Artillery Placement at Kennesaw Mountain

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Dec 13, 2018
Location
Covington, GA
I'm looking for the placement of some Confederate artillery at Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield. I have a little info on the three batteries. I was hoping someone might be able to point me to a map that details the placement of artillery with names/units attached. I know for example where Guibor's Battery was, just by visiting the battlefield.

Bledsoe's Battery, listed in sources as 1st Light Mo. Artillery. This also happens to be the unit signifier for Guibor's Battery in one of my resources, however Guibor's is listed as being in Storr's Battalion, and Bledsoe's appears to be in Martin's Battalion under BG Shoup.

King's Battery, listed in sources as 2nd Light Mo. Artillery. This unit is listed under Jackson's Artillery Division of BG Ferguson's Brigade.

Barrett's Mo. Battery, is in one source as being in Waddell's Battalion, and in another source as being a part of Preston's Battalion. Either way, both of those battalions were under Polk's Corp. so was this battery in the same vicinity of Guibor's, who was also in Polk's Corp?

I find a couple of interesting points in my early research.
First is that at Kennesaw, King's Battery is in BG Ferguson's Brigade, but in earlier battles, as well as skirmishes after Atlanta they seem joined with BG Ross's Brigade. I've not delved into the Texas cavalry much yet, so I'm not sure how much the two Texas Brigades served together (although both being cavalry it may have been a lot), however it looks like Ferguson stayed with the army in retreating to Savannah, while Ross joined with Hood to head to Tennessee.
Second is how four different Missouri artillery batteries were not paired with BG Cockrell's Mo. Brigade. I understand how it happens, just that its a curiousity.
 
Joined
Jan 29, 2019
I'm looking for the placement of some Confederate artillery at Kennesaw Mountain National Battlefield. I have a little info on the three batteries. I was hoping someone might be able to point me to a map that details the placement of artillery with names/units attached. I know for example where Guibor's Battery was, just by visiting the battlefield.

Bledsoe's Battery, listed in sources as 1st Light Mo. Artillery. This also happens to be the unit signifier for Guibor's Battery in one of my resources, however Guibor's is listed as being in Storr's Battalion, and Bledsoe's appears to be in Martin's Battalion under BG Shoup.

King's Battery, listed in sources as 2nd Light Mo. Artillery. This unit is listed under Jackson's Artillery Division of BG Ferguson's Brigade.

Barrett's Mo. Battery, is in one source as being in Waddell's Battalion, and in another source as being a part of Preston's Battalion. Either way, both of those battalions were under Polk's Corp. so was this battery in the same vicinity of Guibor's, who was also in Polk's Corp?

I find a couple of interesting points in my early research.
First is that at Kennesaw, King's Battery is in BG Ferguson's Brigade, but in earlier battles, as well as skirmishes after Atlanta they seem joined with BG Ross's Brigade. I've not delved into the Texas cavalry much yet, so I'm not sure how much the two Texas Brigades served together (although both being cavalry it may have been a lot), however it looks like Ferguson stayed with the army in retreating to Savannah, while Ross joined with Hood to head to Tennessee.
Second is how four different Missouri artillery batteries were not paired with BG Cockrell's Mo. Brigade. I understand how it happens, just that its a curiousity.

The Confederates drug some artillery pieces up on top of Kennesaw Mountain with ropes (near where the 29th Alabama Infantry was positioned), Harpers Weekly Journal / Magazine during this series of battles had depictions drawn in their publication to illustrate this happening. During the Atlanta Campaign Samuel W. Ferguson`s Cavalry Brigade, Lawrence S. Ross`s Texas Cavalry Brigade and Frank C. Armstrong`s Cavalry Brigade were all under Brig. General William Hicks "Red Fox" Jackson`s Cavalry Division, known as the Army of Mississippi, and were part of Wheelers Cavalry Corps throughout the Atlanta Campaign. Crofts Georgia Battery, Kings Missouri Battery and Waties South Carolina Battery were the flying artillery attached to those cavalry brigades belonging to Brig. General`s Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong. After Atlanta fell Jackson took Ross and Armstrong and followed Hood into Tennessee where-as Ferguson, under whom the 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry was brigaded, went with Wheeler to harass and fight against Sherman`s 62,000 man army as he marched from Atlanta to Savannah.

