Arms & Artillery - Terrible Tools of War

This forum contains profiles of different Small Arms & Artillery types used during the American Civil War.


Battle of New Market Visitors Center, © Mike Kendra, 11/2013 The Williams Gun was a Confederate gun that was classified as a 1-lb cannon. It was designed by Capt. D.R. Williams, of Covington, Kentucky, who later served as an artillery captain with a battery of his design. It was a breech-loading, rapid-fire cannon that was operated by a hand-crank. The barrel was 4 feet long and 1.57-inch caliber. The hand crank opened the sliding breech which allowed the crew to load a round and cap the primer. As the crank was continued, it closed the breech and automatically released the hammer. The effective range was 800 yards but the maximum range was 2000 yards. ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Breechloading Smoothbore Gun In Service With: C.S. Army Invented By: Capt. David R. Williams Patent: Confederate Patent No. 121, Nov. 5, 1862 Rarity: Very Rare MANUFACTURING Manufactured By: F. B. Deane Jr. & Son, Lynchburg, Virginia Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia Skates & Co, Mobile, Alabama Years of Manufacture: September 1861 to 1863 Tube Composition: Wrought iron Cost in CS Dollars: $325.00 (1862), $900.00 (1863) No. Purchased During the Civil War: 21 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 1.57 inches Tube Length: 4 feet, 0 inches Tube Weight: unknown AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: unknown Projectiles: unknown PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 20 to 65 rounds per minute Effective Range: 800 yards; maximum range: 2000 yards Approximately 40 were made to supply 7 different Confederate batteries. These were made at F. B. Deane Jr. & Son, Lynchburg, Virginia, Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia, and Skates & Co, Mobile, Alabama. At the end of the war, 4 examples of this gun were captured and sent to West Point. The West Point Museum retained one gun. Other examples are now located at Kentucky Military History Museum the Virginia Museum of the Civil War at the New Market Battlefield State Historical Park, and the Watervliet Arsenal Museum. During the early trials of the gun, the Richmond Daily Exchange dated May 20, 1862, reported that: “General Floyd attended a trial of the Williams’ mounted breech-loading rifle, which is claimed will throw twenty balls a minute a distance of fifteen hundred yards". Some sources say it could fire 65 rounds per minute but accuracy was greatly reduced due to the manual loading. The Union troops did not know what the gun was. Some describe it as a rifled cannon. Others reported that it fired nails, probably on account of the noise the projectile made as it tumbled. The Williams Gun was not perfect and the Union had much better rapid-fire weapons than the Confederacy.
A frontal view, -by Bloodofox, Taken 2007 In 1862, a man named John Gilleland, from the little Georgia town of Athens, came up with this inventive, some would say crazy, idea for a double-barrel cannon. Gilleland, a local house builder and mechanic, a Jackson County dentist, a private in Mitchell’s Thunderbolts and an employee of Cook’s Armory, thought that a cannon such as this would serve the defenses of his community, and the needs of the Confederate Army, very well. It's the only known full size double-barrel cannon of its kind in the United States. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: Gilleland's Double-Barrelled Cannon Type: Experimental Muzzleloading Double 6-pdr. Gun In Service With: Lumpkin’s Artillery (Unofficial Rumors) The Town of Athens Purpose: "mow down enemy lines …. like a scythe cutting wheat" Invented By: John Gilleland Current Disposition: Mounted on a Cannon Carriage at Athens City Hall Location: At the corner of College and Hancock Avenues, Athens, Georgia Map Coordinates: 33°57'35.9"N 83°22'34.7"W Rarity: One of a Kind :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING -Photo Credit: David Earnest, circa 1900-1912 Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The Univ. of Georgia Libraries. The double-barreled cannon on the median that divided College Avenue. Casting Foundry: Athens Steam Company, Athens, Georgia Year of Manufacture: 1862 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Purchase Price in 1862: $350.00 (CS) No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 1 Special Notes: Appears to have been cast horizontally, then drilled. The mould casting lines are still visible today. Also this gun has two cascabels, presumably welded on after casting, an odd arrangement for sure! WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches each Rifling Type: no grooves Tube Length: 4 feet, 8 1/2 inches Tube Weight: 1,300 lbs. Carriage Type: Custom Carriage to accommodate extra wide barrel (about 900 lbs., 57" wheels) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): about 2,200 lbs. AMMUNITION -From the Southern Watchman, an Athens, Georgia Newspaper. Published April 30, 1862. Standard Powder Charge: Unknown Projectiles Types: Two solid shot connected by a chain Projectiles Weights: Each ball weighed about 6 lbs. PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: Unknown Muzzle Velocity: Unknown Effective Range (at 5°): Unknown Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): Unknown HISTORIC MARKER THE ATHENS DOUBLE-BARRELLED CANNON This cannon, the only known one of its kind, was designed by Mr. John Gilleland, a private in the "Mitchell Thunderbolts," an elite "home guard" unit of business and professional men ineligible because of age or disability for service in the Confederate army. Cast in the Athens foundry, it was intended to fire simultaneously two balls connected by a chain which would "mow down the enemy somewhat as a scythe cuts wheat." It failed for lack of a means of firing both barrels at the exact instant. It was tested in a field on the Newton's Bridge road against a target of upright poles. With both balls rammed home and the chain dangling from the twin muzzles, the piece was fired; but the lack of precise simultaneity caused uneven explosion of the propelling charges, which snapped the chain and gave each ball an erratic and unpredictable trajectory. Lacking a workable firing device, the gun was a failure. It was presented to the City of Athens where, for almost a century, it has been preserved as an object of curiosity, and where it performed sturdy service for many years in celebrating political victories. 029-5 - GEORGIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION - 1957 NOTES ON THE ATHENS DOUBLE BARREL CANNON John Gilleland's idea was to connect two cannon balls with a long chain (by some reports 8 foot long, others say it was as long as 50 feet!), and fire them simultaneously from this new double-barrel cannon, mowing down enemy lines with this wicked weapon like a scythe cutting wheat. The town of Athens, Georgia took up Gilleland's outlandish idea, and the cannon was financed by a $350 subscription raised by 36 interested citizens. The cannon was cast at the Athens Steam Company in 1862, it's a double six-pounder, cast in one piece, with a three degree divergence from the parallel between the barrels. Each barrel has its own touch hole so it can be fired independent of the other and a common touch hole in the center is designed to fire both barrels simultaneously. A view from behind the double-barreled cannon in Athens, Georgia -Photo by Bloodofox, Taken 2007 Upon it's completion on April 22, 1862, the cannon was taken out to Newton Bridge Road, for a test firing. The test was, to say the least, spectacular if unsuccessful. According to reports one ball left the muzzle before the other and the two balls pursued an erratic circular course plowing up an acre of ground, destroying a corn field and mowing down some saplings before the chain broke. Then the balls adopted separate courses, one killing a cow and the other demolishing the chimney on a log cabin. Those observing the test firing scattered in fear of their lives. Later, some reports claimed that two or three spectators were killed by the firing. The reports of the deaths have not been substantiated. The Watchman, a local newspaper, promptly reported that the test was an unqualified success. The cannon was then sent, at Gilleland’s insistence, to the Augusta Arsenal for further tests. Colonel Rains, arsenal commandant, tested