Forgotten Forts Series - Fort Mackinac

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
Fort Mackinac is a stone work built on a limestone bluff on Mackinac Island located between Michigan's upper peninsula and lower Michigan. It was originally built by the British in 1780 after they abandoned Fort Michilimackinac on the mainland. The fort was turned over to the United States in 1796 until it was captured by the British at the start of the War of 1812. After the wars conclusion the fort was once again returned to the United States. This would end the forts combat role but what most do not realize is it did play a role in the Civil War. The following is taken from the Mackinac State Historic Parks website.
090708_FortMackinac.JPG


"After Capt. Henry Pratt’s company of the 2nd Artillery left in early 1861, Fort Mackinac was virtually abandoned. Only Ordnance Sergeant William Marshall remained behind as the fort’s sole caretaker. A year later, things began to change at the post. In early 1862, victorious Federal forces recaptured much of Tennessee from the Confederacy. Andrew Johnson (later Lincoln’s Vice President, and ultimately the 17th President) was installed as the military governor of the state, a position he used to quickly arrest several prominent Confederate sympathizers. On Johnson’s orders, Josephus (or Joseph) Conn Guild, George Washington Barrow, and William Giles Harding were placed under arrest and shipped north. Aware of Johnson’s actions, Secretary of War Edwin Stanton made preparations to exile the three men to Fort Mackinac, where their influence and wealth could not help the Confederate cause. Unfortunately, no Federal troops were immediately available to garrison Mackinac as guards; as a result, the three prisoners were sent temporarily to Detroit, where they were well-received by an inquisitive and sympathetic public.

Throughout April 1862, Federal officers in Detroit, Washington, and elsewhere scrambled to find a suitable garrison for Fort Mackinac. Eventually, Capt. Grover S. Wormer received orders to raise an independent company in Detroit specifically to guard the Tennesseans on Mackinac. Mustered into service in early May, Wormer’s unit, named the Stanton Guard after the Secretary of War, counted just fewer than 100 men in its ranks. Boarding the steamer Illinois around May 10, the new Stanton Guard and their three prisoners arrived on Mackinac Island shortly after.

Unfortunately for the new garrison of Fort Mackinac, a quick inspection of the nearly abandoned post revealed that it was not ready to accommodate the prisoners. As a result, the three men were lodged at the Mission House Hotel while the Stanton Guard repaired the quarters at the fort. The improvements complete, on May 25 the Tennesseans moved into the fort’s Wood Quarters to begin their incarceration at the post. Despite the repairs carried out by the Stanton Guard, the War Department quickly discarded any thought of housing more prisoners at Fort Mackinac, as the fort would require considerably more work to make it secure.

Despite their status as prisoners, the three men apparently enjoyed a pleasantly boring summer on Mackinac. They were allowed to explore the island with a small guard detachments, and wrote of Mackinac’s interesting geological formations and rich history. They frequently wrote letters home to Tennessee, and Guild and Barrow both complimented Capt. Wormer for his kindness and dignity. Indeed, the prisoners received such liberal treatment that in early August, Col. William Hoffman, the Commissary-General of Prisoners, reprimanded Wormer for failing to impose harsher restrictions upon the men.

As the summer drew to a close, the War Department reassessed the value of Fort Mackinac as a prison. Col. Hoffman recommended that the Stanton Guard be disbanded, as its men could be better used in the field. On September 10, the troops and prisoners departed Fort Mackinac, bound again for Detroit. The Stanton Guard formally mustered out and disbanded on September 25. Guild and Harding swore allegiance to the U.S. and were released on September 30, 1862, leaving only Barrow in custody. He was transferred to the more established military prison on Johnson’s Island in Lake Erie, near Sandusky, Ohio. He remained in prison until March 1863 when he was released as part of a prisoner exchange.

With the departure of the Stanton Guard, Fort Mackinac was again virtually abandoned, save for Ordnance Sergeant Marshall. He served alone for the next five years, until the Army garrisoned the post in 1867."

