Battlefield Works, Dictionary of CW Terms

yankee hoorah

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Redbouts give the defenders the capability to give fire in most directions. They were mostly used as artillery defences. The Confederates used them alot at Kennesaw MT. especially at Chetham hill. The only position without breastworks is the rear. The rear of the defences are unguarded. Most gun positions are infact Redbouts. Vicksburg MS. has tons of great positions to lokk at that would answer your Redan and Lunette questions. The stockades were usually more common at prisons like Andersonville or more during the plains war in the West. Large wooden stakes that jutted out from the ground to form a palisade or makeshift wall. The breastworks are earthworks that are about chest high. Usually the works are earth in the late years, but the stone wall at Fredericksburg was a breatswork.
 

Ray Ball

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I did a brief search and did not retrieve any info so I'll try the experts here.

I was just reviewing some info about the Vicksburg Campaign. In my perusal I came across several references to different fortifications: Redan, Redoubt, Lunette, Fort and Stockade. I assume these were standard structures used on various battlefields and had particular uses.
Can anyone enlighten me as to the specifics of these battlefield works, ( use, troop or equipment displacement etc,)?
I'll do my best here and hopefully it will help.

redan= typically a V shaped projection (salient) in a larger fortification or, at times, in front of one. Its use is generally to protect the occupying force and divide the attack. Think of it as an open arrow pointed into the attacking force. Often its an outer work and most often made of earth/ rock. They can be quite sizable with the sides of the V often over 150 yards long. If the V is enclosed and meant to be self sustaining in a battle it is often referred to as a ravelin.

redoubt= this is a fully enclosed portion within a larger work. Think of it as a fort within a fort. It typically has protection for its occupiers on all four sides. Formidable and often made of stone. Old Ft. Niagara in NY State has 2 excellent examples. http://northredoubt.com/aboutnrd.html

Lunette- typically a semicircular defensive position. Usually a part of a larger system much like a redan. Typically they are smaller outer works though. Generally earthen and open in the rear. http://books.google.com/books?id=tY...#v=onepage&q=old fort niagara lunette&f=false

Fort= Usually a complex group of works intended to permanently support a position through combined support.
Stockade- wooden posts placed into the ground upright to form a tight fence, the term palisade is often supplemented for it. It differs from a fraise in that the staked sections are connected to each other and vertical

I hope that the info I gave you helps. Feel free to contact me and/ or check out our web site if I can be of any assistance.
 

M E Wolf

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Captain J. C. Duane's assignment via Special Order, No. 282 (1862 series) - Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh and shared with permission for study and appreciation.

M. E. Wolf
 

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Ray Ball

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Captain J. C. Duane's assignment via Special Order, No. 282 (1862 series) - Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh and shared with permission for study and appreciation.

M. E. Wolf
Oh M.E. Wolf, you know that this is like a Renoir to me! Thank you so much for posting it. I'm going to print it or try to emulate it for use in our field desk at reenactments. Essayons!
 

M E Wolf

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The "administrative side" to S. O. No. 282 - Captain J. C. Duane's assignment - note that this Special Order is not documented in the O.R.s. Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh shared with permission for study and appreciation.

S.O. No.282-back-Capt. J.C. Duane, Engineers 1862 001.jpg
 

M E Wolf

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I wish to add, that there was more to just manning a fort... there were officers taking care of administrative business.
Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh, shared with permission for education and appreciation - (Stationary forms submitted by commanders of various Forts in Virginia, manned by the 16th New York, Heavy Artillery).

Just click on the link below.
M. E. Wolf
 

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M E Wolf

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Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh, Form 38 -Stationary Voucher for Fort Worth, VA - 16th NY HA
Stationary Voucher Form 38-16th NY Artillery-1865-1 001.jpg
 

M E Wolf

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Stationary Voucher-Form 38-16th NY HA-1 001.jpg

Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh, Form #38 - Fort Williams, manned by 16th NY HA. Requisition of Stationary supplies. The "O.B." means "Official Business Envelopes," which are usually printed on the right top corner "Official Business" under the Arm and Branch of Service. Wafers were as thin as Church Communion wafers but, made of wax and then stamped with the seal, usually done to signify no tampering was done, e.g. sealed orders. Sealing wax also was used but, also over locks and other items, to include sealing inkwells for travel.

M. E. Wolf
 

Ray Ball

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I wish to add, that there was more to just manning a fort... there were officers taking care of administrative business.
Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh, shared with permission for education and appreciation - (Stationary forms submitted by commanders of various Forts in Virginia, manned by the 16th New York, Heavy Artillery).

Just click on the link below.
M. E. Wolf
People also do not appreciate the fact that the forts are a constant maintenance problem. Earthworks need constant repair and improvement just from weathering, lumber needs to be replaced- its a lot of work well past the construction.
 

M E Wolf

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Officers and enlisted needed to be fed also :smile:

Invoice of Comm. Property-1 001.jpg

Although this form is filled for another element of the Union Army, the form however was used by all as to account for foo stationary supplies, food and utensils of the Commissary Officers and men. I especially enjoy the right column, as it lists specifically the tools needed as to measure and weigh items. This form is owned by M. E. Weyraugh and posted with permission for education and enjoyment.

M. E. Wolf
 

M E Wolf

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8th Mich. Ordnance retained copy-quarterly return 001.jpg

Ordnance was also inventoried and accounted for --

Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh and posted with permission for education and enjoyment. This form was for Infantry but, still the extreme detail and accountability of the Civil War Army was amazing.
 

M E Wolf

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Fort Monroe aka Fortress Monroe, Virginia Document "Discharge Camp." -- Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh, posted with permission for education and enjoyment.

Click on jpg link for enlargement.
 

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M E Wolf

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Back of Fort Monroe document, Discharge Camp.
Document owned by M. E. Weyraugh and posted with permission.
 

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NFB22

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John Davison

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Redbouts give the defenders the capability to give fire in most directions. They were mostly used as artillery defences. The Confederates used them alot at Kennesaw MT. especially at Chetham hill. The only position without breastworks is the rear. The rear of the defences are unguarded. Most gun positions are infact Redbouts. Vicksburg MS. has tons of great positions to lokk at that would answer your Redan and Lunette questions. The stockades were usually more common at prisons like Andersonville or more during the plains war in the West. Large wooden stakes that jutted out from the ground to form a palisade or makeshift wall. The breastworks are earthworks that are about chest high. Usually the works are earth in the late years, but the stone wall at Fredericksburg was a breatswork.
Back of Commissary Property form
View attachment 31174
 

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