Civil War Joint Operations Papers

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#21
Naval War College Review
Volume 49
Number 1 Winter Article 4
1996

A Littoral Frustration: The Union Navy and the Siege of Charleston, 1863-1865
by Robert J. Schneller Jr

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https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3051&context=nwc-review
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#23
Accession Number : ADA602725
Title : Joint Operations in the American Civil War: Blessings and Blunders
Descriptive Note : Master's thesis
Corporate Author : MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA
Personal Author(s) : Jones, Randall K
Report Date : 04 Apr 2012
Pagination or Media Count : 43

Abstract : Although the Union's military did not have a written joint doctrine during the Civil War, the Union's military commanders' unity of effort during their respective campaigns significantly influenced the outcome of battles, as seen in the successful Vicksburg Campaign and in the disastrous Red River Campaign. Therefore, this paper contends that the U.S. military needed to establish a joint doctrine as part of its strategic planning and not leave cooperation between Union commanders to chance. The paper analyzes the joint operations of General Grant's victory during the Vicksburg Campaign and General Nathanial Banks' loss during the Red River Campaign. Specifically, the paper focuses on the Union's military commanders' unity, or lack of effort, during their respective campaigns, which significantly influenced the outcome of both battles. The analysis concludes that in the absence of formal U.S. military joint doctrine as part of its strategic planning, Union victory on the battlefield was determined largely by the amount of cooperation among U.S. commanders. Unity of command is crucial to joint operations and should not hinge on the personality of the commander. The mutually supportive command relationship of Generals Grant and Sherman and Admiral Porter cannot always be guaranteed. A summary of both campaigns emphasizes the strategic importance of joint operations and focuses on the following: (1) command relationships between the Army and Navy; (2) unity, or lack of effort between the commanders at Vicksburg and at Red River; and (3) the commanders' personalities as the driving force between victory and defeat. Valuable lessons learned from both campaigns are addressed and applied to future United States' joint strategic naval and ground operations.

Subject Categories : Humanities and History
Military Operations, Strategy and Tactics
Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
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#24
AU/AWC/127/1999-04
AIR WAR COLLEGE
AIR UNIVERSITY
UNION JOINT OPERATIONS IN NORTH CAROLINA DURING THE CIVIL WAR
by Quinn G. Hollomon, GS-15, DOD
A Research Report Submitted to the Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements
Advisor: Dr. Howard M. Hensel
Maxwell Air Force Base, Alabama
April 1999


Abstract
During the Civil War some of the earliest examples of joint operations in American Military history were undertaken. Except for General Scott’s landing at Veracruz during the War with Mexico, joint undertakings in the form of amphibious operations were rare. Army and navy commanders had little experience dealing with the problems associated with the ideas of jointness. Doctrinal guidance was unavailable and commanders worked together often with mixed results. In eastern North Carolina, the Union attempted several joint operations during the course of the war. Attacks were crudely planned and executed by modern standards. The North appeared not to have drawn lessons from preceding campaigns in any systematic way. Nevertheless, a basic pattern did develop and was improved upon over time as seen by the progressive sophistication of the operations against Hatteras, New Bern, and Fort Fisher. Today, the United States military has certain fundamental principles of joint warfare that it employs. When they are applied to Civil War campaigns certain trends become evident. The success rate increased when careful planning and preparation were present and the modern principles of joint warfare were followed. Where these elements were missing, Union forces often met with defeat. Failure to anticipate and provide for contingencies doomed many Civil War campaigns and would do the same to modern-day joint operations. The principles of joint warfare are a tool; one designed to make the transition to fighting as a team easier. Using them does not guarantee the warfighter success, but can greatly improves his chances.

https://apps.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a395182.pdf
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#25
Accession Number: ADA20731
Title: Joint Operations in the Civil War: The Mississippi
Corporate Author: ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA
Personal Author(s): Hailston, Earl B
Report Date: 15 Mar 1989

Abstract: Successful joint operations must become a common and regular reality for the Armed Forces of the United States. This Nation has engaged in joint operations since the Mexican War, but often it appears that we must relearn many of the same lessons that were taught during a previous military operations. This study seeks to examine joint operations during the Civil War along the Mississippi River, during the Vicksburg Campaign and the Red River Campaign. The purpose of this study is to become familiar with the campaigns and to analyze how well the commanders executed, some thoughts will be proposed that will be applicable to the modern battlefield leader for joint operations today.

Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
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