Chronology of Emancipation.

ForeverFree

Major
Joined
Feb 6, 2010
Location
District of Columbia
FYI, there is an excellent Civil War resource on the Internet called the Chronology of Emancipation. It shows the evolution of policies and actions that led to the destruction of slavery.

One point that scholars make is that emancipation was not an event, but rather, a process. The process began the month after the attack on Ft Sumter, when Union general Benjamin F. Butler gave asylum to runaway slaves who fled to Ft Monroe outside Hampton, VA. That asylum policy, soon called the contraband policy, evolved into full fledged policies for emancipation and negro enlistment.

These are some highlights from the Chronology:

1861
May
24
Fugitive slaves at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, are received and put to work by Union general Benjamin F. Butler, who declares them “contraband of war”

August
6
First Confiscation Act nullifies owners' claims to fugitive slaves who had been employed in the Confederate war effort

1862

March
13
Congress adopts an additional article of war forbidding members of the army and navy to return fugitive slaves to their owners

April
10
At Lincoln's request, Congress pledges financial aid to any state that undertakes gradual emancipation with compensation to owners
16 Congress abolishes slavery in the District of Columbia, with compensation to loyal owners, and appropriates money for the voluntary removal (“colonization”) of former slaves to Haiti, Liberia, or other countries

June
19
Congress prohibits slavery in the territories

July
12
President Lincoln appeals to congressmen from the border states to support gradual, compensated emancipation, with colonization of freed slaves outside the United States, warning that if they do not act soon, slavery in their states “will be extinguished by mere friction and abrasion – by the mere incidents of the war”; two days later, a majority of the congressmen reject Lincoln's appeal
17 Second Confiscation Act frees the slaves of persons engaged in or assisting the rebellion and provides for the seizure and sale of other property owned by disloyal citizens; it also forbids army and navy personnel to decide on the validity of any fugitive slave's claim to freedom or to surrender any fugitive to any claimant, and authorizes the president to employ “persons of African descent” in any capacity to suppress the rebellion
17 Militia Act provides for the employment of “persons of African descent” in “any military or naval service for which they may be found competent,” granting freedom to slaves so employed (and to their families if they belong to disloyal owners)
22 President Lincoln announces to his cabinet his intention to issue a proclamation freeing slaves in the rebel states, but agrees to postpone it until after a suitable military victory

August
22
In New Orleans, General Benjamin F. Butler incorporates into Union forces several “Native Guard” units composed of free-black soldiers; soon thereafter he begins recruiting both free-black and ex-slave men for additional regiments
25 After having withheld its permission for months, the War Department authorizes recruitment of black soldiers in the South Carolina Sea Islands

September
22
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it announces that all slaves in those states or portions of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, will be declared free, pledges monetary aid for slave states not in rebellion that adopt either immediate or gradual emancipation, and reiterates support for the colonization of freed slaves outside the United States.

1863
January
1
Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it declares free all slaves in the Confederate states (except Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts of Virginia) and announces the Union's intention to enlist black soldiers and sailors. By late spring, recruitment is under way throughout the North and in all the Union-occupied Confederate states except Tennessee

March
16
American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission appointed by Secretary of War Stanton to investigate the condition of former slaves and recommend measures for their employment and welfare

October
3
War Department orders full-scale recruitment of black soldiers in Maryland, Missouri, and Tennessee, with compensation to loyal owners, irrespective of their owners' consent; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.

1864
March
16
New Arkansas state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

April
8
Senate approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery

June
7
Enlistment in Kentucky opened to slave men irrespective of their owners' consent, with compensation to loyal owners; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.
15 Congress makes pay of black soldiers (which had been $10 per month for all ranks) equal to that of white soldiers ($13 per month for privates, larger amounts for higher ranks); the change is retroactive to January 1, 1864, or, for men who were free before the war, to the time of enlistment
20 Congress increases the pay of all privates, black and white, to $16 per month, with corresponding increases for higher ranks

September
5
New Louisiana state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

November
1
New Maryland state constitution, which abolishes slavery, takes effect, having been ratified in October

1865
January
11
Missouri state constitutional convention abolishes slavery
31 House of Representatives approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, sending it to the states for ratification

February
22
Amendment to Tennessee state constitution abolishes slavery

March
3
Congress approves a joint resolution liberating the wives and children of black soldiers
13 Confederate Congress authorizes President Jefferson Davis to recruit slave men as soldiers, with the permission of their owners; Confederate War Department issues order governing the enlistment on March 23.

