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USS ALASKA

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Naval War College Review
Volume 66
Number 2 Spring Article 8
2013

Maritime Commerce Warfare: The Coercive Response of the Weak?
by Douglas C. Peifer

This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Journals at U.S. Naval War College Digital Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Naval War College Review by an authorized editor of U.S. Naval War College Digital Commons. For more information, please contact repository.inquiries@usnwc.edu.

The American Civil War served as a test of whether a strategy of guerre de course was sustainable in the age of steam. On 12 April 1861 Confederate batteries on Morris Island in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina, transformed a political confrontation into an armed rebellion by firing the opening shots of the Civil War against Fort Sumter, held by a Federal garrison. Three days later, Abraham Lincoln responded by calling seventy-five thousand state militia into Federal service, prompting Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee to secede from the Union.36 On 17 April, President Jefferson Davis of the newly declared Confederate States of America escalated the conflict by inviting “all those who may desire, by service in private-armed vessels on the high seas, to aid this Government in resisting so wanton and wicked an aggression, to make application for commissions or letters of marque and reprisal to be issued under the seal of these Confederate States.”37 Davis had instinctively resorted to the sole offensive naval strategy available to the weak. Commerce warfare had served the rebellious American colonies well in the War of Independence against Britain and had vexed Britain sorely in the renewed conflict of 1812–15.

https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1372&context=nwc-review
626

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USS ALASKA

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The Confederacy was Green and the forerunner of the Earth Liberation Front (ELF) or practicing Ecotage before it was cool...just kidding... :wink:

Bridgewater State University
Virtual Commons - Bridgewater State University
Honors Program Theses and Projects Undergraduate Honors Program
5-9-2017

A Compact with the Whales: Confederate Commerce Raiders and New Bedford’s Whaling Industry 1861-1865
by Mark Mello

This item is available as part of Virtual Commons, the open-access institutional repository of Bridgewater State University, Bridgewater, Massachusetts.

Many historians argue that the American Civil War was one of the leading causes of the decline of the American whaling industry, and perhaps the most destructive forces were Confederate commerce raiders. These did more to inflict damage upon this industry than any
other occurrence during the war. A case study focusing on the city of New Bedford is the clearest and most sensible way to illustrate this. Since New Bedford was the hub of whaling industry and the home of well over half of the whaling fleet, this city best represents the effectiveness of the commerce raiders on the industry as a whole. The CSS Sumter, CSS Alabama, and the CSS Shenandoah single-handedly did the most to lead the whaling industry into its dying days.


https://vc.bridgew.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1226&context=honors_proj

...and the whole oil revolution may have had something to do with it also...
672

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wausaubob

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The authorization of private and Confederate commerce raiders was not well thought out. It was a direct threat to New York merchants who otherwise might have been secessionist allies. I suppose Davis thought they would be intimidated. That was an easy miscalculation. It was harder to predict that the Yankee merchants would sell the ships to British owners, to re-flag the vessels. That was a windfall for Britain and made them happy to have a US war for a few years. Not a brilliant move by a person who had little understanding of international law and a weak understanding of British power.
 

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Naval War College Review
Volume 32
Number 2 February Article 8
1979

Admiral Samuel F. Du Pont, the Navy Department, and the Attack on Charleston, April 1863
by Gerald S. Henig

This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Journals at U.S. Naval War College Digital Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Naval War College Review by an authorized editor of U.S. Naval War College Digital Commons. For more information, please contact repository.inquiries@usnwc.edu.

https://digital-commons.usnwc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5381&context=nwc-review
777

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Confederate guerrillas and Union Vessels...

