Federal Flags of the Army, Corps, Divisions and Brigades

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Tom Elmore

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Infantry commands of the Union Army of the Potomac displayed other flags at Gettysburg besides the state and national colors of individual regiments. Listed below is a compilation of source citations of these unique flags.

Seldom mentioned by the rank and file, they were evidently not accorded the same reverence as regimental banners. For one thing, they were a recent phenomenon, bearing the badge of individual corps that was the brainchild of Joseph Hooker. When unfurled on the march, they served a utilitarian purpose, by making it easier for couriers and staff officers to quickly locate general officers. However, during a battle they were generally unwelcome encumbrances, as they afforded an opponent a convenient target. Thus I suspect many of them remained safely furled behind the lines during the battle. However, there were notable exceptions: Alexander Hays ensured that “his” division flag was always prominently flying by his side as he constantly roamed his assigned sector, borne aloft by a faithful orderly.

Comparable flags at the brigade level on up did not exist in the southern army at Gettysburg, although a flag was employed to mark General Robert E. Lee’s stationary headquarters near the Thompson residence (William Miller Owen, In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans, Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1885, p. 242). Colonel A. Godard of the 60th​ New York reported the capture of a Confederate brigade flag, but flag expert Greg Biggs thought it more likely an old company flag that was pressed into service as the battle flag of the 21st​ or 50th​ Virginia regiment. (Official Reports of Col. Abel Godard and Maj. Gen. H. W. Slocum).

If the Federal army did not hold these particular flags in high esteem, the Confederates surely did if they captured them, as in the case of the First Corps standard on July 1. Modern students must take them in consideration when trying to sort out battlefield captures, for instance those [was it four?] claimed by the Confederates during their July 2 evening assault on Cemetery Hill.

----------------------------

Army

[Around 6 a.m. on July 2 at the cottage of] Lydia Leister … it was at this house Gen. Meade had his headquarters. His flag was flying there. … but we did not see him. (James A. Wright, The Story of Company F, First Minnesota Infantry, Minnesota Historical Society)

Corps

First Corps:

[In the cupola of the Lutheran Theological Seminary on the morning of July 1], I called the attention of the General [Buford] to an army corps advancing some two miles distant, and shortly distinguished it as the First on account of their “corps flag.” (1Lt. Aaron B. Jerome, Signal Officer to Buford, Bachelder Papers, 1:200)

[Col. Perrin’s] Brigade captured four standards on July 1, one being the corps standard of the First Army Corps, commanded by Reynolds. Turned in at Culpeper Court House, Virginia. (Letter of Abner Perrin to the Governor of South Carolina, July 29, 1863)

Second Corps:

The corps’ flag [was] flying in the hands of a brave Irishman, Private James Wells, of the Sixth New York Cavalry [as he rode slowly with Hancock down the crest of Cemetery Ridge during the July 3 artillery bombardment]. (St. Clair A. Mulholland, The Story of the 116th​ Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers)

Third Corps:

The appearance of General Sickles [before sundown on July 1], riding into the enclosure where the men were resting, with his staff and corps ensign, was hailed with cheers … (142nd​ Pennsylvania, History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, by Samuel P. Bates, vol. IV, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, Printers, 1869-1871, p. 467)

Sixth Corps:

At Manchester [Maryland, an approaching] messenger sees a headquarters flag at the tent of Gen. Sedgwick, [and delivered] orders to march to Gettysburg. (Delevan Bates, 121 NY, The Otsego Republican, Aurora, Nebraska, January 20, 1894)

Afternoon July 2, near G., about 5 p.m. an officer rode in and inquired for the headquarters. We all pointed cross the brook where on a little knoll General Sedgwick’s Corps flag was flying. (Diary of Lt. Edmund Halsey, D/15 NJ)

Division

First Corps, Second Division:

Seeing our division hospital flag [“white lozenge on red flag” – a red flag indicated a hospital] hanging out in front of a church [Christ Lutheran], I dodged in there … (Three Years with Company K, 13 Mass, Austin C. Stearns, p. 182-184; Patriot Daughters of Lancaster)

Second Corps, Third Division [see attachment]:

Hays’ flag was a plain white square with a blue trefoil. (Capt. Charles A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1: 319)

Late morning of July 2, Brig. Gen. Alexander Hays, accompanied by his Adj. Gen. Capt. George P. Cortes and the division flag, rode down on horseback to the skirmish line and rallied the 39th​ New York under showers of bullets. (Capt. Charles A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1:315)

Turning to his orderly, [Brig. Gen. Alexander Hays] said, “Orderly! When we are attacked I expect you to ride where danger is the thickest; do you think you will keep up with that flag, even if I ride to ----?” Touching his cap, the orderly said “With pleasure. General, if you reach ---- just look out the window and you’ll see the little blue trefoil fluttering behind you.” (Charles E. Troutman, 12 NJ, Camp-Fire Sketches and Battlefield Echoes) … A more colorful version of this incident was given by an artilleryman: [July 2] Going a hundred yards or more [Hays] missed his headquarters flag and came back himself to see about it. The color-bearer was an Irishman whom all the boys called “Wild Jack.” The general came up to him exclaiming: “Why don’t you come on with that flag?” Jack very politely saluted him and said, “All right, general, if yez get’s into ----, look out of the window and ye’ll see Jack coming.” (Thomas M. Aldrich, The History of Battery A, First Regiment Rhode Island Light Artillery)

Third Corps, First Division:

July 2, crossed the ridge [after being relieved] and when on the Taneytown road I noticed our brigade and division headquarters flags in our front. (Col. John A. Danks, 63rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, I:387)

Third Corps, Second Division:

Very early July 2, our white Division flag drooped heavily from its staff. (Diary of Captain A. F. Cavada, A. A. Humphreys’ staff)

Twelfth Corps, Second Division:

July 1, late afternoon, Geary’s Second Division in the lead, whose headquarters flag of dark blue with its inspiring white star emblazoned in the center, was at its head. (Capt. Joseph A. Moore, B/147 PA, Pennsylvania at G., II:720)

Brigade

First Corps, Second Division, First Brigade:

On the morning of July 3, Colonel [Richard] Coulter [who had replaced the wounded Brig. Gen. Paul] planted the brigade colors in the edge of a grove [immediately behind Cemetery Hill], in plain view of the rebels. (The Sixteenth Maine Regiment in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865, by Major A. R. Small, Portland, ME: Regimental Association, 1886, p. 121 – at that time Small was serving Coulter as his Acting Assistant Adjutant General)

During the cannonade on July 3, Colonel Coulter shouted: “Where in ---- is my flag? Where do you suppose that cowardly son of a ----- has skedaddled to?” The colonel found him behind a stone wall where he had lain down with the flag folded up to avoid attracting attention. Colonel Coulter shook out the folds, put the staff in the hands of the trembling man, and double-quicked him to the front. A shell exploded nearby and the colonel planted the end of the staff where the shell had burst and shouted: “There, Orderly; hold it! If I can’t get you killed in ten minutes, by God, I’ll post you right up among the batteries!” He turned to one of his staff and said, “The poor devil couldn’t be safer; two shells don’t often hit the same place. If he obeys, he’ll be all right and I’ll know where my headquarters are.” (The Road to Richmond, The Civil War Memoirs of Major Abner R. Small of the Sixteenth Maine Volunteers)

First Corps, Third Division, First Brigade:

Just before our artillery left [Seminary Ridge on the afternoon of July 1], I saw the brigade flag of the 1st​ brigade gallop out from the left of the buildings of the Seminary … (Biddle Family Papers, Maj. Alexander Biddle, 121 PA)

First Corps, Third Division, Third Brigade:

Returning to headquarters [on the night of July 2], simply a spot on the open field where the brigade headquarters flag was planted amid the lines of sleeping soldiers, I stretched myself, supperless … (Army Life in Virginia, Letters from the Twelfth Vermont Regiment and the Personal Experiences of Volunteer Service in the War for the Union 1862-1863, by George Grenville Benedict, Burlington, VT: Free Press Association, 1895, p. 170)

Second Corps, Third Division, First Brigade [see attachment]:

Triangular flag of Col. Carroll’s brigade moving from Cemetery Hill to center of the line on July 3. (Sketches of the Tenth New York Volunteers, by Charles W. Cowtan)