FortMackinac2b.jpg


Ive visited Fort Mackinac twice and enjoyed it both times I've been there. It is very well preserved and several buildings including 2 blockhouses, officers quarters, and enlisted barracks have been restored to their original form. Also if you have a chance to visit this one you can make a hike to the very top of the island and explore the remains of Fort Holmes which was a support position to Fort Mackinac. There is also the reconstruction of Fort Michilimackac located in Mackinaw City on the mainland. If you're planning a trip to Michigan especially in the warm months I'd highly suggest taking a day or two to make a stop. Theres too much on the island to really describe in a single post. A TON OF HISTORY in the area.

http://mackinacstatehistoricparks.wordpress.com/2012/09/03/fort-mackinac-as-a-civil-war-prison/
http://fortwiki.com/Fort_Mackinac

As requested for easier navigation here are the rest of the forts I've focused on in my "series"
http://www.civilwartalk.com/threads/forgotten-forts-series-fort-norfolk.77859/
http://www.civilwartalk.com/threads/forgotten-forts-series-fort-clinch.77816/
http://www.civilwartalk.com/threads/fort-warren.77775/
http://www.civilwartalk.com/threads/fort-alcatraz.77732/
 

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
Now I want to visit Michigan and San Francisco.

Mackinac Island is a great place to visit even if you're not interested in the military aspects. The island is roughly 8 miles around and you can ride bikes around it, golf, theres numerous shops, of course theres fishing and all that, plenty of other historical sites and geographical features. A really nice place to take your family.
 

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
The ruins of Fort Holmes at the top of Mackinac Island which has a neat history within itself. It was here in 1852 George Meade, of Gettysburg fame, would construct an obvservation post. For a comprehensive history of Fort Holmes I would reccomend. Its not very long because the post was only in service for a handful of years.

Dunnigan, Brian L. Fort Holmes. Mackinac Island State Park Commission. 1984.
june2011UP 371.jpg


Also heres a picture of the reconstruction of Fort Michilimackinac located in Mackinaw City right beside the Mackinac Straits Bridge connecting southern Michigan to the U.P.
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Joined
Oct 3, 2005
Mackinac Island is a great place to visit even if you're not interested in the military aspects. The island is roughly 8 miles around and you can ride bikes around it, golf, theres numerous shops, of course theres fishing and all that, plenty of other historical sites and geographical features. A really nice place to take your family.

I've heard of it. No cars, as I remember.
 

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
I've heard of it. No cars, as I remember.

Correct, no vehicles except for emergency vehicles and state park maintenance. The park was actually established as a National Park and was the 2nd of its kind only behind Yellowstone but was later transfered to the state of Michigan and turned into a Michigan State Park.
 

major bill

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
Forum Host
Joined
Aug 25, 2012
Anyone interested in seeing Fort Mackinac should also visit Fort Michilimackinac. It is on the tip of the lower peninsula and anyway you have to do something while waiting for the next ferry.

Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. Built around 1715, and abandoned in 1783, it was located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, at the northern tip of the lower peninsula of the present-day state of Michigan in the United States. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum. The French had first established a presence in the Straits of Mackinac in 1671 when Father Marquette established the Jesuit St. Ignace Mission at present-day St. Ignace. In 1683, they augmented the mission with Fort de Buade. In 1688 they established a mission at Sault Ste. Marie. In 1701, Sieur de Cadillac moved the French garrison to Fort Detroit and closed the mission. By 1715, however, the French built Fort Michilimackinac to re-establish a presence along the Straits of Mackinac, with several modifications and expansions to the palisade walls over the decades.
The French relinquished the fort, along with their territory in Canada, to the British in 1761 following their loss in the French and Indian War. Although the British continued to operate the fort as a major trading post, French civilians were allowed to live their normal lives with French traditions and to worship at St. Anne's Catholic Church. Other civilian residents during the British military occupation included métis (French-Ojibwe) and British fur traders, some of which resided within the fort in the southeastern row house.[4]
The Ojibwe in the region resented British policies as harsh. On June 2, 1763, as part of the larger movement known as Pontiac's Rebellion, a group of Ojibwe staged a game of baaga'adowe (a forerunner of modern lacrosse) outside the fort as a ruse to gain entrance. After gaining entrance to the fort, they killed most of the British inhabitants and held the fort for a year before the British retook it with the provision to offer more and better gifts to the native inhabitants of the area.
The British eventually deemed the wooden fort on the mainland too vulnerable to attack, and in 1781 they built Fort Mackinac, a limestone fort on nearby Mackinac Island. The buildings were dismantled and moved piece by piece over water in the summer and ice in winter to the island over the course of two years. Patrick Sinclair, the lieutenant governor of Michilimackinac, ordered the remains of Fort Michilimackinac destroyed after the move.