April
9
Surrender of the army of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia

December
18
Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution announced by the Secretary of State; the amendment abolishes slavery throughout the United States

- Alan
 

wausaubob

Lt. Colonel
Joined
Apr 4, 2017
Location
Denver, CO
https://www.nytimes.com/1862/05/22/...e-and-abolition-the-lyonsseward-treaty-a.html
April 22, 1862, the United States Senate ratifies on a unanimous vote, a treaty giving British war vessels the right to stop and search vessels suspected of being participants in the trans-Atlantic slave trade. Four hundred years of capturing Africans and shipping them to Brazil, Cuba and the United States, was about to end.
 

CLuckJD

Private
Joined
Nov 19, 2018
Location
MS, USA
FYI, there is an excellent Civil War resource on the Internet called the Chronology of Emancipation. It shows the evolution of policies and actions that led to the destruction of slavery.

One point that scholars make is that emancipation was not an event, but rather, a process. The process began the month after the attack on Ft Sumter, when Union general Benjamin F. Butler gave asylum to runaway slaves who fled to Ft Monroe outside Hampton, VA. That asylum policy, soon called the contraband policy, evolved into full fledged policies for emancipation and negro enlistment.

These are some highlights from the Chronology:

1861
May
24
Fugitive slaves at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, are received and put to work by Union general Benjamin F. Butler, who declares them “contraband of war”

August
6
First Confiscation Act nullifies owners' claims to fugitive slaves who had been employed in the Confederate war effort

1862
March
13
Congress adopts an additional article of war forbidding members of the army and navy to return fugitive slaves to their owners

April
10
At Lincoln's request, Congress pledges financial aid to any state that undertakes gradual emancipation with compensation to owners
16 Congress abolishes slavery in the District of Columbia, with compensation to loyal owners, and appropriates money for the voluntary removal (“colonization”) of former slaves to Haiti, Liberia, or other countries

June
19
Congress prohibits slavery in the territories

July
12
President Lincoln appeals to congressmen from the border states to support gradual, compensated emancipation, with colonization of freed slaves outside the United States, warning that if they do not act soon, slavery in their states “will be extinguished by mere friction and abrasion – by the mere incidents of the war”; two days later, a majority of the congressmen reject Lincoln's appeal
17 Second Confiscation Act frees the slaves of persons engaged in or assisting the rebellion and provides for the seizure and sale of other property owned by disloyal citizens; it also forbids army and navy personnel to decide on the validity of any fugitive slave's claim to freedom or to surrender any fugitive to any claimant, and authorizes the president to employ “persons of African descent” in any capacity to suppress the rebellion
17 Militia Act provides for the employment of “persons of African descent” in “any military or naval service for which they may be found competent,” granting freedom to slaves so employed (and to their families if they belong to disloyal owners)
22 President Lincoln announces to his cabinet his intention to issue a proclamation freeing slaves in the rebel states, but agrees to postpone it until after a suitable military victory

August
22
In New Orleans, General Benjamin F. Butler incorporates into Union forces several “Native Guard” units composed of free-black soldiers; soon thereafter he begins recruiting both free-black and ex-slave men for additional regiments
25 After having withheld its permission for months, the War Department authorizes recruitment of black soldiers in the South Carolina Sea Islands

September
22
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it announces that all slaves in those states or portions of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, will be declared free, pledges monetary aid for slave states not in rebellion that adopt either immediate or gradual emancipation, and reiterates support for the colonization of freed slaves outside the United States.

1863
January
1
Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it declares free all slaves in the Confederate states (except Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts of Virginia) and announces the Union's intention to enlist black soldiers and sailors. By late spring, recruitment is under way throughout the North and in all the Union-occupied Confederate states except Tennessee

March
16
American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission appointed by Secretary of War Stanton to investigate the condition of former slaves and recommend measures for their employment and welfare

October
3
War Department orders full-scale recruitment of black soldiers in Maryland, Missouri, and Tennessee, with compensation to loyal owners, irrespective of their owners' consent; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.