Second Corps, Third Division, Second Brigade [see attachment]:

Just before the Rebels came close [on the] afternoon of July 3, rode back; an orderly with the brigade flag accompanied me. (Diary of Lt. Parsons, 108th​ New York)

Second Corps, Third Division, Third Brigade:

Captain C. A. Richardson of the 126th​ New York said the brigade had just come from the Washington defenses and did not have a battle flag at Gettysburg. However, it had one by October 1863, described by Richardson as a triangular flag, a white field with a blue trefoil and with a blue stripe on the three sides [the attachment indicates the latter stripe was red]. (Capt C. A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1: 319, 339)

Third Corps, First Division, First Brigade:

July 2, crossed the ridge and when on the Taneytown road I noticed our brigade and division headquarters flags in our front. (Col. John A. Danks, 63rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, I:387)

Third Corps, First Division, Second Brigade:

July 3, (Ward’s) headquarters flag meeting my eyes while yet some distance off. (William Price Shreve Papers, Aide to Col. Berdan)

Third Corps, Second Division, First Brigade:

A general [Carr?] said to the orderly who carried the color of his brigade, which he supposed would attract notice and draw the fire of the enemy upon him, “Take away that flag!” “Go to the rear with that flag!” The person who obeyed this direction remarked, “Faith, an’ I was as willin’ to run with it to the rear as he was to have me.” (Henry N. Blake, Three Years in the Army of the Potomac – 11th​ Massachusetts)

Third Corps, Second Division, Third Brigade:

[In 1882] I had displayed … the battle flag of the Excelsior Brigade. … Every corps, every division and every brigade in the Army of the Potomac had a battle flag, so that if you were in action you could tell what corps, division or brigade was on your right and left by looking at the battle flags. They all had different kinds, but those of the corps or divisions were most alike. … The color was different in each brigade … diamond in the center …” (E. E. Burroughs, Sergeant, Company C, Second Regiment, Excelsior Brigade, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 16, 1882, p. 5)

Fifth Corps, First Division, Third Brigade:

Although a private soldier, my duty [was] as Vincent’s bugler and bearer of his brigade flag that day [July 2] … I came out with him [Vincent] in full view of the rebel lines. They opened two batteries on us instantly, firing at the colors. Colonel Vincent looked to see what was drawing their fire and yelled at me, “Down with that flag, Norton! ---- it, go behind the rocks with it!” … When the rebels charged our line I left my horse and flag with the mounted orderlies. (Lt. Oliver W. Norton, 83rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg; also Army Letters)

Twelfth Corps, First Division, Second Brigade:

Lockwood usually rode at the head of the column with his staff and orderlies, and accompanying them was always a mounted man carrying a small flag of peculiar shape and design. This was the “headquarters flag,” and wherever that flag was, was the headquarters of the brigade. (Charles E. Benton, As Seen from the Ranks, 150th​ New York)

Cavalry, Third Division, Second Brigade:

H. C. Hackett of the 1st​ Michigan Cavalry was taken prisoner. He had the headquarters flag and he tore it from the staff and secreted it on his person. He was 505 days in rebel prisons, but kept the flag and brought it back safely. (The National Tribune, April 13, 1893)
 

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CWDF

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To see color versions of the Army of the Potomac corps, division and brigade flags, visit the Camp Curtin Historical Society’s website at www.campcurtin.org.

Under “Articles of Interest” – Union Army Corps Insignia and Flags
https://2ae540a1-2a07-47db-8884-1316f8b02707.filesusr.com/ugd/7c0cde_3a7c2c2aa1ef4d9ca12cfb03c8b927bb.pdf

Under “Newsletters” – 2012, No. 2 McClellan’s earlier HQ flag system
https://2ae540a1-2a07-47db-8884-1316f8b02707.filesusr.com/ugd/7c0cde_e11c340b6d854cb2b65b637bbb6a6cc6.pdf
 
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rpkennedy

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Infantry commands of the Union Army of the Potomac displayed other flags at Gettysburg besides the state and national colors of individual regiments. Listed below is a compilation of source citations of these unique flags.