"The Hard Hand of War on the Western Waters"
by Robert Gudmestad
Colorado State University
To be presented at the Filson Historical Society's Hard War Conference

This small incident reveals much about a larger war. First, specific features of the natural and built environments became locations of particular violence. Confederate guerrillas gathered at "the point" because Union gunboats and transports were vulnerable as they slowed down to round the spit of land. But every good turn deserves another: puncturing the levee was a way to use natural forces against southern guerrillas and civilians. The landscape -- whether relatively natural or dramatically modified by humans -- became something to manipulate or to deploy against the enemy. Second, both sides tried to control access to, and the production and distribution of, the products of the land. For the Confederacy, sinking Union transports could deprive northern soldiers of necessary calories. Northern boats destroyed key sections of the levee in order to flood valuable farmland and destroy southern crops. The Union navy also made huge efforts to tamp down the cross-Mississippi movement of supplies and shut down illegal trade along the western waters. Fourth, Confederate partisans provoked the Union Navy into reprisals that dragged civilians into the conflict. Setting fire to an entire town would certainly punish residents who did not support partisan activity and it's suggestive of how frustrated the navy had become by early 1863 in its attempt to sheer off support for partisans. Thus the Union's hard war was a consequence of this environmental struggle and the northern brownwater navy was crucial in making southern civilians feel the hard hand of war.

http://filsonhistorical.org/wp-content/uploads/Gudmestad-Robert-The-Hard-Hand-of-War-on-the-Western-Waters.pdf
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USS ALASKA

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College of William and Mary
W&M ScholarWorks
Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects Theses, Dissertations, & Master Projects
2012

Ironclad Revolution: The History, Discovery and Recovery of the USS Monitor
by Anna Gibson Holloway

College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences
This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses, Dissertations, & Master Projects at W&M ScholarWorks. It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects by an authorized administrator of W&M ScholarWorks. For more information, please contact scholarworks@wm.edu.

ABSTRACT PAGE
On the afternoon of March 8, 1862, the Confederate ironclad ram Virginia, built upon the burned-out hulk of the steam screw frigate Merrimack, crawled slowly into Hampton Roads to challenge the Union blockade of the Confederate coastline. Before nightfall, the Virginia had wreaked havoc upon the Union blockading fleet: the USS Cumberland lay at the bottom of the Roads, her flags still defiantly flying while the surrendered USS Congress blazed ominously in the harbor until exploding spectacularly in the early morning hours of March 9. The USS Monitor-a vessel of a radical new design and completely untried in battle-arrived too late to make a difference on the 8th, but met the Virginia on the morning of the 9th in a contest that signaled the first time ironclad had met ironclad in combat. While their four-and-a-half-hour battle ended in a draw, it changed much of the future course of naval warfare. Within days of the engagement, navies around the world were declaring an end to wooden construction and moving forward with their own ironclad building programs-many of which predated both the Monitor and the Virginia. Furthermore, the Monitor's rotating gun turret design freed vessels from the strictures of broadside tactics by allowing the guns, rather than the entire vessel, to be turned, and ushered in a new element of battleship design. Neither the Virginia nor the Monitor lived out that year, however. The Virginia was destroyed in May of 1862 by her own crew to keep her from enemy hands, while the Monitor succumbed to a nor'easter on New Year's Eve off the coast of Cape Hatteras. Discovered in 1973, the Monitor was designated a National Marine Sanctuary in 1975 under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Since 1987, The Mariners' Museum in Newport News, VA has served as the principal repository for artifacts recovered from the wrecksite and is currently conserving over 210 tons of the Union ironclad in the Batten Conservation Complex. This dissertation serves as the text for the catalogue of the award-winning exhibition, Ironclad
Revolution, which opened at The Mariners' Museum in 2007. The author serves as curator of the USS Monitor Center. Drawing from artwork, archival material and the recovered artifacts themselves, this work seeks to tell the full story of the Monitor: her history, discovery, recovery, and conservation.


https://scholarworks.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3382&context=etd
864

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USS ALASKA

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DaveBrt

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The Confederate States Navy Yard at Charlotte, N.C., 1862-1865
by Violet G. Alexander
1910

A collection newspaper articles written by Violet Alexander in June 1910.
Work is in public domain

http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/USN/Navy/confederatestate00alex.pdf
915

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The iron plaque is no longer found in public. It may be stored in the library, but it is not on display.