1864
March
16
New Arkansas state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

April
8
Senate approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery

June
7
Enlistment in Kentucky opened to slave men irrespective of their owners' consent, with compensation to loyal owners; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.
15 Congress makes pay of black soldiers (which had been $10 per month for all ranks) equal to that of white soldiers ($13 per month for privates, larger amounts for higher ranks); the change is retroactive to January 1, 1864, or, for men who were free before the war, to the time of enlistment
20 Congress increases the pay of all privates, black and white, to $16 per month, with corresponding increases for higher ranks

September
5
New Louisiana state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

November
1
New Maryland state constitution, which abolishes slavery, takes effect, having been ratified in October

1865
January
11
Missouri state constitutional convention abolishes slavery
31 House of Representatives approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, sending it to the states for ratification

February
22
Amendment to Tennessee state constitution abolishes slavery

March
3
Congress approves a joint resolution liberating the wives and children of black soldiers
13 Confederate Congress authorizes President Jefferson Davis to recruit slave men as soldiers, with the permission of their owners; Confederate War Department issues order governing the enlistment on March 23.

April
9
Surrender of the army of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia

December
18
Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution announced by the Secretary of State; the amendment abolishes slavery throughout the United States

- Alan

I suggest you append this chronography by an ellipsis at the end that represents so-called "Reconstruction," as no such events or process occurred to this day for Black Americans.
 
Last edited:

jackt62

Captain
Joined
Jul 28, 2015
Location
New York City
This chronology is critical information in understanding the history of emancipation. The common perception is that Lincoln "freed the slaves" via the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, a flawed narrative that has obscured the larger and more important series of events that eventually led to the abolition of slavery in the 13th Amendment. Thanks for posting!
 

CLuckJD

Private
Joined
Nov 19, 2018
Location
MS, USA
FYI, there is an excellent Civil War resource on the Internet called the Chronology of Emancipation. It shows the evolution of policies and actions that led to the destruction of slavery.

One point that scholars make is that emancipation was not an event, but rather, a process. The process began the month after the attack on Ft Sumter, when Union general Benjamin F. Butler gave asylum to runaway slaves who fled to Ft Monroe outside Hampton, VA. That asylum policy, soon called the contraband policy, evolved into full fledged policies for emancipation and negro enlistment.

These are some highlights from the Chronology:

1861
May
24
Fugitive slaves at Fortress Monroe, Virginia, are received and put to work by Union general Benjamin F. Butler, who declares them “contraband of war”

August
6
First Confiscation Act nullifies owners' claims to fugitive slaves who had been employed in the Confederate war effort

1862
March
13
Congress adopts an additional article of war forbidding members of the army and navy to return fugitive slaves to their owners

April
10
At Lincoln's request, Congress pledges financial aid to any state that undertakes gradual emancipation with compensation to owners
16 Congress abolishes slavery in the District of Columbia, with compensation to loyal owners, and appropriates money for the voluntary removal (“colonization”) of former slaves to Haiti, Liberia, or other countries

June
19
Congress prohibits slavery in the territories

July
12
President Lincoln appeals to congressmen from the border states to support gradual, compensated emancipation, with colonization of freed slaves outside the United States, warning that if they do not act soon, slavery in their states “will be extinguished by mere friction and abrasion – by the mere incidents of the war”; two days later, a majority of the congressmen reject Lincoln's appeal
17 Second Confiscation Act frees the slaves of persons engaged in or assisting the rebellion and provides for the seizure and sale of other property owned by disloyal citizens; it also forbids army and navy personnel to decide on the validity of any fugitive slave's claim to freedom or to surrender any fugitive to any claimant, and authorizes the president to employ “persons of African descent” in any capacity to suppress the rebellion
17 Militia Act provides for the employment of “persons of African descent” in “any military or naval service for which they may be found competent,” granting freedom to slaves so employed (and to their families if they belong to disloyal owners)
22 President Lincoln announces to his cabinet his intention to issue a proclamation freeing slaves in the rebel states, but agrees to postpone it until after a suitable military victory