the gun and reported it a failure for the purpose intended. Colonel Rains had tested a similar weapon at Governor’s Island in 1855 with the same results. Gilleland, however, was still of the opinion that the gun was a perfect success and engaged in a heated correspondence with the Confederate Secretary of War. Gilleland contended the cannon had been fired successfully and James W. Camak reports one successful shot. Camak also stated that the cannon was very effective if both barrels were loaded with canister or grape shot and fired simultaneously. Further persistence proving futile, Gilleland then approached Governor Brown in an attempt to interest the state in his gun. Brown declined to provide money for further experiments and the cannon was returned to Athens. For the next few years the double-barrel cannon was used as a signal gun for the town of Athens, to warn of the approach of Union soldiers. There have been claims that the gun was also used against Union infantry, by Lumpkin’s Artillery when they repelled Stoneman’s Raiders at Barbers Creek on August 2, 1864. The cannon was said to be used with canister. The Athens papers did not describe this action in any detail, so further information about the use of the double-barrel cannon in this action is not known. After the war the cannon was mounted on a carriage and placed in the town square. Today this cannon can can still be seen in the square, mounted at the corner of College and Hancock Aves, in the town of Athens, Georgia. ATHENS DOUBLE BARREL CANNON CURRENT LOCATION MAP VIEW MAP FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS
If you are looking for fire, brimstone, and chaos, like nothing has wrought over the battlefield before, you need to get yourself one of these: If you've been around Civil War artillery as long as I have, you probably have seen this cannon before. Athens Double-Barrelled Cannon ©Ed Jackson, Used with Permission It's the Civil War version to the Coach Gun, and you can try shooting it from the hip, but you'll probably kill everyone within shouting distance. Maybe that's a good thing, or maybe not. Here are a few snippets of it's history from my profile of it: Gilleland's idea was to connect two cannon balls with a long chain, and fire them simultaneously from this new double-barrel cannon, mowing down enemy lines with this wicked weapon like a scythe cutting wheat. Upon completion, the cannon was taken out on the Newton Bridge Road in April 1862, for a test firing. The test was, to say the least, spectacular if unsuccessful. According to reports one ball left the muzzle before the other and the two balls pursued an erratic circular course plowing up an acre of ground, destroying a corn field and mowing down some saplings before the chain broke. Then the balls adopted separate courses, one killing a cow and the other demolishing the chimney on a log cabin. Those observing the test firing scattered in fear of their lives. Later, some reports claimed that two or three spectators were killed by the firing. The reports of the deaths have not been substantiated. The Watchman, a local newspaper, promptly reported that the test was an unqualified success. For the full Profile and story, look here: But, that's not the real story here today. Oh no! I've got a beast here that beats the old Athen's gun, oh yes it does. Born in the depths of hell, this beast boasts a single-double barrel configuration, and I don't know who the lunatic was who decided that piling up literally feet of chain in front of two cannonballs that are about to be fired out of a cannon, and that's a good idea? Only the devil himself knows for sure! He's the only guy brave enough to fire one of these things off. Although, if your going to do one of these, don't make it with one giant knob on the back, it needs two proper knobs, this just looks all wrong... I needed to know what kind of crazy this man was, so I looked up the specifications for his patent, and yep, it's as crazy as it looks! Let's see here, two diverging barrels, with a slot .... "This allows the powder in both barrels to mingle, and a single fuse ignites both, so as to ensure a simultaneous discharge." Oh boy, I still don't think this is going to end well....
