Crossing the Border from Maryland into Pennsylvania – Times and Dates

Tom Elmore

1st Lieutenant
Member of the Year
Joined
Jan 16, 2015
Among the noteworthy events recorded by soldiers during the Gettysburg campaign was their crossing of the border line dividing the states of Maryland and Pennsylvania. In chronological order are the times, dates, roads and events associated with that crossing, as recorded by the participants:

CSA

As we step on Pennsylvania soil, a general order from General Lee is read to each halted regiment. I cannot recite it now, but the purport of it was that we were now entering the enemy’s country, not to devastate or spoil it; that we were to be on our good behavior, not to enter a house unless invited in; no indiscriminate foraging allowed, and that only such officers as designated in the order had authority to seize for sustenance for which pay or vouchers was to be proffered. (Memoirs of Charles A. Rollins, Company H, 27th Virginia, August 9, 1888, Walker’s brigade, Johnson’s division, Ewell’s corps)

June 21, about 11 a.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Doles’ brigade, Rodes’ division, Ewell’s corps. (Journal of Edwin R. Sharpe, Company D, 4th Georgia, Georgia Historical Society, Digital Public Library of America)

June 22, 11 a.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Daniel’s brigade, Rodes’ division, Ewell’s corps. (A Diary of a Tar Heel Soldier, by Louis Leon, 53rd North Carolina, Charlotte, NC: State Publishing Company, 1913)

June 22, noon, on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. O’Neal’s brigade, Rodes’ division, Ewell’s corps. (Diary of Sgt. John S. Tucker, Company D, 5th Alabama, on file at Gettysburg National Military Park)

June 23, 2 p.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Smith’s brigade, Early’s division, Ewell’s corps. (Diary of Lt. W. James Kincheloe, Company C, 49th Virginia, University Memorial Biographical Sketches of Alumni of the University of Virginia Who Fell in the Confederate War, by Rev. John L. Johnson)

June 23, 3:30 p.m., on the road from Ringgold to Waynesboro. Hays’ brigade, Early’s division, Ewell’s corps. (July 20 letter of Jr. 2nd Lt. Joseph Warren Jackson, Company I, 8th Louisiana, to his brother, Pennsylvania History, vol. 30, April 1963, no. 2)

June 24, about 4:45 a.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Chambersburg. Williams’ brigade, Johnson’s division, Ewell’s corps. (Journal of Maj. Monier, 10th Louisiana, Military Record of Louisiana, by Napier Bartlett, Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University Press, 1964)

June 26, 9:30 a.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Lang’s brigade, Anderson’s division, Hill’s corps. (Diary of Lt. William P. Pigman, Company H, 8th Florida, Georgia Historical Society, Savannah)

June 26, about 3 p.m., on the road from Leitersburg to Waynesboro. Brockenbrough’s brigade, Heth’s division, Hill’s corps. (Diary of Robert Douglass, Company F, 47th Virginia, http://www.morrisville.edu/library/local_history/sites/letters/owen8.html, 10/23/2002)

June 26, about 4 p.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Garnett’s brigade, Pickett’s division, Longstreet’s corps. (Three Years in Battle and Three in Federal Prisons, The Papers of Randolph Abbott Shotwell, 8th Virginia, The North Carolina Historical Commission, ed. by J. G. De Roulhac Hamilton, Raleigh, NC: 1931) [Comment: Shotwell wrote, “We passed the line … this afternoon near a small village called [Middleburg] on the maps but called ‘Muttontown’ by the natives – though for what reason I could not ascertain. It is easy to see however, that ‘Muttontown’ is altogether appropriate, for the demeanor of many of the inhabitants is sheepish in the extreme!”]

June 26, 4 p.m., on the road from Leitersburg to Waynesboro. Grandy’s battery, Garnett’s battalion, Third Corps artillery. (Norfolk Blues, The Civil War Diary of the Norfolk Light Artillery Blues, by John Walters, Shippensburg, PA: Burd Street Press, 1997)

June 26, 5 p.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Robertson’s brigade, Hood’s division, Longstreet’s corps. (Reminiscences of the Civil War, by Judge John W. Stevens, Company K, 5th Texas)

June 27, 10 a.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Kershaw’s brigade, McLaws’ division, Longstreet’s corps. (June 28 letter of Tally N. Simpson, 3rd South Carolina, The Wartime Papers of Dick and Tally Simpson, ed. by Guy R. Everson and Edward H. Simpson, Jr., NY: Oxford University Press, 1994)

June 27, 1 p.m., on the pike from Williamsport to Greencastle. Barksdale’s brigade, McLaws’ division, Longstreet’s corps. (Diary of William H. Hill, Company A, 13th Mississippi, The Official Records of the 13th Mississippi Infantry Regiment, by Jess N. McLean, 2001) [Comment: Sgt. Maj. C. C. Cummings of the 17th Mississippi later wrote, “Seeing an old man supporting himself with a cane, I called to him to draw a line in the middle of the street [at Middleburg], marking off Maryland from Pennsylvania. He did so, and with a running jump I bounded over into Pennsylvania” – Confederate Veteran magazine.]

USA

June 30, prior to 9 a.m., on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. Meredith’s brigade, Wadworth’s division, Reynolds’ corps. (Diary of Capt. Nathaniel Rollins, 2nd Wisconsin, Wisconsin Historical Society Archives, Digital Collections.) [Comment: On June 30, Meredith’s brigade preceded Cutler’s brigade.]