Seldom mentioned by the rank and file, they were evidently not accorded the same reverence as regimental banners. For one thing, they were a recent phenomenon, bearing the badge of individual corps that was the brainchild of Joseph Hooker. When unfurled on the march, they served a utilitarian purpose, by making it easier for couriers and staff officers to quickly locate general officers. However, during a battle they were generally unwelcome encumbrances, as they afforded an opponent a convenient target. Thus I suspect many of them remained safely furled behind the lines during the battle. However, there were notable exceptions: Alexander Hays ensured that “his” division flag was always prominently flying by his side as he constantly roamed his assigned sector, borne aloft by a faithful orderly.

Comparable flags at the brigade level on up did not exist in the southern army at Gettysburg, although a flag was employed to mark General Robert E. Lee’s stationary headquarters near the Thompson residence (William Miller Owen, In Camp and Battle with the Washington Artillery of New Orleans, Boston: Ticknor and Company, 1885, p. 242). Colonel A. Godard of the 60th​ New York reported the capture of a Confederate brigade flag, but flag expert Greg Biggs thought it more likely an old company flag that was pressed into service as the battle flag of the 21st​ or 50th​ Virginia regiment. (Official Reports of Col. Abel Godard and Maj. Gen. H. W. Slocum).

If the Federal army did not hold these particular flags in high esteem, the Confederates surely did if they captured them, as in the case of the First Corps standard on July 1. Modern students must take them in consideration when trying to sort out battlefield captures, for instance those [was it four?] claimed by the Confederates during their July 2 evening assault on Cemetery Hill.

----------------------------

Army

[Around 6 a.m. on July 2 at the cottage of] Lydia Leister … it was at this house Gen. Meade had his headquarters. His flag was flying there. … but we did not see him. (James A. Wright, The Story of Company F, First Minnesota Infantry, Minnesota Historical Society)

Corps

First Corps:

[In the cupola of the Lutheran Theological Seminary on the morning of July 1], I called the attention of the General [Buford] to an army corps advancing some two miles distant, and shortly distinguished it as the First on account of their “corps flag.” (1Lt. Aaron B. Jerome, Signal Officer to Buford, Bachelder Papers, 1:200)

[Col. Perrin’s] Brigade captured four standards on July 1, one being the corps standard of the First Army Corps, commanded by Reynolds. Turned in at Culpeper Court House, Virginia. (Letter of Abner Perrin to the Governor of South Carolina, July 29, 1863)

Second Corps:

The corps’ flag [was] flying in the hands of a brave Irishman, Private James Wells, of the Sixth New York Cavalry [as he rode slowly with Hancock down the crest of Cemetery Ridge during the July 3 artillery bombardment]. (St. Clair A. Mulholland, The Story of the 116th​ Regiment, Pennsylvania Volunteers)

Third Corps:

The appearance of General Sickles [before sundown on July 1], riding into the enclosure where the men were resting, with his staff and corps ensign, was hailed with cheers … (142nd​ Pennsylvania, History of Pennsylvania Volunteers, by Samuel P. Bates, vol. IV, Harrisburg: B. Singerly, Printers, 1869-1871, p. 467)

Sixth Corps:

At Manchester [Maryland, an approaching] messenger sees a headquarters flag at the tent of Gen. Sedgwick, [and delivered] orders to march to Gettysburg. (Delevan Bates, 121 NY, The Otsego Republican, Aurora, Nebraska, January 20, 1894)

Afternoon July 2, near G., about 5 p.m. an officer rode in and inquired for the headquarters. We all pointed cross the brook where on a little knoll General Sedgwick’s Corps flag was flying. (Diary of Lt. Edmund Halsey, D/15 NJ)

Division

First Corps, Second Division:

Seeing our division hospital flag [“white lozenge on red flag” – a red flag indicated a hospital] hanging out in front of a church [Christ Lutheran], I dodged in there … (Three Years with Company K, 13 Mass, Austin C. Stearns, p. 182-184; Patriot Daughters of Lancaster)

Second Corps, Third Division [see attachment]:

Hays’ flag was a plain white square with a blue trefoil. (Capt. Charles A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1: 319)

