Deshler's/Granbury's Texas Brigade

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
Nov 8, 2018
Location
Palm Coast, Florida
I've been doing research on Cleburne and his men for several years now. I am by no means an expert in the field by now, and I imagine the coming thread will have some errors. However, I seek to post what I have gleaned from the several books on Cleburne, the brigade, and the campaigns they took part in, to paint a picture of the unit, the men who commanded them, and the men who served in the brigade.

The origins of the brigade are quite complicated, though one could begin with the garrison of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post in late 1862. Here the 5000 Texans were organized into two brigades, one consisting of the 6th Infantry and the 24th and 25th Dismounted Cavalry under the command of the 6th's Colonel Robert R. Garland, and the other consisting of the 10th Infantry, and the 15th, 17th and 18th Dismounted Cavalry under the command of Col. James Deshler. These men fought at Fort Hindman in the engagement of January 11th, 1863, where the garrison under Brigadier Thomas Churchill surrendered after three and a half hours of combat. Around 1030 Texans escaped captured, while 3912 would join in the surrender and be marched off to Federal prison camps.

Eventually, in May of 1863, the brigade was exchanged at City Point, Virginia, and joined the Army of Tennessee near Wartrace. Here, they joined the division of Patrick Cleburne, whom they would have a connection with for most of the rest of the conflict. It was also here that the command was consolidated into a single brigade under Churchill, who later left for the Transmississippi theater once again, leaving command to now Brigadier Deshler. In addition, the 7 Texas regiments were consolidated into just two; 6th, 10th, and 15th Texas Consolidated under Colonel Roger Q. Mills of the 10th Texas; and 17th, 18th, 24th, and 25th Texas Consolidated under Colonel Clayton Gillespie of the 25th, later by Francis Wilkes of the 24th. Counting the 19th/24th Arkansas of the Fort Hindman Garrison, still assigned to the brigade, they numbered around 1700 men.

After some minor engagements during the Tullahoma Campaign, and the almost battle at McLemore's Cove, the brigade finally saw action at Chickamauga. Marching to the right flank late in the day to relieve Liddell's division, Deshler's Arkansans and Texans took part in Cleburne's night assault on Richard Johnson's Division in Winfrey Field, bagging around a hundred prisoners, the flags and commanders of the 77th Pennsylvania and 79th Illinois, and 150 stands of arms. The next day, the brigade was sent in Cleburne's ill fated early assault against Thomas' center, resulting in heavy casualties. Among the losses was Deshler, killed instantly by a Union bullet. The Brigade brought 1693 men to the fight, 1467 in the consolidated Texas regiments, which lost 341 of the 447 total brigade casualties.

After the battle, Colonel James Argyle Smith, a West Point Graduate and Colonel of the 5th Confederate Irish, was promoted to Brigadier and assigned to command the Texans. The 19th/24th Arkansas transferred to Govan's Arkansas Brigade, while the 7th Texas, under Hiram Granbury, joined the brigade. The unit took part in the siege of Chattanooga. On November 25th, the Brigade was at the center of Sherman's flank assault on Tunnel Hill. The Texans performed admirably, though Brigadier Smith and Colonel Mills were both wounded in a counterattack, resulting in Colonel Granbury taking command of the brigade. Cleburne's men held, but the remainder of the army fled the field. Thus, Cleburne's Division held the army's rear guard at Ringgold Gap. Here, on the 27th, the Texans held the right flank against Charles Woods' Union brigade, holding their own alongside Polk's and Lowrey's Brigade against the Union assault, before the wagon train passed out of danger and Cleburne withdrew his division. The Texans suffered a mere 62 casualties, while helping inflict 507 upon the union troops to their front. Granbury, for his capable leadership in both battles, would be promoted to Brigadier in March of the next year. In the December 1863 reports, the brigade numbered 1502 men and 1079 arms.

The Brigade saw action throughout the Georgia Campaign. Most notably, it faced the assault of both William Hazen's and William Gibson's brigades at Pickett's Mill, May 27th, 1864. Quickly redeployed and with no entrenchments prepared, the Texans had the advantage of a 30 foot ravine in front of their position, allowing them to cut down Union troops with ease. When night fell, Granbury ordered a bayonet charge to clear the ravine of federal stragglers, capturing some 200 men from Hazen's and Gibson's shattered brigades. By the end of the engagement, the brigade had lost 32 men killed and 114 wounded, out of Cleburne's total of 85 killed and 363 wounded. Against this, the brigade had (with the help of Govan's Arkansas Brigade and Thomas Key's battery to the Texans' left) inflicted around 687 casualties on Gibson's Brigade alone, and contributed to the 212 killed, 927 wounded and 318 missing or captured from Tom Wood's hapless division that day. This would be the brigade's high water mark of the war.

Between the aftermath of Pickett's Mill and the action at Cheatham's Hill, the brigade saw many changes. At the start of June, Brigadier Granbury, partially due to the stresses of the campaign, partially due to his minor head wound at Pickett's Hill, and partly due to the recent bad news of family back in the west, took a sick leave to the Atlanta Hospital, leaving command of the brigade to the recently recovered and returned James Smith. In addition, after Brigadier Polk was wounded at Gilgal Church, Polk's Brigade was disbanded, with the 35th Tennessee and 5th Confederate (Smith's old command) joining the Texans. The 35th Tennessee remained detached as Provost Guard for the army; the 5th Confederate, made up of Irishmen from Memphis, soon earned the informal title "5th Texas" amongst the brigade. The Brigade helped support Cheatham's division during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, helping repulse Newton's Division.

After Johnston fell back from the Chattahoochee line to Atlanta, he was replaced with General Hood. The announcement of his rise to army command received a mixed reaction from the men of the brigade. Cleburne's men were held in reserve at Hood's first action, losing only 2 killed and 18 wounded to artillery fire on the 20th, having almost been sent into action when news of McPherson's flanking march from the East arrived. Cleburne's division was sent to the Eastern flank defenses, where the Texans were posted to the right flank near Bald Hill. Here, the Federals of the 17th Corps pushed back Smith's men, exposed to artillery fire from the high ground, and lost possession of the hill as well as 47 killed, 120 wounded, and 19 captured.

The next day, the Brigade took part in the climactic Battle of Bald Hill, also known more boisterously as the "Battle of Atlanta". Here, the brigade overlapped Colonel Hall's Iowa Brigade, helping overrun and capture the 16th Iowa and part of the 15th Iowa, along with Colonel Robert Scott, and numerous ambulances, artillery pieces, and enemy battle flags. There is much dispute amongst the members of the brigade as to whom claimed the honor, but it is certain that someone from the Texas Brigade killed Major General James B. McPherson. The Brigade had by now cut off Hall's retreat and were poised to strike at Colonel Scott's Ohioans on Bald Hill from the east, opposite their entrenchments. The Unions troops jumped over their breastworks and fired upon Smith's advancing men. In the process, Smith went down with a wound, along with Colonel Mills once again, leaving command of the brigade to Lt. Colonel Robert B. Young of the 10th Texas. By now, General Logan had organized a counterattack; Col. John Oliver's Union Brigade overran the exposed 17th/18th Texas and the 5th Confederate, capturing 158 out of the 252 men of the two regiments which went into battle. Young, seeing the futility of the situation, pulled the remnant of his brigade back. His men took part in one final assault against Union positions, but this only resulted in the decimation of Lowrey's brigade.

