Appalachia county secession vote map 1860-1861

16thVA

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I've been trying to think of a way to do this map using the modern Appalachian Regional Commission definition of "Appalachia" (pork version), and the various county votes from the states within southern Appalachia and I decided to use the old US Coast Survey of slavery and super-imposed an outline boundary using the ARC definition. It is a little wobbly in the deep south due to some county boundary changes but I think it is pretty accurate.

As only two states, Virginia and Tennessee, validated secession by public vote it is the public vote I used for those states. The other states left by convention, North Carolina and South Carolina being unanimous, and I was lucky enough to find the convention publications for Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. In counties where the majority of delegates voted one way or the other I called that county for the majority. In counties where the delegate vote was split I designated them "Divided". Three counties in Tennessee had no information on their votes.

Of course, if North Carolina had allowed a public vote we would probably see a different outcome on their counties, but they didn't, so I had to go with what was. The numbers you see within the counties, if you can read them, show the percentage of that county's enslaved population.

Here is the VERY LARGE version



This is a smaller version

16712778426_4d5e7163fb_b.jpg
 

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leftyhunter

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I've been trying to think of a way to do this map using the modern Appalachian Regional Commission definition of "Appalachia" (pork version), and the various county votes from the states within southern Appalachia and I decided to use the old US Coast Survey of slavery and super-imposed an outline boundary using the ARC definition. It is a little wobbly in the deep south due to some county boundary changes but I think it is pretty accurate.

As only two states, Virginia and Tennessee, validated secession by public vote it is the public vote I used for those states. The other states left by convention, North Carolina and South Carolina being unanimous, and I was lucky enough to find the convention publications for Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. In counties where the majority of delegates voted one way or the other I called that county for the majority. In counties where the delegate vote was split I designated them "Divided". Three counties in Tennessee had no information on their votes.

Of course, if North Carolina had allowed a public vote we would probably see a different outcome on their counties, but they didn't, so I had to go with what was. The numbers you see within the counties, if you can read them, show the percentage of that county's enslaved population.

Here is the VERY LARGE version



This is a smaller version

16712778426_4d5e7163fb_b.jpg
The book "The south bitterly divided by Professor Williams argues that their was quite a bit of voter intimidation by Confederates against does opposed to secession plus Margret Storeys book Loyalty and Loss the story of Alabama's Unionists argues the same. Its hard to say what states voter truly wanted to succeed vs which ones did not.
Maybe a better way to look at each state is by county. Some counties in the South had more Union enlistments i.e Washington County Nc and Winston County Al vs most Southern Counties had more CSA enlistment. On the the other hand their where harsh penalties in the South for not enlisting. Some Southern counties had quite a few Unionist guerrillas such has Jones County Ms and the counties in the North of Al and the Wiregrass region of Al. Has a general rule the less slaves per -capita the more resistance to the CSA and the more slaves the more likely men would join the CSA. A complex subject at best.
Leftyhunter
 
Last edited:

Al Murray

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I've been trying to think of a way to do this map using the modern Appalachian Regional Commission definition of "Appalachia" (pork version), and the various county votes from the states within southern Appalachia and I decided to use the old US Coast Survey of slavery and super-imposed an outline boundary using the ARC
Very nice! Great work as usual!

The book "The south bitterly divided by Professor Williams
This is a great book. I loved it.
 

CSA Today

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I've been trying to think of a way to do this map using the modern Appalachian Regional Commission definition of "Appalachia" (pork version), and the various county votes from the states within southern Appalachia and I decided to use the old US Coast Survey of slavery and super-imposed an outline boundary using the ARC definition. It is a little wobbly in the deep south due to some county boundary changes but I think it is pretty accurate.

As only two states, Virginia and Tennessee, validated secession by public vote it is the public vote I used for those states. The other states left by convention, North Carolina and South Carolina being unanimous, and I was lucky enough to find the convention publications for Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. In counties where the majority of delegates voted one way or the other I called that county for the majority. In counties where the delegate vote was split I designated them "Divided". Three counties in Tennessee had no information on their votes.

Of course, if North Carolina had allowed a public vote we would probably see a different outcome on their counties, but they didn't, so I had to go with what was. The numbers you see within the counties, if you can read them, show the percentage of that county's enslaved population.

Here is the VERY LARGE version



This is a smaller version

16712778426_4d5e7163fb_b.jpg
North Carolina unionists called for a convention to consider secession in February 1861. They thought they had the delegate strength to stifle any secession movement but lost their nerve when a number of conditional unionist started to go over the secessionists. They cancelled the convention and called for a state wide referendum instead. On February 28 the unionists won a narrow victory (47,323 to 46,672) thus ending the secessionist movement until Lincoln’s call for troops after the firing on Fort Sumter.
 

16thVA

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leftyhunter

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Very nice! Great work as usual!