But please give us poor Michiganders a break and remember Mackinac and Mackinaw, are pronounced exactly the same (Mack' in aw).

Major Bill
 

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
Anyone interested in seeing Fort Mackinac should also visit Fort Michilimackinac. It is on the tip of the lower peninsula and anyway you have to do something while waiting for the next ferry.

On June 2, 1763, as part of the larger movement known as Pontiac's Rebellion, a group of Ojibwe staged a game of baaga'adowe (a forerunner of modern lacrosse) outside the fort as a ruse to gain entrance. After gaining entrance to the fort, they killed most of the British inhabitants and held the fort for a year before the British retook it with the provision to offer more and better gifts to the native inhabitants of the area.
The British eventually deemed the wooden fort on the mainland too vulnerable to attack, and in 1781 they built Fort Mackinac, a limestone fort on nearby Mackinac Island. The buildings were dismantled and moved piece by piece over water in the summer and ice in winter to the island over the course of two years. Patrick Sinclair, the lieutenant governor of Michilimackinac, ordered the remains of Fort Michilimackinac destroyed after the move.

I have always loved the story of how Fort Michilimackinac was captured. Pontiac's Rebellion is a fascinating story.

I have a great book if you can find it Bill.

Barry, James P. Old Forts of the Great Lakes: Sentinels in the Wilderness. Thunder Bay Press. Lansing, Michigan. 1994.
 

NFB22

Sergeant Major
Joined
Jun 21, 2012
Location
Louisville, KY
Just visited Mackinac Island this past month (pictures to follow) and visited both Fort Mackinac and whats left of Fort Holmes. While Holmes continues to fall apart Fort Mackinac still is in great shape and almost every post building has been restored to its War of 1812 appearance.
 

donna

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
Forum Host
Joined
May 12, 2010
Location
Now Florida but always a Kentuckian
Another interesting post. Several years ago we went to Mackinac Island. It is a beautiful place and so much history. While there we had the Grand Buffet at the Grand Hotel on the Island. We also visited the Fort. We took a carriage ride all around the island.

We stayed in Mackinaw City and visited Fort Michilimackinac and other historic sites. Another thing to do when there is to cross the Mackinac Bridge which spans the Straits of Mackinac which connects the Upper and Lower Peninsulas of Michigan. The bridge is a tribute to the creative designer, the steel-nerved ironworkers and construction crews that saw the bridge through completion. It spans 5 miles of open water over the straits. The bridge was opened in Nov. 1957.
 

M E Wolf

Colonel
Retired Moderator
Joined
Feb 9, 2008
Location
Virginia
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME I [S# 114]
EARLIER CAPTURES AND ARRESTS, AND MEASURES OF PACIFICATION IN MISSOURI.
Miscellaneous Captures; Treatment of Political and Military Prisoners, and Tentative Efforts at Exchange.