Late morning of July 2, Brig. Gen. Alexander Hays, accompanied by his Adj. Gen. Capt. George P. Cortes and the division flag, rode down on horseback to the skirmish line and rallied the 39th​ New York under showers of bullets. (Capt. Charles A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1:315)

Turning to his orderly, [Brig. Gen. Alexander Hays] said, “Orderly! When we are attacked I expect you to ride where danger is the thickest; do you think you will keep up with that flag, even if I ride to ----?” Touching his cap, the orderly said “With pleasure. General, if you reach ---- just look out the window and you’ll see the little blue trefoil fluttering behind you.” (Charles E. Troutman, 12 NJ, Camp-Fire Sketches and Battlefield Echoes) … A more colorful version of this incident was given by an artilleryman: [July 2] Going a hundred yards or more [Hays] missed his headquarters flag and came back himself to see about it. The color-bearer was an Irishman whom all the boys called “Wild Jack.” The general came up to him exclaiming: “Why don’t you come on with that flag?” Jack very politely saluted him and said, “All right, general, if yez get’s into ----, look out of the window and ye’ll see Jack coming.” (Thomas M. Aldrich, The History of Battery A, First Regiment Rhode Island Light Artillery)

Third Corps, First Division:

July 2, crossed the ridge [after being relieved] and when on the Taneytown road I noticed our brigade and division headquarters flags in our front. (Col. John A. Danks, 63rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, I:387)

Third Corps, Second Division:

Very early July 2, our white Division flag drooped heavily from its staff. (Diary of Captain A. F. Cavada, A. A. Humphreys’ staff)

Twelfth Corps, Second Division:

July 1, late afternoon, Geary’s Second Division in the lead, whose headquarters flag of dark blue with its inspiring white star emblazoned in the center, was at its head. (Capt. Joseph A. Moore, B/147 PA, Pennsylvania at G., II:720)

Brigade

First Corps, Second Division, First Brigade:

On the morning of July 3, Colonel [Richard] Coulter [who had replaced the wounded Brig. Gen. Paul] planted the brigade colors in the edge of a grove [immediately behind Cemetery Hill], in plain view of the rebels. (The Sixteenth Maine Regiment in the War of the Rebellion, 1861-1865, by Major A. R. Small, Portland, ME: Regimental Association, 1886, p. 121 – at that time Small was serving Coulter as his Acting Assistant Adjutant General)

During the cannonade on July 3, Colonel Coulter shouted: “Where in ---- is my flag? Where do you suppose that cowardly son of a ----- has skedaddled to?” The colonel found him behind a stone wall where he had lain down with the flag folded up to avoid attracting attention. Colonel Coulter shook out the folds, put the staff in the hands of the trembling man, and double-quicked him to the front. A shell exploded nearby and the colonel planted the end of the staff where the shell had burst and shouted: “There, Orderly; hold it! If I can’t get you killed in ten minutes, by God, I’ll post you right up among the batteries!” He turned to one of his staff and said, “The poor devil couldn’t be safer; two shells don’t often hit the same place. If he obeys, he’ll be all right and I’ll know where my headquarters are.” (The Road to Richmond, The Civil War Memoirs of Major Abner R. Small of the Sixteenth Maine Volunteers)

First Corps, Third Division, First Brigade:

Just before our artillery left [Seminary Ridge on the afternoon of July 1], I saw the brigade flag of the 1st​ brigade gallop out from the left of the buildings of the Seminary … (Biddle Family Papers, Maj. Alexander Biddle, 121 PA)

First Corps, Third Division, Third Brigade:

Returning to headquarters [on the night of July 2], simply a spot on the open field where the brigade headquarters flag was planted amid the lines of sleeping soldiers, I stretched myself, supperless … (Army Life in Virginia, Letters from the Twelfth Vermont Regiment and the Personal Experiences of Volunteer Service in the War for the Union 1862-1863, by George Grenville Benedict, Burlington, VT: Free Press Association, 1895, p. 170)

Second Corps, Third Division, First Brigade [see attachment]:

Triangular flag of Col. Carroll’s brigade moving from Cemetery Hill to center of the line on July 3. (Sketches of the Tenth New York Volunteers, by Charles W. Cowtan)