August
22
In New Orleans, General Benjamin F. Butler incorporates into Union forces several “Native Guard” units composed of free-black soldiers; soon thereafter he begins recruiting both free-black and ex-slave men for additional regiments
25 After having withheld its permission for months, the War Department authorizes recruitment of black soldiers in the South Carolina Sea Islands

September
22
Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it announces that all slaves in those states or portions of states still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, will be declared free, pledges monetary aid for slave states not in rebellion that adopt either immediate or gradual emancipation, and reiterates support for the colonization of freed slaves outside the United States.

1863
January
1
Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it declares free all slaves in the Confederate states (except Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts of Virginia) and announces the Union's intention to enlist black soldiers and sailors. By late spring, recruitment is under way throughout the North and in all the Union-occupied Confederate states except Tennessee

March
16
American Freedmen's Inquiry Commission appointed by Secretary of War Stanton to investigate the condition of former slaves and recommend measures for their employment and welfare

October
3
War Department orders full-scale recruitment of black soldiers in Maryland, Missouri, and Tennessee, with compensation to loyal owners, irrespective of their owners' consent; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.

1864
March
16
New Arkansas state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

April
8
Senate approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery

June
7
Enlistment in Kentucky opened to slave men irrespective of their owners' consent, with compensation to loyal owners; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.
15 Congress makes pay of black soldiers (which had been $10 per month for all ranks) equal to that of white soldiers ($13 per month for privates, larger amounts for higher ranks); the change is retroactive to January 1, 1864, or, for men who were free before the war, to the time of enlistment
20 Congress increases the pay of all privates, black and white, to $16 per month, with corresponding increases for higher ranks

September
5
New Louisiana state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

November
1
New Maryland state constitution, which abolishes slavery, takes effect, having been ratified in October

1865
January
11
Missouri state constitutional convention abolishes slavery
31 House of Representatives approves constitutional amendment abolishing slavery, sending it to the states for ratification

February
22
Amendment to Tennessee state constitution abolishes slavery

March
3
Congress approves a joint resolution liberating the wives and children of black soldiers
13 Confederate Congress authorizes President Jefferson Davis to recruit slave men as soldiers, with the permission of their owners; Confederate War Department issues order governing the enlistment on March 23.

April
9
Surrender of the army of Confederate General Robert E. Lee at Appomattox Court House, Virginia

December
18
Ratification of the Thirteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution announced by the Secretary of State; the amendment abolishes slavery throughout the United States

- Alan

Oh, Kewl! Didn't know Amend 13 was ratified on my b-day! More reason for extra celebration next go 'round :smile:
 

ErnieMac

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Pennsylvania
March 26, 1863
The people of western Virginia voted to ratify a state constitution which included the Willey Amendment as the final step by which the State of West Virginia would be admitted to the Union. The Willey Amendment stated "The children of slaves born within the limits of this State after the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be free; and all slaves within the said State who shall, at the time aforesaid, be under the age of ten years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-one years; and all slaves over ten and under twenty-one years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-five years; and no slave shall be permitted to come into the State for permanent residence therein."
 

Pat Young

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Location
Long Island, NY
March 26, 1863
The people of western Virginia voted to ratify a state constitution which included the Willey Amendment as the final step by which the State of West Virginia would be admitted to the Union. The Willey Amendment stated "The children of slaves born within the limits of this State after the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be free; and all slaves within the said State who shall, at the time aforesaid, be under the age of ten years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-one years; and all slaves over ten and under twenty-one years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-five years; and no slave shall be permitted to come into the State for permanent residence therein."
Thanks for the info.
 

16thVA

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Location
Philadelphia
Less than 29,000 West Virginians voted for the amendment. In the 50 counties there were 79,515 voters. Nearly 3,000 West Virginia voters were arrested during the war and sent to Camp Chase or the Wheeling Atheneum.