SAINT LOUIS, October 16, 1861.
Hon. S. CAMERON.
SIR: There are from 50 to 100 dangerous secessionists in this city. In the event of Federal reverses I think it best to seize and hold them as prisoners. We have no fit place to detain them and it were better that they were out of the State. I would respectfully suggest the occupation of the fort at Mackinac for that purpose. Please advise me by telegraph what are your directions.
JNO. McNEIL,
Colonel Nineteenth Missouri, Assistant Provost-Marshal.
-----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME II [S# 115]
Miscellaneous Union Correspondence, etc., Relating to Political Arrests During the First Year of the War.--#5
SAINT LOUIS, October --, 1861.
Hon. W. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State:
I telegraphed(*) the Secretary of War on the 16th instant informing him that there were in this city from 50 to 100 dangerous secessionists, and that circumstances might make their arrest necessary. Also that we had no suitable place of detention for such a large number of prisoners, and suggesting their removal in a certain contingency to the fort at Mackinac. My telegraph has not been answered. Some of the persons referred to have been arrested. They ought by all means to be detained. Please answer and state the disposition which you think ought to be made of them.
JOHN McNEIL,
Colonel Nineteenth Missouri Vols. and Asst. Provost-Marshal.
----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#17
WAR DEPARTMENT, Washington, April 10, 1862.
Governor ANDREW JOHNSON, Nashville, Tenn.:
There has been unavoidable delay in fixing a proper place for your prisoners. You will send them to Detroit under guard with directions to turn them over to Captain Gibbs, in command there. They will be sent from there to Fort Mackinac, on Lake Huron. I rejoice at your energy and fair prospects.
EDWIN M. STANTON,
Secretary of War.
-----
ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, April 10, 1862.
Col. C. A. WAITE, U.S. Army, Plattsburg, N. Y.:
The Secretary of War directs you to order one of the companies Third Cavalry now at Detroit to reoccupy Fort Mackinac. Instruct the commanding officer to receive and guard all prisoners of state sent to him from Tennessee.
L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General.
-----
ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, April 10, 1862.
Capt. ALFRED GIBBS, Third Cavalry, Detroit, Mich.:
Colonel Waite is directed to order one of your companies to Fort Mackinac, the commanding officer to be instructed to receive and guard any prisoners of state sent there from Tennessee. Should such prisoners arrive at Detroit confine and guard them until the company goes to Mackinac and then send them forward.
L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General.
-----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#17
ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, April 13, 1862.
Capt. C. H. McNALLY, Detroit, Mich.:
The regular troops at Detroit being on parole cannot properly guard the prisoners of war ordered to be sent to Fort Mackinac and therefore one of the companies at Detroit will not move to that place. Are there any volunteers at or near Detroit from which a company could be taken to guard the prisoners and garrison Fort Mackinac? Answer immediately. If the prisoners arrive at Detroit before the other troops are there request the civil authorities to take charge of them until the arrival of troops.
L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General.
-----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#18
DETROIT, MICH., April 18, 1862.
ADJUTANT-GENERAL U.S. ARMY, Washington.
SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with the instructions of the Secretary of War I arrived at this place last evening on my way to Mackinac and find that the navigation of the upper lake is closed by ice and will probably remain so for a week or ten days. No prisoners of war have arrived at Detroit, and I am informed by Colonel Smith that the Governor of Michigan has refused to furnish a company of volunteers for their guard.

Fort Mackinac is a small work partly inclosed by small pickets and the buildings I believe were originally intended for only one company. It is now many years since I was stationed there but if my recollection is correct it does not seem more than a half acre of ground. I have no information in relation to the number of prisoners to be sent there, but I do not believe that the present buildings will afford even tolerable accommodation for the garrison and 200 men. If a greater number is to be quartered there buildings must be put up outside of the present site of the fort and the picketing extended so as to inclose them. This will of course involve considerable expense and require a larger force than one company to guard the prisoners.

It will require a great degree of vigilance on the part of the guard to keep 200 within the fort. The island of Mackinac is about nine miles in circumference with but few inhabitants except in the village of that name near the fort, and can be approached on all sides by boats. Among the mixed population of that island--a large number of whom are fishermen--and the persons who visit it I do not doubt that many could be found who for a small compensation would aid the prisoners to escape, hence the necessity of a strong guard. Drummond Island, in Canada, can be easily reached by boats without much risk, a large portion of the distance being along the shore of an unsettled country. If the number of persons to be sent to Mackinac be more than 200 a considerable expenditure for the erection of other buildings will be necessary immediately, and if it be the intention of the Government to retain them there next winter these buildings must be made much warmer and consequently more costly than would be necessary in a warmer climate.