Second Corps, Third Division, Second Brigade [see attachment]:

Just before the Rebels came close [on the] afternoon of July 3, rode back; an orderly with the brigade flag accompanied me. (Diary of Lt. Parsons, 108th​ New York)

Second Corps, Third Division, Third Brigade:

Captain C. A. Richardson of the 126th​ New York said the brigade had just come from the Washington defenses and did not have a battle flag at Gettysburg. However, it had one by October 1863, described by Richardson as a triangular flag, a white field with a blue trefoil and with a blue stripe on the three sides [the attachment indicates the latter stripe was red]. (Capt C. A. Richardson, 126 NY, Bachelder Papers, 1: 319, 339)

Third Corps, First Division, First Brigade:

July 2, crossed the ridge and when on the Taneytown road I noticed our brigade and division headquarters flags in our front. (Col. John A. Danks, 63rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, I:387)

Third Corps, First Division, Second Brigade:

July 3, (Ward’s) headquarters flag meeting my eyes while yet some distance off. (William Price Shreve Papers, Aide to Col. Berdan)

Third Corps, Second Division, First Brigade:

A general [Carr?] said to the orderly who carried the color of his brigade, which he supposed would attract notice and draw the fire of the enemy upon him, “Take away that flag!” “Go to the rear with that flag!” The person who obeyed this direction remarked, “Faith, an’ I was as willin’ to run with it to the rear as he was to have me.” (Henry N. Blake, Three Years in the Army of the Potomac – 11th​ Massachusetts)

Third Corps, Second Division, Third Brigade:

[In 1882] I had displayed … the battle flag of the Excelsior Brigade. … Every corps, every division and every brigade in the Army of the Potomac had a battle flag, so that if you were in action you could tell what corps, division or brigade was on your right and left by looking at the battle flags. They all had different kinds, but those of the corps or divisions were most alike. … The color was different in each brigade … diamond in the center …” (E. E. Burroughs, Sergeant, Company C, Second Regiment, Excelsior Brigade, Brooklyn Daily Eagle, July 16, 1882, p. 5)

Fifth Corps, First Division, Third Brigade:

Although a private soldier, my duty [was] as Vincent’s bugler and bearer of his brigade flag that day [July 2] … I came out with him [Vincent] in full view of the rebel lines. They opened two batteries on us instantly, firing at the colors. Colonel Vincent looked to see what was drawing their fire and yelled at me, “Down with that flag, Norton! ---- it, go behind the rocks with it!” … When the rebels charged our line I left my horse and flag with the mounted orderlies. (Lt. Oliver W. Norton, 83rd​ Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg; also Army Letters)

Twelfth Corps, First Division, Second Brigade:

Lockwood usually rode at the head of the column with his staff and orderlies, and accompanying them was always a mounted man carrying a small flag of peculiar shape and design. This was the “headquarters flag,” and wherever that flag was, was the headquarters of the brigade. (Charles E. Benton, As Seen from the Ranks, 150th​ New York)

Cavalry, Third Division, Second Brigade:

H. C. Hackett of the 1st​ Michigan Cavalry was taken prisoner. He had the headquarters flag and he tore it from the staff and secreted it on his person. He was 505 days in rebel prisons, but kept the flag and brought it back safely. (The National Tribune, April 13, 1893)
Do we know if the First Corps flag that Perrin referred to was Reynolds' personal flag (the swallowtail white flag with the tri-color circle) or the traditional corps flag?

Ryan
 

Tom Elmore

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Do we know if the First Corps flag that Perrin referred to was Reynolds' personal flag (the swallowtail white flag with the tri-color circle) or the traditional corps flag?

Ryan
Great question. Don't know, but would guess the larger traditional corps flag because it should be discernible at a greater distance. I imagine Signalman Lt. Jerome first saw the First Corps column as it was passing over the Peach Orchard rise and could identify (using a spyglass) the flag by the time the head of the column turned off the Emmitsburg road near the Codori buildings, 1.5 miles distant from Jerome's location in the cupola of the Theological Seminary. Then I suppose the flag was afterwards posted adjacent to the Seminary, where it remained until collected by Perrin's men later that afternoon.
 
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