Reproduction Hughes Cannon at Ft. Shenandoah, VA © Mike Kendra, Oct. 2009D.W. Hughes, a native of Ohio, began making guns in the Spring of 1861 at Street and Hungerford in Memphis, Tennessee. He was an expert machinist, and was able to design and build his first gun in early 1862. It was small breechloader firing a one-pound ball six to eight times a minute. ARTILLERY PROFILE Models: Smoothbore & Rifled Breechloaders 1.5-inch & 2-inch Breechloaders Type: Breechloading Gun Purpose: Highly mobile rapid fire artillery Invented By: D. W. Hughes of Arizona Patented: Confederate Patent #149 For "Improvement in Breech Plugs", February 16, 1863 Rarity: Very Rare :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING CS Manufacturer: Street, Hungerford & Company of Memphis, Tennessee Years of Manufacture: 1862 to 1863 Tube Composition: Varied... Some gun tubes Bronze Some gun tubes Wrought Iron from "broken locomotive axles" Purchase Price in 1862: $600 (CS) (based on $6,000.00 bill for 10 guns) No. Purchased During the Civil War: at least 12, possibly as many as 50 were produced No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 1 known WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 1.5 & 2 inch Bore Length: 32 to 36 inches Rifling: 15 rifle grooves (when present) Overall Length: Up to 47.5 inches (Barrel & Breech Action) Barrel Weight: 65 to 90 lbs. (Empty) Carriage Type: Light Wooden Carriage Built with shoulder boxes designed to hold ammo & tools Light enough for transport by a few men alone Crew Size: 2 or 3 men Special Notes: Barrel includes a copper sleeve water jacket, it surrounds the barrel. When filled with water, it helps to improve cooling during rapid fire. AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: unknown Projectiles: Lead balls (smoothbore), unknown (rifle) PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 6 to 8 rounds per minute Effective Range: up to 3 miles (smoothbore), unknown (rifle) NOTES ON D. W. HUGHES AND THE CANNON HE DESIGNED Located in Memphis, Tennessee, the foundry of Street, Hungerford & Company, operated by Anthony S. Street and Fayette H. Hungerford, employed nearly 100 hands in the production of wagons, railroad cars, plows, and iron castings. Sensing the oncoming war, Street and Hungerford converted their business to cannon and munitions production. Prior to the war, the foundry produced a wide variety of ordinance. After the firing on Fort Sumter, activities were enlarged to include the casting of 6-pound cannon. Hughes, who had designed a new breechloading gun mechanisim while working at Street and Hungerford, took his gun's breech-plug design to the Confederate Patent office. On February 18th, 1863 he was issued Confederate Patent No. 149. -Patent Drawing & Article on Right from American Machinist, Vol 28, 1905. The above illustration accompanied the patent. The patent describes a removable plug of a breach loading cannon, the plug having radially projecting lugs which turn into interlocking engagement with seats in the bore of the gun. The plug also has a rubber "gum" gas check that helps to seal the breech when locked. Street and Hungerford's cannon casting quickly grew to include Hughes' gun design, as well as Parrott guns, and a few other heavy guns. Some of the barrels of the experimental Hughes Cannons were supposedly turned from broken locomotive axles. In an 1862 test, different size experimental Hughes Cannons were put on trial in Memphis, and it was found that lead ball could be fired up the river a distance up to three miles. As experimenting went on, it was found that the larger bore guns performed better than the smaller ones. Street and Hungerford's prior production of a variety of wood products made for an easy transition to the manufacture of gun carriages. The firm produced a large number of such carriages, some of which were made for the guns cast at the nearby Quinby & Robinson plant. A Battery of Hughes Cannons was ordered for General M. Jeff Thompson of Missouri to be used around New Madrid, Mo. and South into Arkansas. Additional Hughes Cannons were constructed at Jackson, Mississippi for the State by the order of Governor Pettus. A 2-pounder breech-loading Hughes gun is believed to have participated in the Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in 1863. One remaining example of the Hughes Cannon is known to exist, it is a smoothbore gun of 1.5 inch caliber. Copy of Hughes' Certified Confederate Patent No. 149 Confederate Veteran D.W. Hughes & his Breechloading Cannon January 1908, No. 1, Page 44 > Click Article Image to Zoom In < VIDEO OF REPRODUCTION HUGHES GUN RELOADING AND FIRING FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Civil War Collector's Encyclopedia: Arms, Uniforms and Equipment of the Union and Confederacy, Francis A. Lord, Courier Corporation, 2013. American Machinist, Volume 28, McGraw-Hill, 1905, Page 315. ASSOCIATED LINKS Scroll to the Robinson's Battery Page Bottom to see Photos of Original Gun, & Construction of a Reproduction