The Willey Amendment freed no slaves on West Virginia becoming a state: the first slaves to be freed would not have been so until 1867. There was no provision for freedom for any slave over 21 years of age. As per the census of 1860 the Willey Amendment would have left at least 40% of West Virginia's slaves unemancipated, over 6,000 slaves. Many of those under 21 would have served as much as 20 years in slavery. The phrasing of the amendment also created a window of two weeks during which the children of slaves born between June 20, 1863 and July 4, 1863, would be born into slavery.

 

CLuckJD

Private
Joined
Nov 19, 2018
Location
MS, USA
March 26, 1863
The people of western Virginia voted to ratify a state constitution which included the Willey Amendment as the final step by which the State of West Virginia would be admitted to the Union. The Willey Amendment stated "The children of slaves born within the limits of this State after the fourth day of July, eighteen hundred and sixty-three, shall be free; and all slaves within the said State who shall, at the time aforesaid, be under the age of ten years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-one years; and all slaves over ten and under twenty-one years, shall be free when they arrive at the age of twenty-five years; and no slave shall be permitted to come into the State for permanent residence therein."
Thanks a MILLION! Had never heard of Willey Amendment. Wonder if good ole Abe had a hand in it, given that WV is the ONLY State in this Union to join by Presidential Decree.
 

JPK Huson 1863

Brev. Brig. Gen'l
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Location
Central Pennsylvania
Is that an odd article on WV? There's a ton of information inclusive of names of illustrious white residents and an image of a plantation owner's house. Beyond a quote apparently by a black women, black citizens appear as ' slaves ' ( repeatedly ) and that's it. I don't know. Seems pretty weird.
 

ForeverFree

Major
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Feb 6, 2010
Location
District of Columbia
This chronology is critical information in understanding the history of emancipation. The common perception is that Lincoln "freed the slaves" via the 1863 Emancipation Proclamation, a flawed narrative that has obscured the larger and more important series of events that eventually led to the abolition of slavery in the 13th Amendment. Thanks for posting!
Agreed. In the academy today it is understood that:
• emancipation was a process, not a one time event; and that slavery was disturbed at different times in different ways in different places
• African Americans were part of what can be called a "team effort" to destroy the institution, and must be recognized as agents of their own liberation

But the common perception is practically the opposite. I like to share this with teachers because timelines like this are a useful tool for seeing lots of events at a single time, where each single event provides context for the others. And as they say, context is key.

- Alan
 

ErnieMac

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Thanks a MILLION! Had never heard of Willey Amendment. Wonder if good ole Abe had a hand in it, given that WV is the ONLY State in this Union to join by Presidential Decree.
Lincoln had a hand in it as did Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner. When the West Virginia statehood bill was presented to Congress in late 1862, Sumner was skeptical of voting to admit another slave state into the Union. He suggested a near immediate emancipation with all slaves to become free as of July 4, 1863. Sumner's proposal was defeated. Recognizing Radical Republican support was needed to pass the statehood bill Senator Waitman Willey (representing the Restored Government of Virginia in the U.S. Senate) first suggested emancipation for all children born to slave mothers after July 4, 1873. When that didn't fly, Willey drafted the compromise that bears his name. This statehood bill including the Willey Amendment finally passed Congress on December 10, 1862. Lincoln signed the bill into law on December 31 with the proviso that the Willey Amendment be voted into their constitution by the people of West Virginia. The vote was held on March 26, 1863, and ratified by a margin of 27,749 for to 572 against. On April 20, 1863, Lincoln issued a proclamation stating West Virginia had met the conditions for admission. It was formally admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863.
http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh24-4.html
http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh24-4.html
 

ForeverFree

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Location
District of Columbia
One of the most...ignored aspects of emancipation ~ and I think the word ignored is appropriate ~ is what happened in the Union slave states. Famously, they were excluded from the Emancipation Proclamation. What is not well known is that slavery died a slow death in those states.

From the Chronology:

1863
January
1
Emancipation Proclamation issued by President Lincoln; it declares free all slaves in the Confederate states (except Tennessee, southern Louisiana, and parts of Virginia) and announces the Union's intention to enlist black soldiers and sailors. {United States slave states are excluded.} By late spring, recruitment is under way throughout the North and in all the Union-occupied Confederate states except Tennessee

October
3
War Department orders full-scale recruitment of black soldiers in Maryland, Missouri, and Tennessee, with compensation to loyal owners, irrespective of their owners' consent; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members

1864
March
16
New Arkansas state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

June
7
Enlistment in Kentucky opened to slave men irrespective of their owners' consent, with compensation to loyal owners; enlisted soldiers are emancipated, but this does not apply to the enlistee's family members.