In order that I may be able to make such preliminary arrangements as may be necessary it is important that I should be informed as early as practicable of the number of persons to be sent to that Island. Please address communications to the care of Colonel Smith, Detroit.
I am, sir, with much respect, your obedient servant,
C. A. WAITE,
Colonel of First Infantry, Commanding Detail.
-----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#21

FORT MACKINAC, May 15, 1862.
Col. WILLIAM HOFFMAN, U.S. Army,
Commissary- General of Prisoners, Detroit.
DEAR SIR: I have been placed in command of this post with my company, Stanton Guards, for the purpose of guarding this post and state prisoners of war. I received per orders of Col. J. R. Smith. U.S. Army, Messrs. Barrow, Guild and Harding as prisoners of war. I would like some instructions in regard to the liberty, &c., that I am to extend to them. Col. C. A. Waite, U.S. Army, informs me that I am to receive my instructions from you.
Your obedient servant,
G. S. WORMER,
Captain, Commanding Stanton Guards.


O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#21
FORT MACKINAC, May 16, 1862.
Col. W. HOFFMAN, U.S. Army,
Commissary- General of Prisoners.
SIR: I inclose to you a letter(*) from Capt. G. S. Wormer, the officer in command of this post, who is desirous of receiving your instructions in relation to the course to be adopted toward the state prisoners of war committed to his charge. Supposing that the prisoners mentioned in Captain Wormer's note were to be placed under my direction, I applied to the Adjutant-General of the Army for instructions on certain points and was told that you as commissary-general of prisoners are charged with the care of them. Under these circumstances it would not be proper for me to give directions of a permanent character. Captain Wormer wishes your instructions in regard to the liberty to be allowed them to take exercise, &c., and the restrictions to be placed on their intercourse with citizens either personally or through the mail.
I inclose a copy(+) of the letter I received from the Adjutant-General.
I am, colonel, with much respect, your obedient servant,
C. A. WAITE,
Colonel First Infantry, Commanding District.
-----
OFFICE COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF PRISONERS,
Detroit, Mich., May 24, 1862.
Capt. G. S. WORMER, Commanding Fort Mackinac, Mich.
CAPTAIN: In reply to your letter of the 15th instant asking for instructions in relation to the prisoners of war in your charge I have to say that you may permit [them] to walk about the island as often during the week as the post surgeon may think necessary for their health, not oftener than every other day, provided they pledge themselves to hold no communication with any person whatever verbally or in writing nor to go beyond the limits you prescribe, and further that they will make no attempt directly or indirectly to escape.

You will limit the time during which they may be absent from the fort to not over three hours per day. You may permit them to write and receive letters subject to your inspection to see that they contain nothing which it would be improper for a good loyal citizen to write, and you may allow them to receive books and newspapers. These privileges will be withheld for any improper conduct on the part of the prisoners. Any money sent to them by their friends must be held in your hands subject to their checks for such purchases as they may make. Give them receipts for any money you may retain and keep their accounts in a book subject to my inspection.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HOFFMAN,
Lieut. Col. Eighth Infantry, Commissary-General of Prisoners.

continued
 

M E Wolf

Colonel
Retired Moderator
Joined
Feb 9, 2008
Location
Virginia
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#23