During the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on 27 Jun 1864, Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong under Jackson were all south-west of Marietta on the extreme left of the Kennesaw line, just west of Smyrna straddling Sandtown road, just south of the crossing of Olley`s Creek fighting off an attack intended to out flank the AOT, being performed by General John M. Schofield and his forces, to include General Stoneman, throughout the day. Jackson`s Cavalry Division was specifically positioned in front of "Mr. Shaw`s House" which was located about one-quarter of a mile south-east of Olley`s Creek. That is where the Headquarters of Ross, Ferguson and Armstrong was for several days leading up to the battle. So Croft`s, King`s and Watie`s batteries would have been there with them until after the battle of Kennesaw Mountain. During the battle of Kennesaw Mountain Jackson`s Division was slightly pushed back by Schofield a little south from "the Shaw house" to "the Moss house" where they reformed their lines of battle and kept them from succeeding in their flanking maneuver. Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong were never more than a mile or two apart during their operations regarding Kennesaw Mountain and often the three flying batteries attached to each of their cavalry brigades would be assigned and reassigned to each of the three brigades under Jackson. So it would not be uncommon to see King`s Battery with either Ferguson, Ross or Armstrong at any given time as they were all three divisioned together under Jackson during the Atlanta Campaign. There is a map of their exact location on 27 Jun 1864 during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in Earl J. Hess` Book entitled: "Kennesaw Mountain; Sherman, Johnston and the Atlanta Campaign" and is found on page 139. If you have not read it I highly recommend that you do.

Follow the link below for some artillery positions of both the Federals and Confederates depicted by small cannons in the legend. These were proper artillery batteries, not the flying artillery batteries attached to cavalry like Croft`s, King`s and Watie`s Batteries which were attached to Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong with only a few guns and artillery pieces. During the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on 27 Jun 1864 the Confederate lines that you see on the map below (Army of Tennessee) were stretched from the east side of Kennesaw Mountain, Little Kennesaw Mountain and all the way below the town of Marietta.

 
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Joined
Dec 13, 2018
Location
Covington, GA
The Confederates drug some artillery pieces up on top of Kennesaw Mountain with ropes (near where the 29th Alabama Infantry was positioned), Harpers Weekly Journal / Magazine during this series of battles had depictions drawn in their publication to illustrate this happening. During the Atlanta Campaign Samuel W. Ferguson`s Cavalry Brigade, Lawrence S. Ross`s Texas Cavalry Brigade and Frank C. Armstrong`s Cavalry Brigade were all under Brig. General William Hicks "Red Fox" Jackson`s Cavalry Division, known as the Army of Mississippi, and were part of Wheelers Cavalry Corps throughout the Atlanta Campaign. Crofts Georgia Battery, Kings Missouri Battery and Waties South Carolina Battery were the flying artillery attached to those cavalry brigades belonging to Brig. General`s Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong. After Atlanta fell Jackson took Ross and Armstrong and followed Hood into Tennessee where-as Ferguson, under whom the 2nd Regiment Alabama Cavalry was brigaded, went with Wheeler to harass and fight against Sherman`s 62,000 man army as he marched from Atlanta to Savannah.

During the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on 27 Jun 1864, Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong under Jackson were all south-west of Marietta on the extreme left of the Kennesaw line, just west of Smyrna straddling Sandtown road, just south of the crossing of Olley`s Creek fighting off an attack intended to out flank the AOT, being performed by General John M. Schofield and his forces, to include General Stoneman, throughout the day. Jackson`s Cavalry Division was specifically positioned in front of "Mr. Shaw`s House" which was located about one-quarter of a mile south-east of Olley`s Creek. That is where the Headquarters of Ross, Ferguson and Armstrong was for several days leading up to the battle. So Croft`s, King`s and Watie`s batteries would have been there with them until after the battle of Kennesaw Mountain. During the battle of Kennesaw Mountain Jackson`s Division was slightly pushed back by Schofield a little south from "the Shaw house" to "the Moss house" where they reformed their lines of battle and kept them from succeeding in their flanking maneuver. Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong were never more than a mile or two apart during their operations regarding Kennesaw Mountain and often the three flying batteries attached to each of their cavalry brigades would be assigned and reassigned to each of the three brigades under Jackson. So it would not be uncommon to see Kings Battery with either Ferguson, Ross or Armstrong at any given time as they were all three divisioned together under Jackson during the Atlanta Campaign. There is a map of their exact location on 27 Jun 1864 during the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain in Earl J. Hess` Book entitled: "Kennesaw Mountain; Sherman, Johnston and the Atlanta Campaign" and is found on page 139. If you have not read it I highly recommend that you do.