September
5
New Louisiana state constitution, which abolishes slavery, is ratified by pro-Union voters

November
1
New Maryland state constitution, which abolishes slavery, takes effect, having been ratified in October

1865
January
11
Missouri state constitutional convention abolishes slavery

February
22
Amendment to Tennessee state constitution abolishes slavery

March
3
Congress approves a joint resolution liberating the wives and children of black soldiers
******

There's more to the story than just these dates on the timeline. But they do give an indication of what was happening with slavery at the time in the Union slave states.

This is a count of US Colored Troopers, by state of enlistment, for the 4 states that provided the most troops to the US army:

State | Number
Louisiana 24,052
Kentucky 23,703
Tennessee 20,133
Mississippi 17,869

GRAND TOTAL – USCT 178,975

Kentucky and Tennessee were both exempted from the EP, as were parts of Louisiana. Thus, two of the states with the most black enlistees (KY and TN) were exempt from the EP, and one state was partially exempt from the EP (LA). But black men could gain their freedom in any of those states by enlisting in the military. Many did so.

The stories of black enlistment and emancipation in the Union slave states do not get nearly enough attention. In some cases, these were tragic stories, as soldiers were forced to leave family members behind, and in bondage ~ again, enlistment emancipation for black soldiers did not liberate family members initially.

It's a subject I hope gets more attention in the future.

- Alan
 

Saphroneth

Major
Joined
Feb 18, 2017
I sort of feel like it would be at least of historical interest to give the pre-ACW emancipation moves - both in the US and in things like wars with Britain.

The idea of emancipation didn't spring fully formed in 1861.

It might also help to mention the times when emancipation measures were reversed.
For example, Robcraufurd made this list on another site:


1) the Contraband policy (April, 1861);
2) the Confiscation Act of 1861 (August, 1861);
2a) Reversal of Fremont's emancipation measures (September, 1861);
3) The Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves (March, 1862);
3a) Reversal of Hunter's emancipation measures (May, 1862);
3b) General Butler orders unemployed 'contrabands' expelled from Union Army lines in Louisiana (May, 1862);

4) Emancipation in the District of Columbia (April, 1862);
4a) Walter S. Cox, the District of Columbia's Fugitive Slave Law commissioner, remands seven runaway slaves (two of them children) to their claimants in Maryland on receipt of an affidavit of the claimants' loyalty to the Union (11 June 1863);
6) Second Confiscation Act (July, 1862);
6a) Representatives from Kentucky, Virginia, Missouri, Tennessee, Delaware, and Maryland inform Lincoln that "The right to hold slaves is a right appertaining to all the States of this Union. They have the right to cherish or abolish the institution as their tastes or their interests may prompt, and no one is authorized to question the right, or limit its enjoyment. And no one has more clearly affirmed that right than you have... In both houses of Congress we have heard doctrines announced subversive of the principles of the Constitution and seen measure after measure founded in substance on these doctrines proposed and carried through which can have no other effect than to distract and divide all loyal men and to exasperate and drive still further from us and their duty the people of the rebellious states. Military officers following these bad examples have stepped beyond the just limits of their authority in the same direction, until in several instances you have felt the necessity of interfering to arrest them... " (July, 1862)

The reason this is important context is that it indicates the extent to which the movement towards Emancipation was a genuine fight. It wasn't just everybody saying "oh, not having slaves, sounds like a jolly good idea!"
 

ForeverFree

Major
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Location
District of Columbia
I sort of feel like it would be at least of historical interest to give the pre-ACW emancipation moves - both in the US and in things like wars with Britain.

The idea of emancipation didn't spring fully formed in 1861.