The Alexander family is among the oldest in Mecklenburg County, with the 1774 stone home being the oldest standing home in the county (National Register in 1970).

The home that Miss Alexander knew was built in 1903 and is restored and used as a wedding venue, still owned by the Alexander family.

1774 AH.JPG


1903 AH.jpg
 

Blessmag

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Collection; Master of Military Art and Science Theses
Title; Adaptation of the vessels of the Western Gunboat Flotilla to the circumstances of riverine warfare during the American Civil War.
Author; Budd, Nicholas F.

Abstract; This study investigates the adaptation and purpose-built construction of the vessels used by the Federal government to conduct riverine warfare on the waters of the American Mississippi River drainage basin. The study concentrates on the technology, geography, hydrography, and convention which shaped the construction of the vessels comprising the Federal Western Gunboat Flotilla; an organization which after October 1862 became the United States Navy Mississippi Squadron. The ability of an organization to adapt its equipment to conditions encountered during wartime is often a contributing factor in ultimate victory or defeat. During the Civil War, the process adopted by the Navy to adapt and furnish vessels for its riverine force was flawed. This study emphasizes these facts and explores the response of the Navy chain of command to lessons learned in combat about the vulnerabilities of the vessels of the Western Gunboat Flotilla. The study is not intended as a treatise on tactics or the organization of the United States Navy. However, it does address both with regard to their effect on the performance and adaptation of the vessels of the Western Gunboat Flotilla.

Series; Command and General Staff College (CGSC) MMAS thesis
Publisher; Fort Leavenworth, KS : US Army Command and General Staff College,
Date; Original 1997-06-06
Date; Digital 2007
Call number; ADA 331530
Release statement; Approved for public release; Distribution is unlimited. The opinions and conclusions expressed herein are those of the student-authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College or any other governmental agency. (References to these studies should include the foregoing statement.)
Repository; Combined Arms Research Library
Library; Combined Arms Research Library Digital Library
Date created; 2007-04-20
387

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Just quickly scanned this report. It is not complete in my mind. Does not mentioned U.S.S. Queen City as sunk in the appendix. It was sunk at Clarendon Arkansas. Or I am misunderstanding purpose of this report.
 

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Colby College
Digital Commons @ Colby
Honors Theses Student Research
2013

When the Confederates Terrorized Maine: The Battle of Portland Harbor
by Carter Stevens

Colby College theses are protected by copyright. They may be viewed or downloaded from this site for the purposes of research and scholarship. Reproduction or distribution for commercial purposes is prohibited without written permission of the author.
This Honors Thesis (Open Access) is brought to you for free and open access by the Student Research at Digital Commons @ Colby. It has been accepted for inclusion in Honors Theses by an authorized administrator of Digital Commons @ Colby. For more information, please contact enrhodes@colby.edu.

Saturday, June 27, 1863, dawned brightly over Portland, Maine. As the city’s residents began to go about their weekend business, they suddenly realized that the Caleb Cushing, the United States Revenue Cutter (U.S.R.C.) which had been stationed in Portland Harbor on and off again since 1853, was missing. Rumors flew about a traitorous Southerner on board, the work of pirates on the coast, and more. Before the day was over, the revenue cutter would be destroyed and the Casco Bay area would be transformed forever, a victim of one of the northernmost events of the Civil War on the periphery.

