artillery, could readily be made available.
Respectfully, &c.,
HENRY J. HUNT,
Brevet Major, and Chief of Artillery.
----------------------------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 3 [S# 3]
CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS, RELATING SPECIALLY TO OPERATIONS IN ARKANSAS, THE INDIAN TERRITORY, KANSAS, AND MISSOURI,(*) FROM MAY 10 TO NOVEMBER 19, 1861.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.--#2
SAINT LOUIS, August 13, 1861.
SECRETARY OF WAR:
General Lyon's aide reports engagement, with severe loss on both sides; General Lyon killed; Colonel Sigel, in command, retiring in good order from Springfield toward Rolla. Let the governor of Ohio be ordered forthwith to send me what disposable force he has; also governors of Illinois, Indiana, and Wisconsin. Order the utmost promptitude. The German (Groesbeck's) Thirty-ninth Regiment, at Camp Dennison, might be telegraphed directly here. We arc badly in want of field artillery, and to this time very few of our small-arms have arrived.
J. C. FREMONT,
General.
--------------------------------------------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 3 [S# 3]
SEPTEMBER 17, 1861.---Action at Blue Mills Landing, Mo.
[excerpt]
hey had passed through Liberty during the afternoon of the 16th to the number of about 4,000, and taken the road to Blue Mills Landing, and were reported as having four «13RR---VOL III» pieces of artillery. At 11 o'clock a.m. heard firing in the direction of the landing, which was reported as a conflict between the rebels and forces disputing their passage over the river. At 12 m. moved the command, consisting of 500 of the Third Iowa, a squad of German artillerists, and about 70 Home Guards, in the direction of Blue Mills Landing. On the route learned that a body of our scouts had fallen in with the enemy's pickets, and lost 4 killed and 1 wounded. Before starting dispatched courier to Colonel Smith to hasten his command.
---------------------------------------------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME IV [S# 4] CHAPTER XI.
Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating Specially To Operations In Texas, New Mexico, And Arizona From June 11, 1861-February 1, 1862.
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, Etc.
[excerpt]
Brownsville is the depot of the Mexican trade. In 1860 $12,000,000 in specie passed through the custom-house en route for the United States. The imports of goods, principally dry goods, is proportionally heavy. All that trade is now suspended. No direct shipments have arrived at Matamoras from foreign ports. Two vessels arrived there from New York while I was on the Rio Grande, both loaded with provisions and necessary supplies. One of them was wrecked. The foreign merchants at Matamoras are English and German, and are friendly to our cause. No arrangements for direct importation have been made, owing to the unsettled state of opinion concerning the raising of the blockade. If it should not be raised, direct importation will follow.
------------------------------------------------------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME VI, Chapter XV [S# 6]
Correspondence, Orders, And Returns Relating To Operations On The Coasts Of South Carolina, Georgia, And Middle And East Florida From August 21, 1861, To April 11, 1862.
CONFEDERATE CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.--#3
HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF SOUTH CAROLINA,
Charleston, December 5, 1861.
Capt. T. A. WASHINGTON,
Coosawhatchie :
CAPTAIN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of a letter from the commanding general of the 4th, and one from yourself of the same date. I telegraphed to General Gist to ask him what battery was intended by him, and received the answer as follows:
De Saussure said the Marlon Light Artillery and the Germans would be ready by today. Call upon the commanding officer Fourth Brigade South Carolina Militia.
From information here neither the Marion nor the German sections will be ready for two or three days, nor do I believe they will be ready for a week. The Washington Artillery commenced its preparation some time ago by my direction, and was called out. Meantime, while absent, it was intended to attach it to the Stevens Legion, and the governor had an idea of also attaching Boyce's company of so-called light artillery. The Washington Artillery, however, have not mustered into Confederate service, and I doubt whether they will, and they stand now as a company of State troops temporarily in Confederate service, with State guns (six pieces, three caissons, battery wagon, and forge), and horsed partly by State and partly by Confederate horses. Their preference is to a regiment of militia artillery of South Carolina; but I should have no hesitation in making them perform any duty they are capable of.
[excerpt]
R. S. RIPLEY,
Brigadier-General, Commanding.
--------------------------------------------------------------
O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME VI, Chapter XV [S# 6]
NOVEMBER 7, 1861.--Capture of Forts Beauregard and Walker, Port Royal Bay, S.C., by the United States Navy.
No. 3. -- Report of Col. John A. Wagener, First Artillery, South Carolina Militia, of the bombardment of Fort Walker.
[excerpt]
Right channel battery: Nos. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, German Artillery, Company B, Capt. H. Harms. Center channel battery: Nos. 6, 7, 8, and 9, German Artillery, Company A, Capt. D. Werner. Left channel battery: Nos. 10, 11, 12, and 13, Company C, Ninth [Eleventh] Regiment South Carolina Volunteers, Capt. Josiah Bedon. These were the front batteries, all under command of Maj. A. M. Huger, First Artillery, South Carolina Militia.
----------------------------------------------------------
Just this brief search, the Confederates had German units also. Thus impacted the Civil War in a general sense.

