Black Southerners and the Confederate Cause: The Post-War Newspapers

Andersonh1

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Another look back, this time at life in Richmond during the war and the conscription of slaves by the Confederate government.

The Indianapolis journal. [volume] (Indianapolis [Ind.]) 1867-1904, June 20, 1885
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Andersonh1

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This is more of an amusing anecdote about the long-windedness of Alexander Stephens than anything, but but it did make me realize that I can't recall having ever seen Longstreet weigh in on the subject of putting black soldiers into the CS army during the debate of 1864-65.

Memphis daily appeal. [volume] (Memphis, Tenn.) 1847-1886, December 03, 1885
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Andersonh1

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For those who say that these men were never viewed as soldiers prior to the 1970s, note the title of this story. "Colored Confederate Soldiers". And the subjects are John Downs, a cook; "Zip", an officer's servant; and an unnamed young servant of a soldier from South Carolina. In none of these three cases are the men enlisted and in the ranks, but this newspaper still refers to them as "Confederate Soldiers". And this is not an isolated case. We'll see more of this.

Note the subhead: "Their Heroic Deeds - Their Coolness in the Hour of Supreme Danger". High praise.

Savannah morning news. [volume] (Savannah) 1868-1887, December 24, 1885
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Memphis daily appeal. (Memphis, Tenn.) 1847-1886, December 27, 1885
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Andersonh1

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Levy Carnine dies and is remembered. I think this is the earliest of the many post-war "obituary" articles that I've found about a former slave who went through the war with the CS army. If we look at the details we get the following:
- The war ended 21 years ago
- his funeral was conducted by veteran soldiers of the Confederate army, members of the Pelican Rifles who he was associated with all through the war
- Levy Carnine was a former slave of the Hogan family of Alabama
- he was a boy during the "Florida Indian War" of 1837, acting as cook and general servant, so he lived through two wars
- He went through most of the Civil war as a servant of Dr. Hogan with the De Soto Pelican Rifles, 2nd LA Infantry
- he is actually referred to as a "black Confederate"
- Near the end of this article is a sad sentence reminding us of the racial disparities of the day: "Nothing except his birth and color prevented him from being a master among men."

The Laurens advertiser. January 27, 1886
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Andersonh1

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The Anderson intelligencer., January 28, 1886 - reprint of the above article

Just a few months later, Stewart Pringle passes away.

- referred to as "A Colored Rebel", "a noted Confederate negro", and "Southern to the core."
- went through the Mexican War with Col. Butler of SC
- was "in the Confederate army" with Capt. H. D. Brigham, so here is the second black vet to go through two wars
- had a canteen that had said had belonged to Stonewall Jackson, loved to talk about Lee and Jackson
- always took care of what was entrusted to him by the soldiers
- cared for the wounded
- was a janitor and "town fiddler" after the war
- like Levy Carnine, was buried by Confederate veterans

Yes, this is heavy on the "faithful slave" themes of the day, but it's undeniably high praise for the man, and the white Confederate vets burying him always seems to me to be a sign of genuine regard.

The Somerset herald., March 10, 1886
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Andersonh1

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A few other notices of Stewart Pringle's death.

The Fairfield news and herald. (Winnsboro, S.C.) 1881-1900, March 17, 1886
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The Laurens advertiser. (Laurens, S.C.) 1885-1973, March 17, 1886 and the Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, March 17, 1886 printed this same short version of Pringle's life. The Anderson Intelligencer, Anderson Court House, S.C., 18 March 1886 printed the same longer version as the Fairfield News, above. There are probably more papers that did the same.

This is a good example of the usefulness in not just settling for one copy of any given story. I usually look for as many duplicates as I can find, because sometimes you'll find examples like the Stewart Pringle story where one version contains more information than another.
 
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Andersonh1

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Richard Poplar was the third black Southerner that I've found in 1886 who went through the war who died and was noted in the papers.