On July 23rd, Young noted that his brigade numbered some 750 strong, having lost 19 killed, 107 wounded, 25 missing and 160 captured, for a total of 311 casualties. Combined with previous two day's losses, the Texans and Irish lost some 68 killed, 245 wounded, 25 missing and 179 captured, for a total of 517 casualties in just 3 days of combat, as many casualties it had suffered at Chickamauga, Ringgold Gap, and Pickett's Mill combined. The Texans had in the process decimated Hall's Brigade, captured 15 cannon, two stands of colors, numerous ambulances (much needed now with the casualty bill), and the killing of the highest ranking federal officer of the war. The Texans could take pride in achieving the most of any single brigade on that mismanaged day of combat.

Granbury returned to command the brigade later in July, and would lead the brigade in their next action at Jonesboro. Here, the brigade, at the far left end of the Confederate line on the first day of the battle, August 31st, went against orders and chased off Kilpatrick's cavalry to the west, diverting the rest of the Division, under Mark Lowrey while Cleburne led Hardee's Corps, with them while Maney and Brown followed Cleburne's orders and slammed into the federal line to the northwest. Cleburne could not bring his division back into formation until 5 pm, by which the first day had ended. Granbury had lost 16 killed and 32 wounded this day. The next day, Granbury's Brigade refused to the right when Govan's brigade collapsed in the face of the union assault. Hardee and Lowrey thought the Texans were retreating and were reprimanding Granbury for his action, with Granbury replying to Hardde, "General, my men never fall back unless ordered back". Cleburne pulled up a brigade from Maney's division to plug the gap, sealing the breach for now. It was clear to everyone there at Jonesboro, as well as Hood back in Atlanta, that the position was now untenable. That night, Hardee withdrew his Corps to Lovejoy Station, while Hood and the remainder of the army evacuated Atlanta. The Texans had suffered an additional 18 killed and 89 wounded on the Second day of battle at Jonesboro.

The brigade took part in Hood's raid against the Western & Atlantic Railroad, helping capture the garrison of Dalton, though that incident could have ended in a massacre of the USCT troops holding the post, as the Texans were constantly breaking the terms of truce. Eventually, the troops assembled at Tuscumbia to prepare for Hood's Tennessee Campaign.

On November 29th, Hood sent Cheatham's Corps, with Cleburne's division in the lead, across the Duck River near Columbia to cut off the retreat of Schofield's Army of the Cumberland. The Texans took part in Cleburne's attack against Wagner's Division at Spring Hill, being repulsed and preparing another assault that never came, due to the lack of initiative from Cheatham and fellow division commander John C. Brown. This allowed the Union Army to retreat up the Columbia Turnpike in the night, stealing a march on the Confederates.

The next day, November 30th, 1864, the Texans marched north and took part in the doomed assault at Franklin. They helped break through Wagner's Forward line, following the fleeing yankees into the works. Granbury was killed leading his men in, along with his chief of staff Lt. Colonel Young. As the Texans pushed forward into the line around the Carter House, Emerson Opdycke's Brigade rushed in to seal the gap. In brutal hand to hand fighting, Opdycke's Tigers pushed the Texans out onto the faces of the union breastworks. Here, many remained, pinned down by Union fire. Only nightfall allowed for the Confederates to withdraw, across a field littered with the dead and dying. The Texans had gone into action with around 1100 men, and had a mere 460 by the end, a staggering 60% casualty rate. Command of the brigade fell to the sickly Captain Edward Broughton, Company D, 7th Texas. The Texans also discovered their beloved division commander had fallen in battle as well. November 30th was a dark day for the men of Granbury's Brigade.

The brigade, barely a regiment in strength, moved with Hood onto Nashville, where they dug in to prepare for a Union assault. It finally came on December 15th. On the right flank of the Confederate line, the 344 Texans, stationed in what became known as "Granbury's Lunette" for their fallen commander, repulsed an assault by Charles Cruft's division of USCT and garrison troops, for a loss of 30 men killed or wounded. Among the casualties was Captain Broughton, wounded, and command fell to Capt. James Selkirk of the 6th/15th Texas. On the second day, the brigade helped repulse the Union assaults on Overton Hill, before being sent to reinforce the collapsing left flank. Here, the remnant of the Texas Brigade, some 300 men, joined in the rout, the first time they had fled the field so utterly. This would be their last true battle.

The Brigade fell back with the rest of Hood's Army to Corinth, from which it marched to join Joe Johnston's Army in the Carolinas. Under the command of Lt. Colonel William Ryan of the 17th/18th Texas, the brigade joined Johnston's force at Bentonville too late to take part in the first day assault, and saw no major action the remaining days. The Brigade would then be consolidated into the 1st Texas Consolidated Regiment, numbering 407 men, and attached to Daniel Govan's Brigade. The men surrendered with the Army on April 26th.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
Forum Host
Joined
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Location
Palm Coast, Florida
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James Deshler, Brigadier, First real commander of the brigade (1833-1863)

James Deshler was born in Tuscumbia, Alabama, on February 18, 1833. He went to West Point, graduating in 1854 and ranking above future generals William Dorsey Pender, Stephen D. Lee, and J.E.B. Stuart. He served in the US Army, in garrison duty in California and the Utah War, achieving the rank of 1st Lieutenant by the time of his resignation in 1861. He joined the Confederate Army as an artillery captain, being sent to West Virginia in September 1861 to the staff of Henry R. Jackson. He received a wound through the thighs at the Battle of Allegheny Mountain. He was promoted to Colonel and assigned as chief of artillery on the staff of Theophilus Holmes, serving in that capacity during the Seven Days Campaign. He went with Holmes to Arkansas, where he was assigned a brigade consisting of the 10th Texas Infantry, and the 15th, 17th, and 18th Texas Dismounted Cavalry. In November '62, these men were assigned to Churchill's garrison at Fort Hindman, Arkansas Post, alongside Robert Garland's Brigade; this would be the first time the regiments of what would become Deshler's and later Granbury's Brigade would serve alongside one another. According to Lundberg, "As a professional soldier, Deshler did not at first have the affection of the Texans under his command, but at length they reached an understanding and even formed a strong bond of friendship with the young, charismatic colonel" (Lundberg, "Granbury's Texas Brigade: Diehard Western Confederates", 85).

Deshler and his men surrendered with the rest of the garrison at Arkansas Post in on January 11th, 1863. When exchanged, the two brigade were merged into one under General Churchill, serving in Cleburne's Division. However, following the Tullahoma Campaign, Churchill was transferred back across the Mississippi. Thus, Deshler was elevated to brigade command, being promoted to Brigadier General July 28th.

Deshler would lead his men at the Battle of Chickamauga, where he took part in Cleburne's night assault of the 19th at Winfrey Field, helping overrun and capture 100 men and several officers from the 77th Pennsylvania and 79th Illinois. The next day, he took part in Cleburne's assault against Thomas. According to Lt. Robert Collins, sent by Colonel Roger Mills to report the situation on his front, Deshler was "on his hands and knees, as if trying to peer under the smoke"(Lundberg, 154). As Collins approached the Brigadier, Deshler was struck in the chest by a shell, killed instantly; allegedly, the blast tore his heart from his chest. He was 30 years old .

After the battle, Deshler's body was buried by a family friend on the battlefield. Later, his father, David Deshler (1798-1872) disinterred his son's body reburied him in Oakwood Cemetery back in his home town of Tuscumbia. His father would found Deshler Female Institute in his son's honor; Deshler High School, Tuscumbia's sole secondary education institution, is named for him as well.
 