Follow the link below for some artillery positions of both the Federals and Confederates depicted by small cannons in the legend. These were proper artillery batteries not the flying artillery batteries attached to cavalry like Croft`s, King`s and Watie`s Batteries which were attached to Ferguson, Ross and Armstrong with only a few guns and artillery pieces. During the Battle of Kennesaw Mountain on 27 Jun 1864 the Confederate lines that see on the map below (Army of Tennessee) were stretched from the east side of Kennesaw Mountain, Little Kennesaw Mountain and all the way below the town of Marietta.


Thanks for the reply. I will definitely check out the book. As for the map, I've reviewed it in person at Kennesaw National Battlefield. It depicts batteries, but doesn't label which ones. Part of my query about location has to do with the 2nd observation I made above. In particular how close these Missouri batteries may have been to their fellow Missouri infantry. Knowing Guibor was on Little Kennesaw and possibly Barrett's or Bledsoe's would they have much time to commiserate? Since I've hiked from the parking area across from Pigeon Hill up to Little Kennesaw, I know how close they are. After traveling so many diverse miles to reach this point, then to be positioned within almost shouting distance (obviously not during the commotion of battle) would the infantry and artillery have had a chance to visit? Strangest of all is the fact that down below (roughly) facing you are U.S. BG Osterhaus' 1st Div. with the 1st Brigade under BG Woods, 3rd Brigade under Wangelin, as well as BG Smith's 2nd Div. 1st Brigade...all containing Yankee Missouri troops.
 
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Jan 29, 2019
Thanks for the reply. I will definitely check out the book. As for the map, I've reviewed it in person at Kennesaw National Battlefield. It depicts batteries, but doesn't label which ones. Part of my query about location has to do with the 2nd observation I made above. In particular how close these Missouri batteries may have been to their fellow Missouri infantry. Knowing Guibor was on Little Kennesaw and possibly Barrett's or Bledsoe's would they have much time to commiserate? Since I've hiked from the parking area across from Pigeon Hill up to Little Kennesaw, I know how close they are. After traveling so many diverse miles to reach this point, then to be positioned within almost shouting distance (obviously not during the commotion of battle) would the infantry and artillery have had a chance to visit? Strangest of all is the fact that down below (roughly) facing you are U.S. BG Osterhaus' 1st Div. with the 1st Brigade under BG Woods, 3rd Brigade under Wangelin, as well as BG Smith's 2nd Div. 1st Brigade...all containing Yankee Missouri troops.

I saw in another OP of yours here on CWT, regarding the Battle of Utoy Creek, where you asked again about King`s Missouri Battery (Capt. Houston King). From what I have researched they began with General Van Dorn in 1862 at which time they were known as Churchill Clark`s Battery, then their name changed under Capt. Houston King and became known as King`s Missouri Battery. They were with Brig. General Lawrence Sullivan Ross` Texas Cavalry Brigade since the fall of 1863 if not before, as far as I can tell from the records that I have seen. I saw them mentioned several times with Ross regarding skirmishes in northern Mississippi in September of 1863, during S. D. Lee`s Expedition to the Tennessee Valley to oppose Sherman`s March from Memphis to Chattanooga in October and November of 1863 (still under Ross but Ferguson`s Cavalry Brigade also went along on this Expedition) and they were still under Ross during the Battle of Moscow, TN on 4 Dec 1863 to help screen Maj. General Nathan Bedford Forrest into middle Tennessee where he could recruit and raise his last Cavalry Division of the War. They were also listed as being with Ross during Sherman`s Great Mississippi Expedition (Meridian Campaign) from 3 Feb - 3 Mar 1864. Walsh`s Missouri Battery was also listed as being with them at this time. Just two months later King`s Missouri Battery was still with Ross during the Atlanta Campaign. Capt. John Watie`s South Carolina battery was the primary battery attached with Brig. General Samuel Wragg Ferguson`s Cavalry Brigade from Sherman`s Great Mississippi Expedition (Meridian Campaign) and through the Atlanta Campaign. So when King`s Missouri battery was mentioned as being under Ferguson it was probably to support Watie`s battery, as Ferguson`s Cavalry Brigade was the largest in William Hicks Jackson`s Cavalry Division, much larger than either Ross` or Armstrong`s brigades which were also divisioned under Jackson.