This is a great book. I loved it.
Hi Al,
I am currently reading a book Licolnites and rebels "about the most divided town in the South :Knoxville, Tn. One of the Newspapers in Knoxville " the Register" argued that of all the four presidential candidates only Breckendridge is truely committed to preserving the Union and does not represent a sectional party. Therefore it is more then likely some who voted for Breckendridge did serve in the Union Army or has Unionist guerrillas or militia.
Leftyhunter
 

NedBaldwin

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Hi Al,
I am currently reading a book Licolnites and rebels "about the most divided town in the South :Knoxville, Tn. One of the Newspapers in Knoxville " the Register" argued that of all the four presidential candidates only Breckendridge is truely committed to preserving the Union and does not represent a sectional party. Therefore it is more then likely some who voted for Breckendridge did serve in the Union Army or has Unionist guerrillas or militia.
Leftyhunter
I would bet that Andrew Johnson voted for Breckenridge.
 

Al Murray

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I would bet that Andrew Johnson voted for Breckenridge
:D ironic!

Yes, I looked at the map out of curiosity but since Texas wasn't part of Appalachia
Until I watched Kenneth Noe's video I did not realize what the ARC had done. Sorry, ARC, that ain't Appalachia. 16thVA I would love to see you someday expand that map to include at least the central Pa counties. I will have to do some reading and decide for myself what "Appalachia" would mean (I thought I knew) but its not that ARC boundary. Not criticizing your work at all, I am bashing the ARC!

As an aside, the "Mason-Dixon Line" is so over discussed as to be almost a Civil War myth. An 18th century survey to settle a boundary has nothing to do with what we talk about as north and south. North-central PA is as culturally south as eastern KY (but enough of my ranting) :smile coffee:
 

kepi

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I've been trying to think of a way to do this map using the modern Appalachian Regional Commission definition of "Appalachia" (pork version), and the various county votes from the states within southern Appalachia and I decided to use the old US Coast Survey of slavery and super-imposed an outline boundary using the ARC definition. It is a little wobbly in the deep south due to some county boundary changes but I think it is pretty accurate.

As only two states, Virginia and Tennessee, validated secession by public vote it is the public vote I used for those states. The other states left by convention, North Carolina and South Carolina being unanimous, and I was lucky enough to find the convention publications for Alabama, Georgia and Mississippi. In counties where the majority of delegates voted one way or the other I called that county for the majority. In counties where the delegate vote was split I designated them "Divided". Three counties in Tennessee had no information on their votes.

Of course, if North Carolina had allowed a public vote we would probably see a different outcome on their counties, but they didn't, so I had to go with what was. The numbers you see within the counties, if you can read them, show the percentage of that county's enslaved population.

Here is the VERY LARGE version



This is a smaller version

16712778426_4d5e7163fb_b.jpg
This is truly fascinating!!!
One thing I must point out about Mississippi is some of the secession convention delegates were intimidated into changing their votes to favor secession. I believe most of these changes were in the northeastern section and along the coast/southern portion of the state. Still, this is a very informative map.
 

KLSDAD

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Hi Al,
I am currently reading a book Licolnites and rebels "about the most divided town in the South :Knoxville, Tn. One of the Newspapers in Knoxville " the Register" argued that of all the four presidential candidates only Breckendridge is truely committed to preserving the Union and does not represent a sectional party. Therefore it is more then likely some who voted for Breckendridge did serve in the Union Army or has Unionist guerrillas or militia.
Leftyhunter
Don't mean to be snarky but I wouldn't put much stock in a newspaper's "argument"...especially back then. Does the book flesh out that argument?
 

Al Murray

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One of the Newspapers in Knoxville " the Register" argued that of all the four presidential candidates only Breckendridge is truely committed to preserving the Union and does not represent a sectional party.
I wouldn't put much stock in a newspaper's "argument"...especially back then. Does the book flesh out that argument?
I agree that the newspaper would have its own slant. Even that slant gives me something to think about. If the northwestern Virginians were reading editorials like that it might answer my question. Thanks.
 

CSA Today

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kepi

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Surprisingly, according to the map, Arkansas appears every bit committed to secession as South Carolina. As for North Carolina, the map is accurate in showing unionism strongest in the North West Mountains of the state. I do find it hard to believe that Alabama was the first or second most pro-union state in the South

I'm not 100% sure where they got the information in that blog.
 

kepi

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Surprisingly, according to the map, Arkansas appears every bit committed to secession as South Carolina. As for North Carolina, the map is accurate in showing unionism strongest in the North West Mountains of the state. I do find it hard to believe that Alabama was the first or second most pro-union state in the South
In looking closer at that map, the area shaded in black for Alabama isn’t good land for large-scale agriculture, so I can see where the Planters wouldn’t have as much political influence there. Still, it is strange to think of Alabama in the way you describe.

Arkansas is a mystery.
 

KLSDAD

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I agree that the newspaper would have its own slant. Even that slant gives me something to think about. If the northwestern Virginians were reading editorials like that it might answer my question. Thanks.
I'm sincerely interested in that argument....... that Breckenridge was more committed to preserving the union than Lincoln. That would sure set some heads around here spinning!
 


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