Photo ©Michael Kendra, 2006ARTILLERY PROFILE In Service With: U.S. Army Experimental Type: 20 inch Rodman Gun, Model of 1861 Purpose: Coastal Defense Invented By: Major Thomas J. Rodman in 1861 Patent: Rodman's Casting Process, Patent Granted August 14, 1847 U.S. Patent No. 5,236 Years of Manufacture: 1864 and 1869 Tube Composition: Rodman Process Cast Iron Bore Diameter: 20 inches Rarity: Very rare PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 rounds every 7 to 10 minutes estimated. Rifling Type: None Standard Powder Charge: 200 lbs. Unknown Grade of Black Powder Max Range (at 25°): up to 8,000 yards (4.5 miles) Projectiles: 1,080 pound round ball, solid shot WEIGHTS & MEASURES Tube Length: 243.5 inches Tube Weight: 116,497 lbs, or 58.2 tons Carriage Type: Watertown Arsenal iron frontpintle barbette carriage Carriage Weight: 32,000 lbs. or 18 tons Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): about 148,500 lbs. or 74.25 tons No. of Crew to Serve: 7 men + Gunner No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: 1 No. of Original Pieces You Can See in the Field Today: 2 Cost in 1864 Dollars: $32,781.37 USD Each in 1864 20 INCH RODMAN NO.1 Muzzle Markings: NO. 1, FORT PITT, PA., S.C.L., 1864, 116497 lbs. Casting Foundry: Fort Pitt Foundry, Pittsburgh PA Casting Date: February 11, 1864 Foundry Number: 2053 Inspected by: Stephen Carr Lyford, Ordnance Officer Inspecting, 1863-65. First Test Shot:October 25, 1864 Test-fired 8 times total; 4 times in 1864, and 4 additional shots in 1867 Service History: None. Stored awaiting further testing. Declared surplus property by the federal government in 1903, and given to the Borough of Brooklyn. On display at the Fort Hamilton military complex. Current Disposition: On public display at Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, NY VIEW MONUMENT MAP 20 INCH RODMAN NO.2 Muzzle Markings: NO. 2, KFPF PA., J.A.K, 1869, 115100 lbs. Casting Foundry: Knap’s Fort Pitt Foundry, Pittsburgh PA Casting Date: 1869 Foundry Number: 3387 Inspected by: John Alexander Kress, Ordnance Officer Inspecting, 1867-69 Service History: Sent to the Coast Artillery facilities at Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, Virginia for testing, gun is never fired. In 1876 gun is nearly lost in transport en route to Philadelphia International Exhibition when the 100 ton ship nearly capsized because the gun wasn't properly centered on the deck before setting sail. After the exhibition, the gun was sent to the U.S. Ordnance Proving Grounds at Sandy Hook, NJ for further testing. In 1903, the 20-inch Rodman is transferred to grounds of Fort Hancock for Preservation as a monument “to the old class of guns.” Current Disposition: On public display at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, NJ VIEW MONUMENT MAP Records Broken: 2 Largest muzzle loading guns ever made Largest iron guns cast in one piece Special Notes: 1 additional 20-inch piece was cast, or perhaps it was a spare, and was sold to Peru in the Late 1870's, Unknown current disposition. HISTORY Like the famed Gun Club of Jules Verne's "Journey from the Earth to the Moon and Around It," Rodman wanted an even bigger gun to test, and proposed building one as soon as the first 15-inch Rodman had been accepted by the War Department. In his report of April 17, 1861, he expressed no doubt that a reliable gun of almost any size could be made with complete success using his casting process. He felt, or at least said, however, since he seems to have limited his ambitions rather reluctantly, that a 20-inch gun firing a half-ton shot would be quite big enough. Anything larger would require massive machinery for loading, and "it is not deemed probable that any naval structure, proof against that caliber, will soon if ever be built...." Rodman's newest monster--one of the largest iron castings to say nothing of the largest gun ever attempted--was three years in the making. Expected to weigh over 100,000 pounds finished, the gun was much heavier than the 40-ton capacity of Knapp, Rudd's largest furnace. The foundry, however, had a total pouring capacity of 185 tons, and expected to cast the new gun from six furnaces at once. New plans had to be drawn, molds had to be made, new casting procedures were essential, and new finishing machinery had to be