You asked specifically; "After traveling so many diverse miles to reach this point, then to be positioned within almost shouting distance (obviously not during the commotion of battle) would the infantry and artillery have had a chance to visit?" The answer would be yes, they would be able to walk behind the lines of Confederate entrenchments and breastworks and visit each other, if they were aware that they were that close. The Federals were shelling and cannonading the Confederate Lines and had their snipers out to try and shoot the ones who were most exposed, but they could still carefully move about with behind the lines with caution. You also have to take into consideration that for the entire month of June 1864, Atlanta and its environs was hindered by torrential downpours, at one point it rained for two weeks straight, so both the Federals and Confederates were somewhat confined to limited movement, some of the men of the 29th Regiment Alabama Infantry complained that neither man nor beast could move freely about along the roads at this time without sinking up to their neck in mud, which made them susceptible to snipers if they tried. So they were at their positions at Kennesaw and Marietta for quite some time.
 
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The drawing of the Confederates “dragging “ the cannons up Kennesaw Mountain is more far fetched than it has appeared in history.
Back around the mid 70’s the chief historian and the other historian there kept reading the reports and then tried to match the timeline as when General French had his artillery at the crest of the mountain. The timeline did not match up. There had to be another way for them to reach the summit in that faster timeline.
The historians and another college student that was working there delved deeper into this event. Sure enough after seeing winter time photos taken over the mountain it showed something unique and surprising. There is a road that leads to the crest. They began to walk that ground and found evidence of that road. The harden path, rocks supporting the lower edge of the road where it would not wash away.
Finally the timeline met the reports of of the Confederate reports. If you happen to visit the park today, you can ask the historian there about that road which was discovered. So, the picture which attempts to show them drawing the cannons up by rope.....well it’s just part of the war that that strengthens the true fact of what really happened.
I have walked that road bed a few times myself back in the later 70’s with those people that researched and found the road. Once you know where it’s at, it kind of easy to see it. Just one of those neat and fascinating facts brought forth way after the war.
 

Chattahooch33

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The drawing of the Confederates “dragging “ the cannons up Kennesaw Mountain is more far fetched than it has appeared in history.
Back around the mid 70’s the chief historian and the other historian there kept reading the reports and then tried to match the timeline as when General French had his artillery at the crest of the mountain. The timeline did not match up. There had to be another way for them to reach the summit in that faster timeline.
The historians and another college student that was working there delved deeper into this event. Sure enough after seeing winter time photos taken over the mountain it showed something unique and surprising. There is a road that leads to the crest. They began to walk that ground and found evidence of that road. The harden path, rocks supporting the lower edge of the road where it would not wash away.
Finally the timeline met the reports of of the Confederate reports. If you happen to visit the park today, you can ask the historian there about that road which was discovered. So, the picture which attempts to show them drawing the cannons up by rope.....well it’s just part of the war that that strengthens the true fact of what really happened.
I have walked that road bed a few times myself back in the later 70’s with those people that researched and found the road. Once you know where it’s at, it kind of easy to see it. Just one of those neat and fascinating facts brought forth way after the war.

@CheathamHill
 

bdtex

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The drawing of the Confederates “dragging “ the cannons up Kennesaw Mountain is more far fetched than it has appeared in history.
Back around the mid 70’s the chief historian and the other historian there kept reading the reports and then tried to match the timeline as when General French had his artillery at the crest of the mountain. The timeline did not match up. There had to be another way for them to reach the summit in that faster timeline.
The historians and another college student that was working there delved deeper into this event. Sure enough after seeing winter time photos taken over the mountain it showed something unique and surprising. There is a road that leads to the crest. They began to walk that ground and found evidence of that road. The harden path, rocks supporting the lower edge of the road where it would not wash away.
Finally the timeline met the reports of of the Confederate reports. If you happen to visit the park today, you can ask the historian there about that road which was discovered. So, the picture which attempts to show them drawing the cannons up by rope.....well it’s just part of the war that that strengthens the true fact of what really happened.
I have walked that road bed a few times myself back in the later 70’s with those people that researched and found the road. Once you know where it’s at, it kind of easy to see it. Just one of those neat and fascinating facts brought forth way after the war.
Good stuff there. Not to get this thread off-topic, but walking a wartime road is a pretty cool thing.
 