Luke Freet

First Sergeant
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Joined
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James Argyle Smith, the brigade's second commander (1831-1901)

He may be the most forgotten of Cleburne's commanders, mostly due to how brief his stint in command was; his longest posting with the command seems to be as commander of the remnant of the division following Cleburne's death. That said, he is not an officer to be forgotten.

Smith was born in Maury County in 1831, and graduated from West Point in 1853 (he, Deshler, and Bushrod Johnson were the only West Pointers to achieve brigade command in Cleburne's Division), serving as a 2nd Lieutenant of Infantry. He would be posted to Jefferson Barracks before going West, taking part in the Battle of Ash Hollow (aka Harney's Massacre) and the Utah War, the latter in which he earned a promotion to 1st Lieutenant for. He resigned his commission in May of 1861 to go south.

He started as a 1st Lieutenant before being promoted to Major in March of 1862, being assigned to the staff of Leonidas Polk at Shiloh. After the battle, he was promoted to Lt. Colonel and assigned command of J. K. Walker's 2nd Tennessee Irish Regiment, much reduced in numbers to 4 companies. Later, it would merge with the 21st Tennessee to create the 9th (more commonly 5th) Confederate Regiment, with Smith being made Colonel. He was commended for bravery at Perryville and Murfreesboro, at the latter by Cleburne himself. His actions at Chickamauga seemed to have impressed Cleburne enough to have Smith promoted to command Deshler's Old Brigade after Deshler's death. Smith would lead the brigade through the Chattanooga Campaign, but wouldn't see action until Missionary Ridge. Here, his bad luck with bullets began, as he was wounded leading a counterattack against Sherman, leading to the elevation of Hiram Granbury to brigade command.

Smith would return to the brigade in June, taking over from the sick Granbury. He led the brigade in their secondary role at Kennesaw Mountain. At Atlanta, his men held the right flank of Cleburne's line near Bald Hill on July 21st, when they were attacked by troops of the Army of the Tennessee. Exposed to artillery fire, Smith and Cleburne fell back to the main line, surrendering control of Bald Hill to the Union.

The next day saw the high point of Smith's career, the Battle of Bald Hill. Here, he and his men turned the flank of the Union line, pushing through a gap, overrunning two regiments, killing General McPherson, and capturing many prisoners and much equipment. In their third charge, they attempted to strike at Bald Hill itself from the rear, only for Leggett's men to hop over to the opposite side of their breastworks (the ones formerly held by Smith's men the day prior), and firing down on the assaulting Confederates. Smith was wounded here, and a federal counterattack overran his old 5th Confederate Regiment as well as most of the 17th&18th Texas. Lt. Colonel Robert Young ordered his men to fall back. Smith's Brigade had performed well that day, possibly the most achieve by any unit on the field that day.

Smith would eventually recover, being assigned to command Olmstead's Georgia Brigade, as Cleburne desired a more competent officer to command the brigade. Smith's new brigade would see little action, being detached during the Franklin-Nashville campaign. However, after Cleburne's death at Franklin, Smith, the ranking officer of the division, was assigned to command of the 1500 remaining veterans. At Nashville, his men performed spectacularly the first day, only to collapse and join the retreat of the army the next day. At Bentonville, he led his Georgians and Govan's Arkansans in Stewart's assault on the first day, being repulsed by the Union troops. His men played little further role in the battle. Afterwards, with the consolidation of the army, Smith commanded a consolidated brigade of Georgians and Floridians, numbering some 1241 men under his command at the surrender of Johnston's force.

After the war, he moved to Mississippi, starting a farm and getting elected State Superintendent of Public Education from 1878 to 1886. He served as an agent of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and later Marshall of the Mississippi Supreme Court. He died in Jackson, Mississippi, in 1901, and is buried in Greenwood Cemetery.

Smith has a rather mixed reputation. He only led the brigade in a few battles, though they performed well under his command. It seems his ignominy in the historiography of the brigade is due to his lack of popularity. One telling account comes from Private F. E. Blossom, writing July 8th, '64, during a visit by the still ailing Granbury to the brigade, then under Smith's command; he wrote, "None of us like Gen. Smith... he is brave as a lion but mean as a hyena... We will be glad to be rid of him" (Lundberg 237). His "meanness" may have been due to his status as a West Pointer among citizen soldiers, who preferred their own local commanders like Granbury over a Tennessee army man like Smith.
 
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I've been doing research on Cleburne and his men for several years now. I am by no means an expert in the field by now, and I imagine the coming thread will have some errors. However, I seek to post what I have gleaned from the several books on Cleburne, the brigade, and the campaigns they took part in, to paint a picture of the unit, the men who commanded them, and the men who served in the brigade.

The origins of the brigade are quite complicated, though one could begin with the garrison of Fort Hindman at Arkansas Post in late 1862. Here the 5000 Texans were organized into two brigades, one consisting of the 6th Infantry and the 24th and 25th Dismounted Cavalry under the command of the 6th's Colonel Robert R. Garland, and the other consisting of the 10th Infantry, and the 15th, 17th and 18th Dismounted Cavalry under the command of Col. James Deshler. These men fought at Fort Hindman in the engagement of January 11th, 1863, where the garrison under Brigadier Thomas Churchill surrendered after three and a half hours of combat. Around 1030 Texans escaped captured, while 3912 would join in the surrender and be marched off to Federal prison camps.

Eventually, in May of 1863, the brigade was exchanged at City Point, Virginia, and joined the Army of Tennessee near Wartrace. Here, they joined the division of Patrick Cleburne, whom they would have a connection with for most of the rest of the conflict. It was also here that the command was consolidated into a single brigade under Churchill, who later left for the Transmississippi theater once again, leaving command to now Brigadier Deshler. In addition, the 7 Texas regiments were consolidated into just two; 6th, 10th, and 15th Texas Consolidated under Colonel Roger Q. Mills of the 10th Texas; and 17th, 18th, 24th, and 25th Texas Consolidated under Colonel Clayton Gillespie of the 25th, later by Francis Wilkes of the 24th. Counting the 19th/24th Arkansas of the Fort Hindman Garrison, still assigned to the brigade, they numbered around 1700 men.

After some minor engagements during the Tullahoma Campaign, and the almost battle at McLemore's Cove, the brigade finally saw action at Chickamauga. Marching to the right flank late in the day to relieve Liddell's division, Deshler's Arkansans and Texans took part in Cleburne's night assault on Richard Johnson's Division in Winfrey Field, bagging around a hundred prisoners, the flags and commanders of the 77th Pennsylvania and 79th Illinois, and 150 stands of arms. The next day, the brigade was sent in Cleburne's ill fated early assault against Thomas' center, resulting in heavy casualties. Among the losses was Deshler, killed instantly by a Union bullet. The Brigade brought 1693 men to the fight, 1467 in the consolidated Texas regiments, which lost 341 of the 447 total brigade casualties.