OFFICE COMMISSARY-GENERAL OF PRISONERS,
Detroit, Mich., May 26, 1862.
Capt. G. S. WORMER, Commanding Fort Mackinac, Mich.
CAPTAIN: I think it advisable to add some further instructions to those given in my letter of the 24th instant. You should in the first place put your company in a perfect state of instruction and discipline by at least two-better three--drills a day, and by a close observance of all the garrison duties laid down in the Army Regulations. The duties prescribed for guards should be particularly observed and in every detail the Regulations should be as clearly adhered to as possible. From guard mounting until sunset the prisoners under your charge may have the limits of the interior of the fort, but during the remainder of the day (twenty-four hours) they must be confined to their quarters under surveillance of the guard, with such orders as to insure their safety. Until arrangements are perfected for their messing in their own quarters you will make such provisions for them as may be convenient consistent with their safety. When cooking utensils are furnished on the estimates already forwarded you may permit them to hire a man to cook for them who must give satisfactory evidence of his loyalty. Direct your quartermaster to purchase such cheap table furniture as may be absolutely necessary for their use. Permit them to purchase for themselves what articles for the table or furniture they please, but not liquors of any kind. While the prisoners are granted the freedom of the fort during the day they must be on their parole of honor not to attempt to escape nor to violate any rule you may prescribe for them. Withhold from them privileges of all kinds unless your orders are strictly complied with. Report to me by letter twice a month, on the 15th and the last day, the state of things at your post.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
W. HOFFMAN,
Lieut. Col. Eighth Infantry, Commissary-General of Prisoners.
-----
O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME III [S# 116]
SERIES II.--VOLUME III.
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM FEBRUARY 19, 1861, TO JUNE 12, 1862.--#25
DISTRICT HEADQUARTER8, Plattsburg, N.Y., June 3, 1862.
General L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General U.S. Army, Washington.
SIR: I have the honor to report that in compliance with the directions of the Secretary of War contained in a telegram (without date) received from you on the 15th of April last I have visited Fort Mackinac and made arrangements for the reception and safe-keeping of some fourteen or fifteen state prisoners of war. Two one-story buildings have been selected for their quarters. One was formerly used as a hospital and the other as quarters for officers. A hasty sketch(+) of the ground floor of these buildings herewith inclosed will show the space allowed for their accommodation. I also inclose a copy of my instructions to Captain Wormer, the officer in command of Fort Mackinac.
I am, general, with much respect, your obedient servant,
C. A. WAITE,
Colonel of First Infantry.
[Inclosure.]
FORT MACKINAC, May 25, 1862.
Capt. G. S. WORMER, Commanding Post of Fort Mackinac.
SIR: In addition to the ordinary duties of commanding officer of Fort Mackinac you are charged with the duty of guarding and safe-keeping Washington Barrow, William G. Harding and Joseph C Guild, citizens of Tennessee, state prisoners of war, now under your control, and it is enjoined upon you to adopt all such measures as may be necessary to retain these persons in your custody. For this purpose the company of volunteers under your command were mustered into the service of the United States. It is presumed that Colonel Hoffman, U.S. Army, commissary-general of prisoners, will give you all necessary instructions in relation to the manner the prisoners are to be treated, the restrictions to be placed on their intercourse with citizens, either personal or through the mail, and the liberty that may be allowed them to take exercise, &c.
I am, captain, with much respect, your obedient servant,
C. A. WAITE,
Colonel of First Infantry, Commanding District.
-----

O.R.--SERIES II--VOLUME IV [S# 117]
UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, ETC., RELATING TO PRISONERS OF WAR AND STATE FROM JUNE 13, 1862, TO NOVEMBER 30, 1862.--#19
ADJUTANT-GENERAL'S OFFICE,
Washington, August 27, 1862.
Col. WILLIAM HOFFMAN, U.S. Army, Detroit:
Send the three political prisoners confined at Fort Mackinac to Sandusky and muster out the company of volunteers now guarding them. Inform the Governor of Michigan that you are going to muster the company out.
L. THOMAS,
Adjutant-General.
-----
O.R.--SERIES III--VOLUME I [S# 122]
CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, REPORTS, AND RETURNS OF THE UNION AUTHORITIES FROM NOVEMBER 1, 1860, TO MARCH 31, 1862.(*)--#1
tatement showing the distribution of the U. S. Army on the 1st day of January, 186I, with the changes between that date and the 15th of April, 1861.
[Compiled from the records of the Adjutant-General's Office.]
DEPARTMENT OF THE EAST.
(Comprising the country east of the Mississippi River.)