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Jan 29, 2019
The drawing of the Confederates “dragging “ the cannons up Kennesaw Mountain is more far fetched than it has appeared in history.
Back around the mid 70’s the chief historian and the other historian there kept reading the reports and then tried to match the timeline as when General French had his artillery at the crest of the mountain. The timeline did not match up. There had to be another way for them to reach the summit in that faster timeline.

From what I understand French was only able to position two small batteries up on top of Little Kennesaw Mountain, those two batteries being Capt. Henry Guibor`s Missouri Battery and Capt. John J. Ward`s Alabama Battery. Major George S. Storrs was ordered by French to look at the possibility of getting guns and artillery pieces up on both Kennesaw and Little Kennesaw. Storrs felt that it would be a difficult task to accomplish because of the terrain, but up on Little Kennesaw he reported that he found a natural platform on top that would support about 20 guns at about 600 feet of elevation. Brig. General Randall L. Gibson`s brigade provided the manpower to haul up ammunition and dig the gun emplacements on 20 Jun 1864. Storrs was only able to place 9 guns up on that platform on Little Kennesaw and did so on 21 Jun 1864. He was only able to get a couple of pieces up on Kennesaw at a lower elevation. Capt. James A. Hoskins` Mississippi Battery was placed on Pigeon Hill.
 
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From what I understand French was only able to position two small batteries up on top of Little Kennesaw Mountain, those two batteries being Capt. Henry Guibor`s Missouri Battery and Capt. John J. Ward`s Alabama Battery. Major George S. Storrs was ordered by French to look at the possibility of getting guns and artillery pieces up on both Kennesaw and Little Kennesaw. Storrs felt that it would be a difficult task to accomplish because of the terrain, but up on Little Kennesaw he reported that he found a natural platform on top that would support about 20 guns at about 600 feet of elevation. Brig. General Randall L. Gibson`s brigade provided the manpower to haul up ammunition and dig the gun emplacements on 20 Jun 1864. Storrs was only able to place 9 guns up on that platform on Little Kennesaw and did so on 21 Jun 1864. He was only able to get a couple of pieces up on Kennesaw at a lower elevation. Capt. James A. Hoskins` Mississippi Battery was placed on Pigeon Hill.
Totally a different set of situation on Little Kennesaw. Here is where getting the artillery on the peak of that hill or mountain if that’s a better term was much harder. There wasn’t a road that lead to the very top. Even today that mountain is still rough and rocky. We use to call it Rattlesnake Hill because of the rock outcropping all over the place.
Here! I think could well represent the drawing or sketch of pulling the cannons up by rope that is picture which everyone sees in history books. Not as servers as it is depicted as you yourself can witness there were way better routes to the top as that picture depicts.
Pigeon Hill was a more gentle grade of the three from where no such rocky, hard terrain was confronted to bring artillery to the top.
 
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From what I understand French was only able to position two small batteries up on top of Little Kennesaw Mountain, those two batteries being Capt. Henry Guibor`s Missouri Battery and Capt. John J. Ward`s Alabama Battery. Major George S. Storrs was ordered by French to look at the possibility of getting guns and artillery pieces up on both Kennesaw and Little Kennesaw. Storrs felt that it would be a difficult task to accomplish because of the terrain, but up on Little Kennesaw he reported that he found a natural platform on top that would support about 20 guns at about 600 feet of elevation. Brig. General Randall L. Gibson`s brigade provided the manpower to haul up ammunition and dig the gun emplacements on 20 Jun 1864. Storrs was only able to place 9 guns up on that platform on Little Kennesaw and did so on 21 Jun 1864. He was only able to get a couple of pieces up on Kennesaw at a lower elevation. Capt. James A. Hoskins` Mississippi Battery was placed on Pigeon Hill.

Is this also sourced from Hess' book, or is there another possible source?
 
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Is this also sourced from Hess' book, or is there another possible source?

Yes, Hess speaks about it in great detail on page 22 of his book. I verified it also through the OR as recorded in the War of the Rebellion. Another great source would be the book: "Hold at All Hazards, the Story of the 29th Alabama Infantry, 1861-1865" by William A. Zorn. He did quite a bit of research regarding Kennesaw Mountain as published in his body of work.
 

CheathamHill

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There were several Indian/Native trails that evolved from wildlife trails on Big Kennesaw, Little Kennesaw, the Spur and Pigeon Hill. Evidence of thousands of years of native occupation can still be seen with the naked eye throughout the park if you know where to look including evidence of a settlement within the Cheatham Hill boundaries and burials on both mtns.
 
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