Although the “Battle of Portland Harbor” was a minor and peripheral event in the larger course of the war, for the New Englanders who experienced it, it represented a moment just as terrifying and important as any could imagine on the front lines. Other events on the Civil War’s periphery, including the Saint Alban’s Raid and bank robbery in Vermont, inspired similar feelings of fear and a sense of significance for the civilians and home guardsmen who participated in them. This battle represents an example of this war on the periphery, the power of newspapers to stir up panic and generate anxiety on the Union home front, and the tense divide which existed during the Civil War between private citizens and business on the one hand and the military and federal government on the other.

https://digitalcommons.colby.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1710&context=honorstheses
976

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Lubliner

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College of William and Mary
W&M ScholarWorks
Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects Theses, Dissertations, & Master Projects
2012

Ironclad Revolution: The History, Discovery and Recovery of the USS Monitor
by Anna Gibson Holloway

College of William & Mary - Arts & Sciences
This Dissertation is brought to you for free and open access by the Theses, Dissertations, & Master Projects at W&M ScholarWorks. It has been accepted for inclusion in Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects by an authorized administrator of W&M ScholarWorks. For more information, please contact scholarworks@wm.edu.

ABSTRACT PAGE
On the afternoon of March 8, 1862, the Confederate ironclad ram Virginia, built upon the burned-out hulk of the steam screw frigate Merrimack, crawled slowly into Hampton Roads to challenge the Union blockade of the Confederate coastline. Before nightfall, the Virginia had wreaked havoc upon the Union blockading fleet: the USS Cumberland lay at the bottom of the Roads, her flags still defiantly flying while the surrendered USS Congress blazed ominously in the harbor until exploding spectacularly in the early morning hours of March 9. The USS Monitor-a vessel of a radical new design and completely untried in battle-arrived too late to make a difference on the 8th, but met the Virginia on the morning of the 9th in a contest that signaled the first time ironclad had met ironclad in combat. While their four-and-a-half-hour battle ended in a draw, it changed much of the future course of naval warfare. Within days of the engagement, navies around the world were declaring an end to wooden construction and moving forward with their own ironclad building programs-many of which predated both the Monitor and the Virginia. Furthermore, the Monitor's rotating gun turret design freed vessels from the strictures of broadside tactics by allowing the guns, rather than the entire vessel, to be turned, and ushered in a new element of battleship design. Neither the Virginia nor the Monitor lived out that year, however. The Virginia was destroyed in May of 1862 by her own crew to keep her from enemy hands, while the Monitor succumbed to a nor'easter on New Year's Eve off the coast of Cape Hatteras. Discovered in 1973, the Monitor was designated a National Marine Sanctuary in 1975 under the auspices of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Since 1987, The Mariners' Museum in Newport News, VA has served as the principal repository for artifacts recovered from the wrecksite and is currently conserving over 210 tons of the Union ironclad in the Batten Conservation Complex. This dissertation serves as the text for the catalogue of the award-winning exhibition, Ironclad
Revolution, which opened at The Mariners' Museum in 2007. The author serves as curator of the USS Monitor Center. Drawing from artwork, archival material and the recovered artifacts themselves, this work seeks to tell the full story of the Monitor: her history, discovery, recovery, and conservation.


https://scholarworks.wm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3382&context=etd
864

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I am really prompted to reply here on this Thesis. I have given furtive glances over many of the attachments revealing Master's Degree participants, and have found a lack of any attractive personality due to 'just the fact' comprehensive reports. I feel I am reading a whitewashed wall after a while, where I see no authorship nor present personage making any clear admission of him/her/self. It is a straitjacketed system of immense pressure these graduates undergo, I am sure, and I cannot blame them for being at fault; only their requirements.
Then along comes someone that does have personality; that can claim a love for the art of presentation, and the facts only as the device (gimmick) for selling the product to the audience. I have found such detail in few authors that can hold an interest in the heart as easily as in the mind, and believe this Thesis, or treatise to be so. I hope I shall not be disappointed. Thanks,
Lubliner.
 

