Confederate General James Longstreet; Union General John Gibbon actually manned the cannon during "desperate moments". My source states Union General Israel Richardson was "killed by artillery fire when he was trying to bring up artillery", however I don't believe he was manning the cannons, he was directing them and unfortunately he was killed by artillery fire. https://www.nps.gov/anti/learn/historyculture/arty2.htm
Who even knows what this question means? What is high ranking? Compared to what?
The most senior artillerists in each army were:
Henry J. Hunt was Chief of Artillery, Army of the Potomac.
William N. Pendleton was Chief of Artillery, Army of Northern Virginia.
One LTC, William Hayes, commanded a battalion of artillery in the 5th Corps.
Confederate artillery battalions were commanded by Maj John S. Saunders, Maj Bushrod W. Frobel, Col James B. Walton, Col Stephen D. Lee, Maj Alfred R. Courtney, LTC R. Lindsey Walker, Maj Lindsay M. Shumaker, Maj Scipio Pierson, Col J. Thompson Brown, LTC Allen S. Cutts, Major Hilary P. Jones, and Maj William Nelson. Capt John Pelham commanded the horse artillery.
All other artillery in both armies was commanded by a captain or below.
I hate to admit it, but I don't understand the question
The batteries were commanded by Captains on both sides, they were hardly "high-ranking" officers - and both commanders of the opposing armies were there - MacClellan and Lee ... but they can hardly be called cannoneers.
So I will wait and see what my smarter co-members will answer and learn something new.
I do know that Gen. John Gibbon ended up personally manning cannon of Battery B, 4th US Artillery at the Miller Farm and Gen. James Longstreet assisted as his staff manned cannon of Miller's Artillery on the Piper Farm above the sunken road...
I look at this question and I wonder what the questioner meant by "high-ranking."
I am not aware of any well-acknowledged military definition that draws a line between what ranks may be considered "high-ranking" and what ones may not. When I was a private E-1 in the Army, I would have considered a corporal to be high-ranking - at least, he was higher ranking than I was.
When I did a search for the term "high-ranking," the first result that came up indicated that a major general should be considered to be high-ranking.
Going with that definition, it appears that the highest ranking artillery officers at the Battle of Antietam were Henry Hunt for the USA and William Pendleton for the CSA, and they were both brigadier generals at the time. I find no artillery officers with a rank as high as major general, so my answer is NONE.
I am not sure what is the intent of the question as to 'high rank'. I am listing those I could find above the rank of captain. BG Henry J. Hunt was the Chief of Artillery of the Army of the Potomac. BG William Nelson Pendleton held that position for the Army of Northern Virginia. Colonels John B. Walton and Stephen D. Lee commanded artillery
battalions i Longstreet's wing and Colonel Stapleton Crutchfield commanded a battalion in Jackson's wing. The Federal Second Corps Artillery was led by Major Francis Clarke, the Sixth Corps Artillery by Lt. Col. William Hays and the Ninth Corps Artillery by Colonel George W. Getty.
The question as written is subject to opinion. General Longstreet and his staff(including Moxley Sorrel) assisted the working of the artillery, so they took part.General William Pendleton was chief of artillery so he probably took part. Colonels Stephen D. Lee and E.P. Alexander were actual artillery commanders so they were present.How many more are needed?