It might also help to mention the times when emancipation measures were reversed.
For example, Robcraufurd made this list on another site:


1) the Contraband policy (April, 1861);
2) the Confiscation Act of 1861 (August, 1861);
2a) Reversal of Fremont's emancipation measures (September, 1861);
3) The Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves (March, 1862);
3a) Reversal of Hunter's emancipation measures (May, 1862);
3b) General Butler orders unemployed 'contrabands' expelled from Union Army lines in Louisiana (May, 1862);

4) Emancipation in the District of Columbia (April, 1862);
4a) Walter S. Cox, the District of Columbia's Fugitive Slave Law commissioner, remands seven runaway slaves (two of them children) to their claimants in Maryland on receipt of an affidavit of the claimants' loyalty to the Union (11 June 1863);
6) Second Confiscation Act (July, 1862);
6a) Representatives from Kentucky, Virginia, Missouri, Tennessee, Delaware, and Maryland inform Lincoln that "The right to hold slaves is a right appertaining to all the States of this Union. They have the right to cherish or abolish the institution as their tastes or their interests may prompt, and no one is authorized to question the right, or limit its enjoyment. And no one has more clearly affirmed that right than you have... In both houses of Congress we have heard doctrines announced subversive of the principles of the Constitution and seen measure after measure founded in substance on these doctrines proposed and carried through which can have no other effect than to distract and divide all loyal men and to exasperate and drive still further from us and their duty the people of the rebellious states. Military officers following these bad examples have stepped beyond the just limits of their authority in the same direction, until in several instances you have felt the necessity of interfering to arrest them... " (July, 1862)

The reason this is important context is that it indicates the extent to which the movement towards Emancipation was a genuine fight. It wasn't just everybody saying "oh, not having slaves, sounds like a jolly good idea!"
FYI, Lincoln's reversal of Fremont and Hunter are on the full list. I did't want to cut and paste the whole document for placement here.The full doc has a lot of interesting stuff, but there are other items and dates that I would add, if they were to ask me for suggestions.

It is correct to say that emancipation policy was contested. It is also useful to note that there was never really an "emancipation policy" per se, but rather, a set of policies that often responded to facts on the ground. Meanwhile, it might takes months or even a year or two for a particular official policy to implemented in any particular place. And the implementation of those policies varied, in part due to the whims and predilections of particular Union officers. Emancipation truly was an evolving process, and evolution is a complex process indeed.

- Alan
 

Saphroneth

Major
Joined
Feb 18, 2017
FYI, Lincoln's reversal of Fremont and Hunter are on the full list. I did't want to cut and paste the whole document for placement here.The full doc has a lot of interesting stuff, but there are other items and dates that I would add, if they were to ask me for suggestions.
Good to know, and thanks for clarifying. I still think it'd be interesting to see things like Dunmore's Proclamation or the Mansfield Case on there.

It is correct to say that emancipation policy was contested. It is also useful to note that there was never really an "emancipation policy" per se, but rather, a set of policies that often responded to facts on the ground. Meanwhile, it might takes months or even a year or two for a particular official policy to implemented in any particular place. And the implementation of those policies varied, in part due to the whims and predilections of particular Union officers. Emancipation truly was an evolving process, and evolution is a complex process indeed.
I think that's fair.

One thing that's often overlooked is actually the Harrison's Landing letter. If someone actually reads it they see that McClellan is suggesting a way of enacting de facto emancipation without it actually being emancipation:


Military power should not be allowed to interfere with the relations of servitude, either by supporting or impairing the authority of the master; except for repressing disorder as in other cases. Slaves contraband under the Act of Congress, seeking military protection, should receive it. The right of the Government to appropriate permanently to its own service claims to slave labor should be asserted and the right of the owner to compensation therefore should be recognized. This principle might be extended upon grounds of military necessity and security to all the slaves within a particular state; thus working manumission in such [a] state -- and in Missouri, perhaps in Western Virginia also and possibly even in Maryland the expediency of such a military measure is only a question of time. A system of policy thus constitutional and conservative, and pervaded by the influences of Christianity and freedom, would receive the support of almost all truly loyal men, would deeply impress the rebel masses and all foreign nations, and it might be humbly hoped that it would commend itself to the favor of the Almighty. Unless the principles governing the further conduct of our struggle shall be made known and approved, the effort to obtain requisite forces will be almost hopeless. A declaration of radical views, especially upon slavery, will rapidly disintegrate our present Armies.