After the battle, Colonel James Argyle Smith, a West Point Graduate and Colonel of the 5th Confederate Irish, was promoted to Brigadier and assigned to command the Texans. The 19th/24th Arkansas transferred to Govan's Arkansas Brigade, while the 7th Texas, under Hiram Granbury, joined the brigade. The unit took part in the siege of Chattanooga. On November 25th, the Brigade was at the center of Sherman's flank assault on Tunnel Hill. The Texans performed admirably, though Brigadier Smith and Colonel Mills were both wounded in a counterattack, resulting in Colonel Granbury taking command of the brigade. Cleburne's men held, but the remainder of the army fled the field. Thus, Cleburne's Division held the army's rear guard at Ringgold Gap. Here, on the 27th, the Texans held the right flank against Charles Woods' Union brigade, holding their own alongside Polk's and Lowrey's Brigade against the Union assault, before the wagon train passed out of danger and Cleburne withdrew his division. The Texans suffered a mere 62 casualties, while helping inflict 507 upon the union troops to their front. Granbury, for his capable leadership in both battles, would be promoted to Brigadier in March of the next year. In the December 1863 reports, the brigade numbered 1502 men and 1079 arms.

The Brigade saw action throughout the Georgia Campaign. Most notably, it faced the assault of both William Hazen's and William Gibson's brigades at Pickett's Mill, May 27th, 1864. Quickly redeployed and with no entrenchments prepared, the Texans had the advantage of a 30 foot ravine in front of their position, allowing them to cut down Union troops with ease. When night fell, Granbury ordered a bayonet charge to clear the ravine of federal stragglers, capturing some 200 men from Hazen's and Gibson's shattered brigades. By the end of the engagement, the brigade had lost 32 men killed and 114 wounded, out of Cleburne's total of 85 killed and 363 wounded. Against this, the brigade had (with the help of Govan's Arkansas Brigade and Thomas Key's battery to the Texans' left) inflicted around 687 casualties on Gibson's Brigade alone, and contributed to the 212 killed, 927 wounded and 318 missing or captured from Tom Wood's hapless division that day. This would be the brigade's high water mark of the war.

Between the aftermath of Pickett's Mill and the action at Cheatham's Hill, the brigade saw many changes. At the start of June, Brigadier Granbury, partially due to the stresses of the campaign, partially due to his minor head wound at Pickett's Hill, and partly due to the recent bad news of family back in the west, took a sick leave to the Atlanta Hospital, leaving command of the brigade to the recently recovered and returned James Smith. In addition, after Brigadier Polk was wounded at Gilgal Church, Polk's Brigade was disbanded, with the 35th Tennessee and 5th Confederate (Smith's old command) joining the Texans. The 35th Tennessee remained detached as Provost Guard for the army; the 5th Confederate, made up of Irishmen from Memphis, soon earned the informal title "5th Texas" amongst the brigade. The Brigade helped support Cheatham's division during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain, helping repulse Newton's Division.

After Johnston fell back from the Chattahoochee line to Atlanta, he was replaced with General Hood. The announcement of his rise to army command received a mixed reaction from the men of the brigade. Cleburne's men were held in reserve at Hood's first action, losing only 2 killed and 18 wounded to artillery fire on the 20th, having almost been sent into action when news of McPherson's flanking march from the East arrived. Cleburne's division was sent to the Eastern flank defenses, where the Texans were posted to the right flank near Bald Hill. Here, the Federals of the 17th Corps pushed back Smith's men, exposed to artillery fire from the high ground, and lost possession of the hill as well as 47 killed, 120 wounded, and 19 captured.

The next day, the Brigade took part in the climactic Battle of Bald Hill, also known more boisterously as the "Battle of Atlanta". Here, the brigade overlapped Colonel Hall's Iowa Brigade, helping overrun and capture the 16th Iowa and part of the 15th Iowa, along with Colonel Robert Scott, and numerous ambulances, artillery pieces, and enemy battle flags. There is much dispute amongst the members of the brigade as to whom claimed the honor, but it is certain that someone from the Texas Brigade killed Major General James B. McPherson. The Brigade had by now cut off Hall's retreat and were poised to strike at Colonel Scott's Ohioans on Bald Hill from the east, opposite their entrenchments. The Unions troops jumped over their breastworks and fired upon Smith's advancing men. In the process, Smith went down with a wound, along with Colonel Mills once again, leaving command of the brigade to Lt. Colonel Robert B. Young of the 10th Texas. By now, General Logan had organized a counterattack; Col. John Oliver's Union Brigade overran the exposed 17th/18th Texas and the 5th Confederate, capturing 158 out of the 252 men of the two regiments which went into battle. Young, seeing the futility of the situation, pulled the remnant of his brigade back. His men took part in one final assault against Union positions, but this only resulted in the decimation of Lowrey's brigade.

On July 23rd, Young noted that his brigade numbered some 750 strong, having lost 19 killed, 107 wounded, 25 missing and 160 captured, for a total of 311 casualties. Combined with previous two day's losses, the Texans and Irish lost some 68 killed, 245 wounded, 25 missing and 179 captured, for a total of 517 casualties in just 3 days of combat, as many casualties it had suffered at Chickamauga, Ringgold Gap, and Pickett's Mill combined. The Texans had in the process decimated Hall's Brigade, captured 15 cannon, two stands of colors, numerous ambulances (much needed now with the casualty bill), and the killing of the highest ranking federal officer of the war. The Texans could take pride in achieving the most of any single brigade on that mismanaged day of combat.

Granbury returned to command the brigade later in July, and would lead the brigade in their next action at Jonesboro. Here, the brigade, at the far left end of the Confederate line on the first day of the battle, August 31st, went against orders and chased off Kilpatrick's cavalry to the west, diverting the rest of the Division, under Mark Lowrey while Cleburne led Hardee's Corps, with them while Maney and Brown followed Cleburne's orders and slammed into the federal line to the northwest. Cleburne could not bring his division back into formation until 5 pm, by which the first day had ended. Granbury had lost 16 killed and 32 wounded this day. The next day, Granbury's Brigade refused to the right when Govan's brigade collapsed in the face of the union assault. Hardee and Lowrey thought the Texans were retreating and were reprimanding Granbury for his action, with Granbury replying to Hardde, "General, my men never fall back unless ordered back". Cleburne pulled up a brigade from Maney's division to plug the gap, sealing the breach for now. It was clear to everyone there at Jonesboro, as well as Hood back in Atlanta, that the position was now untenable. That night, Hardee withdrew his Corps to Lovejoy Station, while Hood and the remainder of the army evacuated Atlanta. The Texans had suffered an additional 18 killed and 89 wounded on the Second day of battle at Jonesboro.

The brigade took part in Hood's raid against the Western & Atlantic Railroad, helping capture the garrison of Dalton, though that incident could have ended in a massacre of the USCT troops holding the post, as the Texans were constantly breaking the terms of truce. Eventually, the troops assembled at Tuscumbia to prepare for Hood's Tennessee Campaign.

On November 29th, Hood sent Cheatham's Corps, with Cleburne's division in the lead, across the Duck River near Columbia to cut off the retreat of Schofield's Army of the Cumberland. The Texans took part in Cleburne's attack against Wagner's Division at Spring Hill, being repulsed and preparing another assault that never came, due to the lack of initiative from Cheatham and fellow division commander John C. Brown. This allowed the Union Army to retreat up the Columbia Turnpike in the night, stealing a march on the Confederates.