Stations January 1, 1861. Troops. Changes between January 1 and April 15, 1861.
Fort Mackinac, Mich G, 2d Artillery No change.
Plattsburg Barracks, N.Y. K, 2d Artillery To Fort-Hamilton. N.Y., Jan. 21-22; to Fort McHenry, Md., Jan. 29-30; to Washington, D.C., Feb. 1; to Fort Lafayette, N.Y., April 4-5; to Fort Pickens, Fla., April 8-20.
Fort Independence, Maes C, 2d Artillery To Fort Jefferson, Fla., Jan. 10-18.
Fort Monroe, Va A, 1st Artillery To Pensacola Harbor, Fla,, Jan. 24-Feb. 6; to Fort Pickens, Fla., April 13.
C, 1st Artillery No change.
B and L, 2d Artillery. Do.
F and K, 3d Artillery. Do.
D and L, 4th Artillery. Do.
Fayetteville Arsenal, N.C. D, 2d Artillery Do.
Fort Sumter, S. C E and H, 1st Artillery. To Fort Hamilton, N. Y., April 14-18.
Augusta Arsenal, Ga E, 2d Artillery To Washington, D.C., Feb. 1-7.
Baton Rouge Barracks, La. D, 1st Artillery To Fort Hamilton, N.Y., Jan. 13-23; to Fort McHenry, Md., Jan. 29-30; to Washington, D.C., Feb. 2-3.
Barrancas Barracks, Fla G, 1st Artillery To Fort Pickens, Fla., Jan. 10.
Key West Barracks, Fla B, 1st Artillery To Fort Taylor, Fla., Jan. 14.

NOTE.--Engineer Company A left the West Point Military Academy January 18, and the West Point Battery (afterward known as D, Fifth Artillery) left same post January 31, both for Washington, D.C. The former was ordered from Washington to Fort Hamilton, N.Y., April 2.


continued
 

M E Wolf

Colonel
Retired Moderator
Joined
Feb 9, 2008
Location
Virginia
Medical/Surgical History--Part I, Volume I
CLXXXI. Extracts from a Narrative of his Services in the
Medical Staff from April, 1861, to April, 1862.
By Surgeon GEORGE E. COOPER, U. S. Army.


SIR: In compliance with instructions received in circular from the Surgeon General's Office, dated Washington, D. C., May 1, 1863, I transmit a short narrative of the duties to which I have been assigned since the breaking out of the rebellion in 1861. At the time of the attack on Fort Sumter, the command with which I was doing duty was stationed at Fort Mackinac, Michigan. The condition of the lakes, closed with ice, kept the command at that post until April 28, 1861, when navigation having opened, the troops left, and reported with all possible dispatch at Washington, D.C. Having reported to the Surgeon General, I was detailed to organize and take charge of the Union Hotel hospital in Georgetown. Having organized this establishment, and having remained in charge of it until it was filled with patients, I was ordered to report to Major General Robert Patterson as medical director. At the request of General Patterson, Surgeon Tripler was retained, and I was ordered to report again to the Surgeon General. On reporting to the Surgeon General, I was directed to report to Surgeon Tripler for duty with the Army of the Shenandoah. On returning to the army at Chambersburg, where I had left it, I found that the greater part had left for Hagerstown, Maryland. The sick had been left in a temporary
hospital at Chambersburg, and on my reporting to Surgeon Triplet at Hagerstown, I was directed to return to Chambersburg, break up the hospital, and bring all the sick who could be moved, and the material of the hospital, to Hagerstown. Having performed this duty, I was detailed as medical purveyor of the army under General Patterson, and continued as such when the command was transferred to General N. P. Banks, and during the time, transported the purveying depot from Hagerstown to Frederick, and from Frederick to Baltimore. At Baltimore, I remained until October 5, 1861, when I was directed to turn over my property to Assistant Surgeon R. H. Alexander, U. S. A., and to report in person at Washington, D. C., to General T. W. Sherman, for duty with the expedition against the southern coast.
[extensive excerpt]

M. E. Wolf
 
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