Just some thoughts.

Respectfully submitted for consideration,
M. E. Wolf
 
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Messages
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#12
Ties--

I suspected that many in leadership positions of the XI Corps were many X Forty-Eighters.

Franz Siegel
Carl Schutz
Alexander Schimmelfennig
Lugwig Blenker

The four men listed above all knew each other in Germany during the 1848 revolution. Siegel, Schutz, and Schimmelfennig all commanded the XI Corp at one time during the civil war.

Julius Stahel was an Austrian 48er that led the XI Corps at one time during the civil war.

A muse--
 
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#13
There's a nice summary of the Forty-eighters' impact on American culture, politics and the Civil War in "The American Historical Review" (Vol. 53, No. 4, July 1948) by Carl Wittke: The German Forty-Eighters in America: A Centennial Appraisal.
Wittke also wrote: Refugees of Revolution. The German Forty-eighters in America, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia, 1952:
http://www.archive.org/details/refugeesofrevolu008276mbp

Some of the Forty-eighters were active in the Republican Party since 1850s: they campaigned for Fremont in 1856, in 1860 added the German plank to the Republican platform. Schurz was in charge of the foreign department of the Republican National Committee. In 1863-64 the more radical of them opposed Lincoln's renomination, and urged for more severe program toward the South and for the advancement of colored people.But most of the Forty-eighters supported Lincoln for the second term.
A high proportion of them enlisted in the Civil War, a few held commissions in the Federal Army.
 
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#14
A thought--

Is it not interesting that the "Forty-Eighters Revolutionary's" led a failed uprising in Germany only to come to American and help quail an uprising over here.....

Is there not any honor among revolutionaries?


A fun muse....
 
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#15
There is no reason that sympathy, support, or even active participiation in one rebellion in one set of circumstances should lend itself to any of those things in a rebellion in entirely different circumstances, anymore than belief in the legitimate government in one scenario means one believes that the legitimate government is always morally superior as well as lawful.

So I don't see any motivation for the forty-eighters to support the Confederacy. "They're both revolutions" means somewhat less than how apples and oranges are "both fruits".

One would presume that if there was something to the Southern claims of oppressive federal government that there would be at least sympathy by the forty-eighters, but their rallying behind Union and Liberty seems to be more than mere love of their new country - rather, a continuation of their support for democracy.

Something that the Confederacy's rebellion threatened - whether intended that way or not.
 
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#16
Is it not interesting that the "Forty-Eighters Revolutionary's" led a failed uprising in Germany only to come to American and help quail an uprising over here.....
Let's look at the Civil War not as a Southern uprising against the federal rule, but as a New England's revolution. As some Southerners (James Thornwell comes to my mind and this is why I write about them "Southerners" and not "secessionists") and Abolitionists understood it. If it was a revolution against the old, the feudal, and for the new, for the unification of the nation and for democracy... then it would be exactly what the Forty-eighters fought for in Europe. Maybe this was the way these German revolutionaries saw the American conflict, with the Confederacy struggling not so much for the Southern independence as for the status quo ante.

Just guessing.
 

ole

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
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#17
Good analysis, Bobbie, but I see the immigrants as mostly rejecting the idea that someone could own a person. They'd had enough of that. From a place where only the royalty owned land to a place where anyone could have a piece was one giant leap. Having one's own piece had to have been attractive. Many didn't get there, and many, having got one failed. But they took their shot at it, and that must have been gratifying. In the old country, they didn't have the option. So they took the chance.

Which is likely why I grew up with people whose grandfathers came from Belgium, Holland, Germany, Ireland, Norway and Sweden. Later, I moved into a society that included a majority of Poles and Italians with a smattering of Slovacks. Wherever I've been, and as fascinated as I am with ethnicity, they've always been, first and foremost, Americans. After that, they bring out the kloskies.

Ole
 
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#19
Ole,
I agree with you that the immigrants were opposed to slavery in principle, to any violation of human dignity. (By the way, as Mr Thornwell hasn't left my mind yet, he also rejected the idea that a person could be a property... sorry for the digression).

As for the giant leap... that's right. I've recently done some research on a Prussian immigrant who came to the States as an iron moulder, to become a notary public after the Civil War... He used his chance pretty well.
 

trice

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#20
You left off one of the most despised. Lieber.
No, I don't think he counts as an 1848er.

Professor Lieber came here long before that. He was born in 1800 and was wounded at Waterloo in 1815 for the Prussian Army. He was persecuted as a liberal after that, banned from attending any Prussian university, fought in the Greek War of Independence, was pardoned by the Prussian King, but soon ended in prison again. He came to Boston in 1827, where he soon became a founding editor of the Encyclopaedia Americana.

Lieber himself lived in Columbia, South Carolina for 21 years. He had accepted a position teaching history and political economics at South Carolina College -- and so many of the minds that voted for secession and fought for the Confederacy passed through his classes. One of his sons later fought for the Confederacy, dying at the Battle of Williamsburg in 1862. Lieber the father moved to New York in 1856, having accepted a position at Columbia.

Tim
 



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