The next day, November 30th, 1864, the Texans marched north and took part in the doomed assault at Franklin. They helped break through Wagner's Forward line, following the fleeing yankees into the works. Granbury was killed leading his men in, along with his chief of staff Lt. Colonel Young. As the Texans pushed forward into the line around the Carter House, Emerson Opdycke's Brigade rushed in to seal the gap. In brutal hand to hand fighting, Opdycke's Tigers pushed the Texans out onto the faces of the union breastworks. Here, many remained, pinned down by Union fire. Only nightfall allowed for the Confederates to withdraw, across a field littered with the dead and dying. The Texans had gone into action with around 1100 men, and had a mere 460 by the end, a staggering 60% casualty rate. Command of the brigade fell to the sickly Captain Edward Broughton, Company D, 7th Texas. The Texans also discovered their beloved division commander had fallen in battle as well. November 30th was a dark day for the men of Granbury's Brigade.

The brigade, barely a regiment in strength, moved with Hood onto Nashville, where they dug in to prepare for a Union assault. It finally came on December 15th. On the right flank of the Confederate line, the 344 Texans, stationed in what became known as "Granbury's Lunette" for their fallen commander, repulsed an assault by Charles Cruft's division of USCT and garrison troops, for a loss of 30 men killed or wounded. Among the casualties was Captain Broughton, wounded, and command fell to Capt. James Selkirk of the 6th/15th Texas. On the second day, the brigade helped repulse the Union assaults on Overton Hill, before being sent to reinforce the collapsing left flank. Here, the remnant of the Texas Brigade, some 300 men, joined in the rout, the first time they had fled the field so utterly. This would be their last true battle.

The Brigade fell back with the rest of Hood's Army to Corinth, from which it marched to join Joe Johnston's Army in the Carolinas. Under the command of Lt. Colonel William Ryan of the 17th/18th Texas, the brigade joined Johnston's force at Bentonville too late to take part in the first day assault, and saw no major action the remaining days. The Brigade would then be consolidated into the 1st Texas Consolidated Regiment, numbering 407 men, and attached to Daniel Govan's Brigade. The men surrendered with the Army on April 26th.
As I belong to Maj. Gen. Patrick Cleburne's camp 2182 S.C.V. whishing to thank you for such a outstanding article.
 

Luke Freet

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(Postwar photograph of Sam Foster, as a member of the Texas Congress)
Probably the best known member of the brigade after Granbury was Captain Samuel Thompson Foster, Company H, 24th Texas Cavalry (Dismounted), primarily for his oft quoted diary and memoir published by Norman D. Brown in 1962.

Foster was born in Union District, South Carolina, November 9th 1829. Raised in South Carolina, he moved to Texas with his family in 1847, where they settled in the town of Halletsville, Lavaca County. He would marry Mary Ham on January 11th, 1855, and would have two sons and four daughters with her. The same year, he began practicing law. In 1858, he moved to Oaksville, Live Oak County, serving as a country clerk from 1858-1860, then as Justice of the Peace from 1860 to the start of the war.

When the war came, Foster seemed reluctant to serve. In August of '61, he joined a reserve company, possibly to avoid service in a more active volunteer unit. He changed his tune in January of '62, when he joined what would become Company H, 24th Texas Cavalry, being mustered in as 1st Lieutenant in the company on April 10th. The unit marched to Arkansas, where, at Pine Bluff, the regiment (like many of the Texas cavalry regiments in the war) was dismounted to serve as infantry, desperately needed in the theater. He fought at Arkansas Post as part of Garland's Brigade, and surrendered with most of the garrison. During his time in Federal prison, he was promoted to Captain of Company H, which he would serve as for the remainder of the conflict.

He was exchanged in May of 1863, passing through City Point, Virginia. Along the way, his men bumped into the men of Hood's Texas Brigade, marching north to reinforce Lee due to Hooker's Offensive. Here, Foster got to reunite with his brother, Hale Foster, serving in Company F of the 4th Texas as a musician (Hale would be paroled at Appomattox). The brigade continued to Wartrace, arriving in mid-May.

It seemed the stigma of their defeat at Arkansas Post was strong at this time. Foster wrote the following in his memoir:

"And just here we catch 'fits'. These old soldiers came into our camp, and want to know all about the surrender over in Ark. Want to know why we did'n't [sic] fight &c and as we pass their camp or any of them pass us they hollow at us 'Who raised the white flag in Ark." [sic]. 'We don't want you here if you can't see a Yank without holding up your shirt to him' --- 'Lie down I am going to pop a cap --- don't pull your shirt off it won't hurt you' --- and more --- it was constant. We could never get out of hearing of some fool making fun of us about that fight at Ark. Post" (Brown, 43).

Luckily for them, the now consolidated brigade was assigned to the command of Patrick Cleburne. According to Foster, "There was but one general that would have us --- Pat Cleburn [sic] said he was not afraid to try us" (Ibid). Cleburne seemed to have brought the unit together, and Foster and the other members of the brigade would have an undying respect for their division commander.

Foster would fight at Chickamauga and Missionary Ridge before being wounded at Ringgold Gap; though this latter action is inferred due to the spotty and jumbled nature of his recollection of the battle, and the fact the next we hear from his account he's in hospital on crutches as of March 1864. He returned to his unit for the Atlanta Campaign. He'd fight at Pickett's Mill, leaving a lengthy account of the engagement in his diary (it may be the most detailed day of his dairy), taking part in the firefight and later the night charge of Granbury's Brigade. The following day he recounted the scene of the battlefield in bloody detail:

"[W]e have to pass over the dead Yanks of the battlefield of yesterday; and here I beheld that which I cannot describe; and which I hope never to see again, dead men meet the eye in every direction, and in one place I stoped [sic] and counted 50 dead men in a circle of 30 ft. of me. Men lying in all sorts of shapes and [illegible] just as they had fallen, and it seems like they have nearly all been shot in the head, and a great number of them have their skulls burst open and their brains running out, quite a number that way. I have seen many dead men, and seen them wounded and crippled in various ways, have seen their limbs cut off, but I never saw anything before that made me sick, like looking at the brains of these men did. I do believe if a soldier could be made to faint, that I would have fainted if I had not passed on and got out of that place as soon as I did" (Brown, 88).

Foster saw further action during the Kennesaw Operation, fought at Bald Hill, Jonesboro, Spring Hill, and the bloodbath at Franklin. At Nashville, he was one of the 344 Texans and Tennesseans manning Granbury's Lunette; here, he was wounded "in my right leg 6 inches above the knee" and sent back to the hospital. He was brought to a hospital at Franklin the next day; soon after, news of the collapse of Hood's Army at Nashville had reached the town. He manages to make his way to safety, rejoining his depleted unit. Recovering, he transferred with the division to North Carolina, missing action at Bentonville. In the reorganization of the army in early April, Foster was put in charge of the remnant of 24th Texas, now merely Company I of the 1st Texas Consolidated Regiment, 51 men remaining at the time of the surrender at Bennett Place. Foster made a long trek home; according to Lundberg, he left the camp at Greensboro at 9 a.m., May 3rd, and travelled through Nashville, New Orleans, and finally from there took a boat to Galveston, walking the remaining distance to Oaksville.

In 1866, Foster was elected to the Texas House of Representatives. Afterwards, due to lawlessness in Oaksville and the surrounding county, Foster chose to move to Corpus Christi, becoming a manager for N. Gussett's Merchandising and Banking house. An avid Baptist since his boyhood, he would organize The First Baptist Church of Corpus Christi, having the first meeting in his home. In 1875, he would organized the Star Rifles, a militia company formed to protect the town from Mexican bandit raids. In 1880, he moved to Laredo, receiving a presidential appointment as a commissioner for the US District Courts, Southern District of Texas, remaining in this post until his death in 1919. After the death of Mary in 1896, he married Bettie Moore the following year. He took part in Masonic activities, as well as becoming commander of the Santos Benavides Post 637, UCV. He passed away January 9th,1919, and was buried in the Masonic section of Laredo City Cemetery.