DaveBrt

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I am really prompted to reply here on this Thesis. I have given furtive glances over many of the attachments revealing Master's Degree participants, and have found a lack of any attractive personality due to 'just the fact' comprehensive reports. I feel I am reading a whitewashed wall after a while, where I see no authorship nor present personage making any clear admission of him/her/self. It is a straitjacketed system of immense pressure these graduates undergo, I am sure, and I cannot blame them for being at fault; only their requirements.
Then along comes someone that does have personality; that can claim a love for the art of presentation, and the facts only as the device (gimmick) for selling the product to the audience. I have found such detail in few authors that can hold an interest in the heart as easily as in the mind, and believe this Thesis, or treatise to be so. I hope I shall not be disappointed. Thanks,
Lubliner.
My younger daughter studied for a doctorate in Biology at Penn State. Her grades and lab work were excellent, but she was marked down repeatedly because her writings were too interesting and easy to read (the fault of having an English minor in college). The rules were to be followed and don't try to make it interesting!

After two years, she took a Masters and left the program. She is now the head of the Science Department at a large and highly regarded private school (K-12) in Maryland. Her students and parents love her because she makes science so interesting.
 
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Lubliner

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My younger daughter studied for a doctorate in Biology at Penn State. Her grades and lab work were excellent, but she was marked down repeatedly because her writings were too interesting and easy to read (the fault of having an English minor in college). The rules were to be followed and don't try to make it interesting!

After two years, she took a Masters and left the program. She is now the head of the Science Department at a large and highly regarded private school (K-12) in Maryland. Her students and parents love her because she makes science so interesting.
Well @DaveBrt, I am glad I am not the only one. All my advanced education experience was brought to naught by them trying to 'put the fork into the other hand', and my rebel soul said, 'But I only have one mouth...not yours.' So needless to say by skipping a final I satisfied the Bell Curve. No 'driver' wants to see a spike in the middle of the road. Didn't go well, and I am glad to know the figurehead of Abraham Lincoln proves my point. No better eloquence other than Shakespeare have I found.
Lubliner.
 

USS ALASKA

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University of South Carolina
Scholar Commons
Faculty & Staff Publications Archaeology and Anthropology, South Carolina
Institute of
3-2004

A Management Plan For Known and Potential United States Navy Shipwrecks in South Carolina
James D. Spirek
University of South Carolina - Columbia, spirekj@mailbox.sc.edu

Christopher F. Amer
University of South Carolina - Columbia, amerc@mailbox.sc.edu

This Book is brought to you by the Archaeology and Anthropology, South Carolina Institute of at Scholar Commons. It has been accepted for inclusion in Faculty & Staff Publications by an authorized administrator of Scholar Commons. For more information, please contact dillarda@mailbox.sc.edu.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
This report, A Management Plan For Known and Potential United States Navy Shipwrecks in South Carolina, presents the results of a multi-year study that partnered the Maritime Research Division (MRD) of the South Carolina Institute of Archaeology and Anthropology (SCIAA) at the University of South Carolina (USC) with the Naval Historical Center (NHC) in Washington, DC. The project, as outlined in a memorandum of agreement dated 2 September, 1998, was conducted in two phases. The first phase called for compiling historical and cultural data of United States Navy vessels lost in South Carolina waters to document the losses and subsequent wreck history of each vessel. The resultant information was then used to update the NHC’s database of shipwrecks in or near state waters claimed by the Navy to more accurately reflect the status of the naval shipwrecks in state waters.

The second phase of the project included conducting remote sensing operations on a limited number of shipwreck sites and areas of naval activities, primarily from the Civil War. The primary area of operation for this phase was the Charleston area, and included surveys of USS Patapsco, USS Weehawken, and USS Keokuk, as well as the site of USS Housatonic. A second area of survey was Port Royal Sound, which was another center of naval activity between 1861 and 1865. During those years, the Union forces used areas of the Sound to supply and repair ships of the South Atlantic Blockading Squadron. Several areas of the Sound and its approaches were magnetically and acoustically surveyed and a number of magnetic and acoustic anomalies were ground-truthed to determine their source. Additionally, two shipwrecks were documented, one previously located wreck and one newly-discovered site, thought to be a US Navy-owned whaling ship. A third survey area was in the ACE Basin (Ashepoo-Combahee-Edisto Rivers) to gather information about two Civil War vessels, USS Dai Ching, a navy gunboat, and USS Boston, an army transport. The fourth area centered on the Civil War wreck of the USS Harvest Moon, a navy vessel, sunk by a torpedo in Winyah Bay. This information was documented in a geographic information system (GIS) database format and presented in Chapter Seven of this report.