Underlining mine.
Effectively here McClellan is suggesting that the US government enact (compensated) emancipation on the entire slave population of several loyal states by appropriating the slave manpower of those states to itself and then manumitting them.
 

wausaubob

Lt. Colonel
Joined
Apr 4, 2017
Location
Denver, CO
Good to know, and thanks for clarifying. I still think it'd be interesting to see things like Dunmore's Proclamation or the Mansfield Case on there.


I think that's fair.

One thing that's often overlooked is actually the Harrison's Landing letter. If someone actually reads it they see that McClellan is suggesting a way of enacting de facto emancipation without it actually being emancipation:


Military power should not be allowed to interfere with the relations of servitude, either by supporting or impairing the authority of the master; except for repressing disorder as in other cases. Slaves contraband under the Act of Congress, seeking military protection, should receive it. The right of the Government to appropriate permanently to its own service claims to slave labor should be asserted and the right of the owner to compensation therefore should be recognized. This principle might be extended upon grounds of military necessity and security to all the slaves within a particular state; thus working manumission in such [a] state -- and in Missouri, perhaps in Western Virginia also and possibly even in Maryland the expediency of such a military measure is only a question of time. A system of policy thus constitutional and conservative, and pervaded by the influences of Christianity and freedom, would receive the support of almost all truly loyal men, would deeply impress the rebel masses and all foreign nations, and it might be humbly hoped that it would commend itself to the favor of the Almighty. Unless the principles governing the further conduct of our struggle shall be made known and approved, the effort to obtain requisite forces will be almost hopeless. A declaration of radical views, especially upon slavery, will rapidly disintegrate our present Armies.


Underlining mine.
Effectively here McClellan is suggesting that the US government enact (compensated) emancipation on the entire slave population of several loyal states by appropriating the slave manpower of those states to itself and then manumitting them.
And Lincoln did not want to go that far. Individual acts to undermine were OK. The friction of war was the preferred means. But after October 1862, the government proceeded to policies of emancipation and enlistment.
 

wausaubob

Lt. Colonel
Joined
Apr 4, 2017
Location
Denver, CO
Lincoln had a hand in it as did Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner. When the West Virginia statehood bill was presented to Congress in late 1862, Sumner was skeptical of voting to admit another slave state into the Union. He suggested a near immediate emancipation with all slaves to become free as of July 4, 1863. Sumner's proposal was defeated. Recognizing Radical Republican support was needed to pass the statehood bill Senator Waitman Willey (representing the Restored Government of Virginia in the U.S. Senate) first suggested emancipation for all children born to slave mothers after July 4, 1873. When that didn't fly, Willey drafted the compromise that bears his name. This statehood bill including the Willey Amendment finally passed Congress on December 10, 1862. Lincoln signed the bill into law on December 31 with the proviso that the Willey Amendment be voted into their constitution by the people of West Virginia. The vote was held on March 26, 1863, and ratified by a margin of 27,749 for to 572 against. On April 20, 1863, Lincoln issued a proclamation stating West Virginia had met the conditions for admission. It was formally admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863.
http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh24-4.html
http://www.wvculture.org/history/journal_wvh/wvh24-4.html
I think it was in James Oakes' volume in which he relates that Sumner and the radicals were satisfied that once there was a legal start towards abolition in any state, slavery weakened very rapidly.
 

wausaubob

Lt. Colonel
Joined
Apr 4, 2017
Location
Denver, CO
The Confederates were afraid there would be a cordon of freedom. But by the 1st of June 1862, British patrols could catch any foolish captain attempting to ship slaves from Africa to the west, and the US flag was no protection. The US had control of the Ohio and Missouri rivers, and of the Mississippi at New Orleans and below Memphis. With most Confederate ports fully or partially blockaded, exterior slave trading was gone and most internal slave trading had to be conducted on foot. The cordon was real.
 

wausaubob

Lt. Colonel
Joined
Apr 4, 2017
Location
Denver, CO
Without slave trading, slavery is weak. The slaves either escape or become assimulated, even if there is a racial barrier.
 
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