On his way home, a small yet intriguing incident occurred. On his May 19th entry (note, Foster is often off with his dates on many of the major engagements; for example his brief account of Granbury's Lunette is dated the 13th of December when it should be the 15th), Foster writes of running into a 12 year old black girl on her way to a freeman's school. He inquired on her studies, quizing her on certain homework assignments, and being impressed by her responses. "I never was more surprised in my life! The idea was new to me. I asked her who was her teacher. She said, 'A lady from the north'". Foster continues:

"I returned to camp and think over what I have seen. I can see that all the Negro children will be educated the same as the white children are. That the present generation will live and die in ignorance, as they have done heretofore. I can see that our white children will have to study hard, and apply themselves closely, else they will have to ride behind, and let the Negro hold the reins— I can see that the next generation will find lawyers doctors preachers, school teachers farmers merchants etc. divided some white and some black, and the smartest man will succeed without regard to his color. If the Negro lawyer is more successful than the white one, the Negro will get the practice.

The color will not be so much as knowledge. The smartest man will win in every department in life. Our (white) children will have to contend for the honors in life against the Negro in the future— They will oppose each other as lawyers in the same case. They will oppose each other as mechanics, carpenters, house builders, blacksmiths, silver and goldsmiths, shoemakers, saddle makers &c.

And the man that is the best mechanic lawyer, doctor or teacher will succeed." (Brown 178-179).

Foster's account is fascinating. This is from his diary, written at the time of the occurrence, not a memoir written decades after trying to paint himself in a positive light. This is the views of an average Confederate line officer, a view on racial equality not to be pursued for another hundred years.

However, as colorful as his wording is, it seems Foster cared little for bringing about the world he spelled out here. When elected to the Texas legislature, he voted against the ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment in the state, as well as passing legislation to "keep the Negro freedmen in a state of peonage" (Brown, Sam Foster, A Biographical Sketch, from One of Cleburne's Own). Whether it was because he actively supported these laws, or because he felt pressured to "represent" the interest of his precinct, Foster was complicit in setting the foundation for Jim Crow in Texas.

Foster was a man of his time, an observer to some of the most monumental events of the later war in the west. His criticisms of the Confederate war effort and the Confederate generals, while at times not entirely accurate, are quite on point. His memoir and diary, published decades after his death, have shed much light on the history of his command, his brigade, Cleburne's division, the Army of Tennessee, and the greater scale of the war.

Sources:
Norman D. Brown. "One of Cleburne's Own". 1980 edition.
John R. Lundberg. "Granbury's Texas Brigade: Diehard Western Confederates".
https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/foster-samuel-thompson
 

Luke Freet

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Looking around, I have found a biography on Captain Reuben D. Kennedy, Captain, Company D, 10th Texas Infantry. I will copy/paste the text, but will give the link to the bio.

"Freestone County, Texas
Biographies

Based on Research by Scott McKay

Biography of Captain Reuben D. Kennedy
(August 3, 1838-May 3, 1885, buried at Cotton Gin Cemetery)
10th Regiment Texas Infantry - Company D

Reuben D. Kennedy was 23 years old when he was elected as 2nd Lieutenant of a
company of recruits that were organized on October 26, 1861, (by William C.
Wilson) at Fairfield, Freestone County, Texas. Wilson's Company of volunteers
mustered in with Col. Nelson's newly formed regiment (10th Texas Infantry) for
Camp of Instruction at Galveston, Texas on October 31, 1861. Reuben was born
August 3, 1838, and stood 6' 2" tall with black hair, dark eyes and a dark
complexion.

2nd Lieutenant Kennedy was promoted to the rank of 1st Lieutenant on July 28,
1862, due to the shift in organization of Company D, due to the resignation of
Captain Wilson due to ill health. 1st Lieutenant John L. Wortham took Wilson's
place, and in turn, Kennedy took Wortham's. Captain Wortham died of disease in
Arkansas, on August 24, 1862. 1st Lieutenant Kennedy took immediate command of
the company, but would not attain the rank of Captain until September 16, 1862.

On November 25, 1862, the 10th Texas Infantry steamed up river from Little Rock,
Arkansas, to Arkansas Post, to defend Fort Hindman to the possiblity of the
assault by Federal forces. The wait didn't take long, for on January 9, 1863, a
fleet of Federal Gunboats commanded by Admiral David Porter, came in view of
the fort. Arkansas Post on the White River, was the first in the line of
obstacles needed to be taken, ending with Vicksburg, that the United States
forces need take in order to control the Mississippi River.

At 8 o'clock A.M. the Federal fleet commenced a seven hour non-stop barrage of
Fort Hindman, battering its defenses. Very few casualties were inflicted for
most of the 4,000 troops stationed there, were in the entrenchments 1 mile in
advance of the fort. While the barrage was going on, 33,000 troops of General
Sherman depart the transports several miles north at Nortrib's Farm. The
artillery fire ended that evening around 8pm, and picked up the next morning
with the Confederate forces retreating to the works next to the fort.

General Churchill had been given orders to hold the fort to the last man, and
was well prepared to do so, fending off 6 assault by Sherman's forces. The
fighting was furious until 4pm, when a white flag mysteriously went up on the
far end where the 24th Texas Dismounted Cavalry was positioned. The
Confederates mistook the the flag as an order from Gen. Churchill, so several
flags simultaneoulsy arose and the fort was surrendered.

...

The next day it began snowing, and the prisoners of Arkansas Post were packed
onto the transports and sent to Northern prisons; the officers to Camp Chase,
and the enlisted men divide between Camp Douglas (where the 10th Texas Infantry
went) and Camp Butler. After three months of terrible hardship and death in the
artic climates of the North, the enlisted prisoners were paroled from prison to
be exchanged at City Point, Virginia; the officers would follow several weeks
later, and they would be united to be sent to the Army of Tennessee, arriving
there on May 17, 1863.

Upon arriving to Tullahoma, Tennessee, the 10th Texas Infantry was consolidated
into one regiment with the 6th Texas Infantry and the 15th Texas Dismounted
Cavalry. Due to the consolidation, there became a surplus of officers within
the ranks, and the excess were sent to the Trans-Mississippi Department;
Captain Kennedy was one of these officers, for when three regiments of Co. D
were joined, Captain James D. Selkirk of the 6th Texas Infantry has seniority
over Captain Kennedy.

On March 4, 1864, Col. Hiram Granbury was promoted to the rank of Brig. Gen.
and put in command of the Texas Brigade; one of his first acts was to break the
10th Texas Infantry from their consolidation. This act immiately caused a need
for officers in the ranks, and Col. Robert Young was assigned to the Trans-
Mississippi for those separated. Col. Young arrived at the commencement of the
Atlanta Campaign with a handful of the displaced officers; one being Captain
Kennedy.

Captain Kennedy fought with distinction in all of the battles of the 10th Texas
infantry in command of Co. D, until the battle of Franklin, when he took
command of the regiment in the heat of battle; this was due to the fact the
Col. Young was killed, then senior Captain John Formwalt was wounded. At the end
of that battle, only 53 men of the 10th Texas Infantry were able for duty.