The report begins with the updated inventory of US Navy wrecks in South Carolina. Using criteria developed by MRD staff, the list of shipwrecks claimed by the Navy was reduced from 96 to 46 vessels. Each of the remaining 50 shipwrecks falls into one of four categories--US Navy vessels outside state waters, Confederate vessels, US Army transports, South Carolina Navy vessels, and foreign flag vessels, vessels from the latter three categories being located within the state’s Territorial Sea. Tables of these shipwrecks are provided as appendices. A brief history of the United States naval presence in South Carolina follows, including the establishment of strategic naval installations at Port Royal and Charleston. Historical research resulted in the presentation of historic and cultural information on each vessel, or in the case of the two Stone Fleets, each group of vessels. That information is followed by analyses of the inventory using such factors as historical periods of sinking, causes of loss, geographical distribution of loss, environmental situation, and potential natural and cultural threats to aid in determining the historical and archaeological significance of a navy shipwreck in state waters. Management of US Navy shipwrecks is then addressed, as are field investigations and Geographical Information System analysis of the sites.

Recommendations include: continuing to develop partnerships between NHC and SCIAA to manage Navy shipwrecks in South Carolina waters; continuing fieldwork operations based on priorities set by NHC and SCIAA, including archival and field research at the former Charleston Navy Shipyard and former Port Royal Naval Station; preparing National Register of Historic Places nominations for known shipwrecks; and continuing to build and maintain the GIS database and datasets as information emerges.

https://scholarcommons.sc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1291&context=sciaa_staffpub

File too large to attach - please see above website.
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The Gettysburg Compiler: On the Front Lines of History
Civil War Institute
Summer 6-5-2017

“This Is War”: The Construction of the Laird Rams
by Hannah M. Christensen

Gettysburg College
This open access blog post is brought to you by The Cupola: Scholarship at Gettysburg College. It has been accepted for inclusion by
an authorized administrator of The Cupola. For more information, please contact cupola@gettysburg.edu.

Abstract
By the spring of 1863, American ambassador to England Charles Francis Adams had a much bigger problem than the activities of British-built Confederate raiders on his hands: the construction of two 230-foot long ironclad rams in the Laird shipyard at Birkenhead that evidence suggested were destined for the Confederacy. At 230 feet long and 40 feet wide, with 6-7 foot iron spears at the front, rotating turret batteries, full iron plating, and a top speed of 10 knots, these ships were the Americans’ worst nightmare. Lincoln’s cabinet even considered blatantly ignoring Britain’s “neutrality” and sending a U.S. Navy squadron to destroy the rams, which had been under construction since the previous summer.

https://cupola.gettysburg.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1312&context=compiler
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wausaubob

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They would have prolonged the war. But British entry into the war, even by that means, would have solidified the United States.
The cotton drought would have been prolonged and the consequences in Liverpool and Manchester would have been risky.
 

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CONFEDERATE HISTORICAL ASSOCIATION OF BELGIUM

Submarine Monsters of the Confederacy 1861-1865

1556588131811.png


FOREWARD
When one hears the word “submarine”, the Civil War enthusiast immediately thinks of the Hunley and the Davids, which are quite well-known today. However, when pushing research further, one suddenly discovers that the Confederates designed and built dozens of submarines and torpedo boats in many places throughout the South. I have tried in the following article to be as comprehensive as possible on this subject, which has fascinated me for several years, while taking into account the most recent findings in this field.

http://chab-belgium.com/pdf/english/Submarine monsters.pdf
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