June 30, 8:45 a.m., on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg, Cooper’s Battery, First Corps artillery brigade. (Diary of James McCleary, Cooper’s Battery B, Pennsylvania Artillery, University of Alabama Libraries.) [Comment: Cooper’s battery was probably in the same column as Wadsworth’s division, behind Meredith’s brigade and possibly in front of Cutler’s brigade.]

June 30, about noon, on the road from Taneytown to Littlestown. Cobham’s brigade, Geary’s division, Slocum’s corps. (Diary of Benjamin Benner, Company G, 29th Pennsylvania, Civil War Diaries Collection, a collection of the Auburn University Digital Library, Digital Public Libraries of America.)

July 1, 9 a.m., on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. Ames’ brigade, Barlow’s division, Howard’s corps. (Journal of Pvt. William A. Clark, Company C, 17th Connecticut, http://seventeenthcvi.org/blog/the-soldiers-story/william-clark/)

July 1, 9:20 a.m., on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. Von Gilsa’s brigade, Barlow’s division, Howard’s corps. (‘In Lieu of a Draft,’ The Civil War Diary of Rudolph Roessel, 153rd Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, Crossroads to History, vol. 5, no. 2, Sep/Oct 2000)

July 1, just before 10 a.m., on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. Smith’s brigade, Von Steinwehr’s division, Howard’s corps. (Journal-History of the 73rd Ohio Volunteer Infantry by Samuel H. Hurst, http://home.adelphia.net/~73rdovi/journal-history2.html, 03/10/2003)

July 1, 11 a.m., on the road from Union Mills to Hanover. Sweitzer’s brigade, Barnes’ division, Sykes’ corps. (Diary of Cpl. Timothy J. Regan, 9th Massachusetts, http://www.lostdiaries.com/civilwargettysburg.htm, 10/17/2005; Diary of John R. Garden, 62nd Pennsylvania, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, New York, NY) [Comment: Regan wrote, “Before entering Pennsylvania the column was halted and the ranks dressed; each regiment was addressed by its colonel and told that they were about to enter the Keystone State, and that it was expected that every man would do his duty in driving the enemy out of that state.” Garden recorded the crossing as 1:40 p.m., but in any case on that day Sweitzer led the division, followed by Vincent, with Tilton’s brigade bringing up the rear.]

July 1, about noon, on the road from Union Mills to Hanover. Vincent’s brigade, Barnes’ division, Sykes’ corps. (A History of the Forty-Fourth Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry, by Capt. Eugene A. Nash)

July 1, about 4 p.m., on the road from Union Mills to Hanover. Fisher’s brigade, Crawford’s division, Sykes' corps. (Address of Sgt. Maj. A. P. Morrison, 10th Pennsylvania Reserves, Pennsylvania at Gettysburg, I:259)

July 1, 4-5 p.m., on the road from Taneytown to Gettysburg. Brooke’s brigade, Caldwell’s division, Hancock’s corps. (Official Report of Lt. Col. McMichael, 53rd Pennsylvania; July 6 letter of Anthony J. Beaver, Company C, 53rd Pennsylvania, to his father, Genealogy of the Woodcock Valley, http://woodcockvalley.webs.com/apps/photos, 5/21/2011)

July 1, 4-5 p.m., on the road from Taneytown to Gettysburg. Smyth’s brigade, Hays’ division, Hancock’s corps. (Extracts from the diary of Capt. Andrew H. Boyd, Company H, 108th New York A Complete Military History and Record of the 108th Regiment N. Y. Volunteers, by Pvt. George H. Washburn; While My Country is in Danger, The Life and Letters of Lt. Col. Richard S. Thompson, 12th New Jersey, by Gerry H. Poriss and Ralph G. Poriss, Hamilton, NY: Edmonston Publishing Inc., 1994)

July 2, sunrise [4:35 a.m.], on the (Baltimore) pike, from Westminster to Littlestown. Adams’ battery, Sixth Corps artillery brigade. (Official Report of Capt. George W. Adams, Battery G, 1st Rhode Island)

July 2, a little past sunrise, on the road from Emmitsburg to Gettysburg. DeTrobriand’s brigade, Birney’s division, Sickles’ corps. (Reminiscences, by A. K. Sweet, 5th Michigan, August 30, 1911)

July 2, 7 a.m., on the (Baltimore) pike from Westminster to Littlestown. Nevin’s brigade, Wheaton’s division, Sedgwick’s corps. (Diary of John H. Hieber, 139th Pennsylvania, Library and Archives Division, Historical Society of Western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh)

July 2, 8:30 a.m., on the (Baltimore) pike, from Westminster to Littlestown. Bartlett’s brigade, Wright’s division, Sedgwick’s corps. (Diary of Henry Keiser, Company G, 96th Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Volunteers of the Civil War, Schuykill County at Gettysburg, http://www.pacivilwar.com/keiserdiary.html)
 

infomanpa

2nd Lieutenant
Joined
Feb 18, 2017
Location
Pennsylvania
Here is the spot of the crossing into Pennsylvania for most of the Confederate units:
20200609_141713.jpg
 

rpkennedy

Lt. Colonel
Member of the Year
Joined
May 18, 2011
Location
Carlisle, PA
People don't realize how far the Eleventh Corps marched on the morning of July 1 before going into an extremely hard fight that afternoon. That was a hard day on several levels.

Ryan
 

Field Master

Private
Joined
Mar 14, 2015
Great information, thanks for sharing!

I have sort of a general & specific question. Would units generally stick to the major pikes & roads when in a campaign environment like this? More specifically did the Union advance towards Gettysburg employ primarily the major pikes, roads, etc. in the upper Maryland area or is there any known accounts of using potential secondary options?

Thanks!
 

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