Due to attrition of the Army of Tennessee, Gen. Johnston restructured his army
on April 9, 1865; at that point, Granbury's Brigade ceased to exist. All eight
regiments were combined into a single regiment, and was renamed the 1st
Consolidated Texas Regiment, and was assigned to Govan's Brigade. The 10th
Texas Infantry became companys D & E of that regiment, and Captain Kennedy was
placed in command of Co. E, 1st Texas Consolidated Regiment (also known as
Granbury's Consolidated Brigade).

The Army of Tennessee was surrendered to Gen. Sherman at Durham, North Carolina,
on April 28, 1865. Captain Kennedy had in his command, 33 men of Company E, 1st
Texas Consolidated Regiment; there were a total of 80 men left from the old 10th
Texas Infantry, and of them, only six left from Kennedy's old company.

Reuben D. Kennedy, at age 46, died on May 3, 1885, and was buried in the Cotton
Gin Cemetery of Fairfield, Freestone County, Texas. "

http://files.usgwarchives.net/tx/freestone/bios/kennedy.txt
 

Luke Freet

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An entry on John Alexander Formwalt, Major, 10th Texas Infantry:

Formwalt was born in Knoxville, Tennessee, April 22nd 1820. He moved to Ponotoc, Mississippi and married Courtney Lane McEwen in 1845, with whom he'd have 5 sons and 2 daughters. In 1849 he went west to California before moving back to Mississippi, then to Anderson and Freestone Counties, Texas, in 1851, before settling in Strouds Creek, in what would become Hood County. In October of 1861, he joined 10th Texas, first as a private in Company C, before becoming captain of Company I, "The Stockton Cavalry", in January of '62. He was captured at Arkansas Post, and moved from Camp Chase, Ohio, to Fort Delaware, before being exchanged at City Point, April 12th, 1863. He moved with the consolidated 6th/10th/15th Texas, as Captain of the consolidated Company I (in consolidated units, all the soldiers from each companies would merge with the same letter company of the other regiments), and would be present at Chickamauga. His regiment was unconsolidated in early 1864, with Formwalt retaining command of old Company I, and would lead it at Bald Hill, where he took command of the regiment following the wounding of Colonel Mills, and the elevation of Lt. Colonel Robert B. Young to brigade command. At Franklin, while Young was again detached as staff to Brigadier Granbury, Formwalt commanded the regiment, about 150 strong. Captain Formwalt was wounded, while the regiment lost 19 killed, 14 wounded, and 13 captured (Lundberg, 313). According to Lundberg, Formwalt was a major at the time and was later captured by the Federals; however, his TSHA entry says he wasn't promoted to Major until April 9th, 1865, when the brigade consolidated into a single regiment, and that he was sent to hospital, suffering from diarrhea. Whatever the case, he was present with the brigade as of April 9th, to be promoted to Major of the 1st Texas Consolidated, and surrendered with the army.

After the war, he lived in the town of Granbury, working in the mercantile business and as a farmer; he remarried to Annie Lacy Powers in 1882, following the death of his first wife. In 1890, he was town magistrate, and in 1900 a justice of the peace. In 1909 he applied for a pension, and as of 1910 was retired, living in Granbury "with his own income". He died in 1914, and was buried with his second wife.

Edit: according to his parole description, he stood at 6 foot 2 inches, with hazel eyes and dark hair.

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/formwalt-john-alexander
 
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Lt. Colonel William A. Ryan, 18th Texas Cavalry, later commander of Granbury's Brigade and 1st Texas Consolidated.

William A. Ryan was born in 1840 in Alabama, the son of a wealthy slaveholder and Merchant in Travis County Texas, as of 1860. He did not enlist in the Confederate army until March 15th, 1862, when he joined Colonel Nicholas Darnell's 18th Texas Cavalry, being appointed the regimental adjutant. May 26th, the regiment was reorganized and Ryan promoted to Major. He was captured at Arkansas Post, being exchanged in April of 1863, when his unit was merged into the 17th/18th/24th/25th Texas Consolidated Dismounted Cavalry Regiment. He led part of the large 770 man regiment at Chickamauga, and was apparently involved at Chattanooga, during the Atlanta Campaign, and the Franklin-Nashville Campaign.

This is according to TSHA, but it seems that information on Ryan in 1864 is sparce. The O.R.s do not list him in command of the 17th/18th Texas during the Atlanta Campaign (under the commands of Captains George D. Manion and William H. Perry) and Franklin-Nashville (commanded by Captain Felix McKnight at Nashville). Lundsberg does not mention him until 1865, when he's back to command the brigade and the later regiment. It is certain he was not available to command troops during the Tennessee Campaign, as the brigade fell under Captain Edward Broughton's command; if he was available, he would have gotten command of the brigade. Whatever the case, we will move on to his role in the final chapter of the brigade.

Ryan appeared to be in command of the brigade at Bentonville, though Lundberg makes no mention of this (Bentonville is mostly glossed over, as the brigade saw little action). Lundberg first mentions Ryan during the consolidation of the brigade, being in command of the 1st Texas Consolidated. He surrendered the 407 men of the brigade at Greensboro.

Ryan returned to Travis Country and operated a mercantile business with his father's assistance; it is unclear if he married, though the 1870 census shows a Roseline Ryan in his household. Ryan died July 15th, 1886, and is buried in Oakwood Cemetery in Austin.

https://www.tshaonline.org/handbook/entries/ryan-william-a
 

Luke Freet

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Should have posted the Regimental Organizations Lundberg lists in his appendix. Guess I'll do that now.
(Lundberg, 349-351)
Note: this is incomplete. I known nothing about Company K, 7th Texas' counties and commanders, as that was formed after the regiment exchanged from recent recruits. Orren P. Forrest of 7th Texas I also can't find information on which company he served; may have been Company K.

6th Texas Infantry
Colonel Robert R. Garland; Lt. Col. Thomas Scott Anderson; Major A. M. Haskell; Adj. Samuel J. Garland
CompanyCommanderCounty(ies)Nickname
ACapt. Alexander Hamilton Phillips Jr.CalhounLavaca Guards
BCapt. James RupleyVictoriaLone Star Rifles
CCap. Alonzo BassGonzales
DCapt. A. E. Pearson; Capt. James SelkirkMatagordaMatagorda Coast Guards
ECapt. John P. WhiteGuadalupe
FCapt. Henry BradfordBellBell County Invincibles
GCapt. Rhoads Fisher (Major); Lt. William Dunson (KIA Franklin)TravisTravis Rifles
HCapt. George P. FinleyCalhoun, Lavaca
ICapt. C. P. NanuheimDewitt
KCapt. Samuel McCallister; Capt. Jose (Joseph) de la Garza (Killed at Mansfield)BexarAlamo Rifles

7th Texas
Colonel John Gregg (Promoted to Brigadier General; Killed at Petersburg); Lt. Colonel Jeremiah M. Clough (resigned); Maj. Hiram Granbury (Colonel, later Brigadier; killed at Franklin)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNickname
ACapt. Hiram Granbury (Colonel)McLennanWaco Guards
BCapt. R. S. CampUpshur
CCapt. Edward T. BroughtonKaufman
DCapt. Frederick S. Bass; Capt. Khleber Van Zandt (Major); Capt. Charles E. TalleyHarrisonBass Greys
ECapt. Jack DavisCherokee
FCapt. William H. SmithSmithLone Star Rebels
GCapt. William L. Moody (Lt. Colonel)FreestoneFreestone Freemen
HCapt. William B. HillHarrisonTexas Invincibles
ICapt. John W. BrownRuskSabine Greys
K??