- the "only" colored Virginian who "served in the confederate army". We'll see many of these men referred to as "the only". It gets amusing after a while.
- died in Petersburg, buried in the Confederate section of the Blandford Cemetery
- once again, it's the white Confederate vets who took care of this man late in life, in this case members of the 18th Virginia cavalry. I'm seeing a pattern here.

National Republican. (Washington City (D.C.)) 1872-1888, May 29, 1886
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Andersonh1

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M. F. Wharton obtains a Confederate pension.

- Referred to by this SC paper as a "colored soldier"
- free black man before the war
- farmer, living in Harrisburg
- required by law to labor on coastal defenses during the war
- in 1864, while working at Marshall's battery on Sullivan's Island, lost an arm when he was wounded by a shell from a Union gunboat
- Wharton obtained help from a Judge Lyon
- received $60 pension

The Abbeville press and banner. (Abbeville, S.C.) 1869-1924, June 09, 1886
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Andersonh1

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The Press and Banner June 9 1886 and The times and democrat. (Orangeburg, S.C.) 1881-current, June 17, 1886 are both reprints of the M. F. Wharton story above.

Political commentary on the state of race relations in the north contrasted with race relations in the South. The writer contrasts how welcoming the Confederate vets were to the black men who "followed the fortunes of this corps of the Confederate army", renewing old ties and treating them as special guests; and the poor state of the black Union soldiers who are ignored until their vote is needed and denied the right to join the GAR.

The writer is incorrect about the Confederacy never enlisting black men. The enlisted men of 1865 alone disprove that.

The weekly Thibodaux sentinel and journal of the 8th Senatorial District. [volume] (Thibodaux, Lna. [i.e. La.]) 1875-1898, June 18, 1887
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Andersonh1

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@19thGeorgia, here's another for your "killed or wounded" thread. No name, but a number of other details.

A story about slaves who escaped to enlist in the Union army reveals that one, who had been wounded at 1st Manassas helping his wounded master, knew the manual of arms and had been drilled "with a view to making him a soldier", a claim the man himself made. And the 12 year old who wanted to drum had previously done so for the 53rd Georgia, by his own account.

Wessington Springs herald. (Wessington Springs, Aurora County, Dakota [S.D.]) 1883-1891, November 25, 1887
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Andersonh1

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This article includes some information about future Confederate pensioner July Galluchat, who was probably conscripted into labor on the South Carolina coast, and who was wounded and lost a limb. That is mentioned here in connection with Galluchat being on trial for "violation of contract", with the newspaper complaining about the law and how it needs to be amended so that men like this won't have to remain in jail waiting for trial during the hot summer months.

The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, June 27, 1888
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Andersonh1

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South Carolina passed a law in 1923 providing Confederate pensions for black men who served during the war, but some got pensions far earlier than that. July Galluchat of Manning appears here on the Confederate Pension Roll in May 1889. See post 55 above for his legal troubles about a year earlier, and an account of how he lost a leg during the war. Presumably the pension was because of his disability, though since he could hardly have been the only disabled black man who had been wounded during the war, I'm not sure why he got a pension when others did not.

The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, May 08, 1889
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Andersonh1

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A discussion of South Carolina's 1,932 Confederate pensioners in July 1889 reveals that there were three black pensioners that year. We've seen two of them already, July Galluchat from Clarendon and M. F. Wharton from Abbeville. According to "South Carolina's African American Pensioners" by Alexia Jones Helsley, : "At least four African Americans, M. F. Wharton (Abbeville County), Benjamin Chisolm (Berkeley County) ,July Galluchat (Clarendon County), and Andrew Richardson (Richland County), applied under the act of 1887." So presumably the third mentioned here is one of those men, with the fourth possibly applying at a later date. We'll see if they turn up in the newspapers. Thomas Tobe, whose 1923 pension application survives, will also be awarded a pension under the 1887 law, and we'll see him down the road.

The Manning times. (Manning, Clarendon County, S.C.) 1884-current, July 17, 1889
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