10th Texas Infantry
Colonel Allison Nelson (Died in camp); Lt. Col. Roger Q. Mills (Colonel); Maj. Robert B. Young (Lt. Colonel; Killed at Franklin)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. John A. Kennard (Major)GrimesGrimes Boys
BCapt. David PendergastLimestone
CCapt. William ShannonJohnsonRock Creek Guards
DCapt. William Wilson; Capt. John L. Wortham; Capt. Reuben D. KennedyFreestone
ECapt. William McKamyParker
FCapt. Semore BrasherBrazos
GCapt. John LauderdaleGalveston, WashingtonLabadie Rifles
HCapt. Bruce HartgravesCoryell
ICapt. James A. Formwalt (Major); 1st Lt. Thomas J. Stokes (KIA Franklin)JohnsonStockton Cavalry
KCapt. Byron BassellBosque, Coryell

15th Texas Cavalry
Col. George H. Sweet (removed); Lt. Colonel George Bibb Pickett (Colonel); Maj. William Cathey (resigned due to health)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. William Bishop; Capt. Valerius P. Sanders (Major)Dallas, Bexar
BCapt. George Pickett (Colonel); Lt. Robert L. CollinsWiseWise Yankee Catchers
CCapt. George MastenDallas
DCapt. A. J. FrizzellJohnson
ECapt. M. D. KennedyTarrant
FCapt. Benjamin TyusLimestone
GCapt. G. HarkerRed River
HCapt. William EnglishHopkins
ICapt. James MooreVan Zandt
KCapt. William Cathey (Major)Johnson

17th Texas Cavalry
Colonel George F. Moore (Resigned); Colonel James R. Taylor (Killed at Mansfield); Lt. Col. Sterling B. Hendricks; Maj. John McClarty (resigned, ill health)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. Sebron M. Noble (Major, Lt. Colonel; Killed at Mansfield)Nacogdoches
BCapt. O. C. TaylorCherokee
CCapt. William ThompsonCherokee
DCapt. Bryan MarshSmithTexas Mounted Volunteers
ECapt. Thomas F. Tucker (Major, Colonel)Harrison
FCapt. J. G. McKnightHarrison
GCapt. J. J. WynnRusk
HCapt. William SimpsonUpshur
ICapt. I. J. WatkinsRed River
KCapt. Gil McKayHarrisonClough Rangers

18th Texas Cavalry
Colonel Nicholas Darnell; Lt. Colonel John T. Coit; Maj. Charles C. Morgan; Adj. William A. Ryan (Lt. Colonel)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. Hiram ChildressJohnson
BCapt. Hiram MorganBastropMorgan Rangers
CCapt. Ed CrowderDallas
DCapt. William DamronBell
ECapt. John Coit (Lt. Colonel)Dallas
FCapt. F. W. CalhounWilliamsonWilliamson County Blues
GCapt. Felix McKittrickDentonDenton County Rebels
HCapt. F. L. FarrarEllis
ICapt. Middleton PerryDallas
KCapt. George ManionHenderson, Anderson

24th Texas Cavalry
Colonel Franklin C. Wilkes
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. Robert PooleAustin, Brazos, Montgomery
BCapt. S. A. WoolridgeMontgomery
CCapt. William A. Taylor (Major)Austin, Lampassas
DCapt. Patrick H. SwearingenTyler, Angelina
ECapt. John MorrisonTyler, Angelina
FCapt. Thomas W. MitchellFort Bend
GCapt. C. W. BullochSmith, Jefferson
HCapt. John Connor; Capt. Samuel T. FosterTyler, Angelina
ICapt. Benjamin FlyFayette, Karnes
KCapt. Henry WoodsLavaca

25th Texas Cavalry
Colonel Clayton Gillespie; Lt. Colonel. William M. Neyland; Major Joseph N. Dark (resigned)
CompanyCommandersCountiesNicknames
ACapt. B. F. RossTyler, Galveston
BCapt. Joseph N. Dark (Major)Liberty, Galveston
CCapt. Davis StovallGoliad, Refugio, Victoria
DCapt. J. P. MontgomeryWashington
ECapt. William DanielBrazos
FCapt. Enoch PittsTyler
GCapt. W. D. DavisLiberty
HCapt. Gilbert LaCourHarris, Liberty
ICapt. Edward B. Pickett (Major)Liberty
KCapt. M. M. SingletaryWalker
 
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1625516100317.png

Lt. Colonel Robert B. Young, 10th Texas

Robert B. Young was born in Spartanburg, South Carolina, in 1828; he was the grandson of William Young, a cavalry captain in the Revolution. In 1837, his family moved to Bartow County, Georgia; he went to school in Cartersville and attended Georgia Military Institute, supposedly graduating, though he is not in the Alumni list; he did command a militia battalion in Cass County. On January 12th, 1853, he married Josephine Walton in Walton County. According to Lundberg, Young moved to Texas in 1858 due to financial issues in Georgia (Lundsberg, 306-307). In the 1860 Texas census, he is listed as a "Stock Raiser" in Waco, McLennan County, Texas. He had one daughter, Ida, who at the time of his death was 11 years old.

He was appointed Major in Allison Nelson's 10th Texas Infantry in Galveston on October 21st, 1861. After serving on detached court martial duty from January to February of 1862, he returned to his regiment, where, on September 24th, following the death of Colonel Nelson, he was promoted to Lt. Colonel (the previous Lt. Colonel, Roger Q. Mills, was promoted to Colonel; Young filled his vacancy).

He was captured with the regiment at Arkansas Post, being exchanged at City Point April 29th. His parole certificate noted his features: he stood at an appreciable 5'10", with blue eyes, auburn hair, and a dark complection.

According to Lundsberg, his time in imprisonment impaired Young's health, and so he stayed with his parents in their home in Cartersville, before rejoining his regiment for the Atlanta Campaign (Lundsberg 307). At Bald Hill, following the wounding of Brigadier J. A. Smith and Colonel Roger Q. Mills, Young took command of the brigade as the senior officer, leading the brigade in a final assault on the union line before withdrawing his command. Granbury would return to command the brigade. At Franklin, Young was serving as Brigaider Granbury's Chief of Staff, and was alongside Granbury when they were both killed near the Carter House. If he had lived, he may have gotten command of the brigade, or what was left.

https://civilwartalk.com/threads/lt-col-robert-b-young-10th-texas-infantry.130430/
https://battleoffranklin.wordpress.com/2008/02/12/young/
 

Luke Freet

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Things I'm going to (eventually) post once I've done all the proper research and made all the notes:
-Bio for Hiram Granbury, Roger Q. Mills, Robert R. Garland, all the other Colonels
-Account of their actions leading up to Arkansas Post (the raising of the regiments, etc).
-A detailed account on the Arkansas Post debacle, and whether Garland was to blame
-An account of their actions at Franklin and Nashville
-A more detailed account of their actions at Pickett's Mill, Ringgold Gap, Chickamauga, etc.
I'm gonna be busy for the next few days doing the research as well as general life stuff I got to deal with in the meantime. If y'all got something to share or post or link, go ahead.
 
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