designed and built. The great day finally came on February 11, 1864. With Major Rodman, then superintendent of Watertown Arsenal, Mass., supervising the operation, the huge gun was poured. Filled in sequence from different furnaces, the 4-piece mold took 160,000 pounds of molten iron. Cooling, by both running water and streams of air, took nearly a week, after which the gun was finished on a specially built lathe. The finished barrel weighed 116,497 pounds, and the muzzle of the gun was inscribed: "20 inch, No. 1, Fort Pitt, 116,497 lbs." Destined for Fort Hamilton in New York harbor, the gun was placed on a double railway truck, also specially built, at the foundry to await shipment. As the Pittsburgh Gazettte reported on July 23, 1864, "Juveniles, aged from ten to fifteen years, were amusing themselves today in crawling into the bore on their hands and knees. A good sized family including ma and pa, could find shelter in the gun and it would be a capital place to hide in case of a bombardment.... Rodman supervised the building of a special carriage for the 20-inch gun at Watertown Arsenal, for the cannon was far too big for any standard mount. The finished product, an iron frontpintle barbette carriage weighing 36,000 pounds was shipped off to New York and assembled at Fort Hamilton. The 20-inch gun was a sizable piece of artillery. Total length was 20 feet, 3 inches, with the bore length 17 feet, 6 inches; thus the bore length-diameter ratio of 10.5 was even lower than that for the 15-inch Rodman gun. Both the shot and the shell for the 20-incher were more than twice the weight of the same projectiles for the 15-inch model, the solid shot weighing 1,080 pounds, slightly over half a ton, and the explosive shell 725 pounds empty of the bursting charge. The First Test The first test, not for range but simply to see if and how the gun would shoot, was held on October 25th, almost as soon as the gun was mounted. A huge crowd turned out, including Rodman, of course, and even Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. A 100-pound blank charge loaded for the first shot wouldn't fire with a standard friction primer, and at first it appeared that the gun had a blocked vent. After the charge was pulled, a man was sent down the bore, which Harper's Weekly reports he did very easily, to check for obstructions from the inside. The trouble was finally found. The 20-inch gun, over 5 feet in diameter, had a small vent hole almost 23 inches long, and a standard friction primer simply hadn't the power to carry its flame that far to the charge. When the vent was filled up with fine powder before the primer was inserted, the blank charge fired perfectly. The next shot was fired with a 50-pound powder charge and the 1,080-pound solid shot, at zero elevation. The Scientific American's on-the-spot correspondent wrote that "the shot struck the water throwing up showers of spray as large as a ship." The third and final shot of the day used 100 pounds of powder behind a solid shot, with the gun at an elevation of 25 degrees. "At the report the ponderous globe rushed up through the air with a hoarse roar, and sweeping its long ellipse, fell a great distance, estimation 3 1/2 miles, away into the sea...." The shot's clearly visible flight was timed at 24 seconds. The tests were continued on October 27th, again with a huge crowd present. Only two shots were fired, both with round shot and the gun at zero elevation. On the first shot, with a 100-pound powder charge, the ball hit and richocheted 8 times on the water. Recoil drove the gun and carriage back 6 feet, 10 inches, on the base. The second shot, with a 125-pound charge, drove the gun back 7 feet, 5 inches, but the ball, hitting rough water, skipped only 5 times. While the Ordnance Department announced that another test would be held as soon as a hulk or ship could be found for a target, the gun was never fired again during the Civil War. The huge cannon was simply included with a battery of fifteen-inch guns as a part of the permanent defenses of New York. Another test, held in March 1867, included four shots fired with 125-, 150-, 175- and 200-pound charges, all with the gun at an elevation of 25 degrees. The maximum range attained was 8,000 yards, or a little under 5 miles. Mountain Howitzer cannon next to the 20-inch Rodman gun as a featured attraction at 1879 Centennial International Exposition - A second and slightly lighter 20-inch gun also may have been cast for the Navy in February 1864, and another was later cast in 1866. For obvious reasons, however, the guns were never much more than experimental pieces. Rodman's heaviest cannons were fantastic weapons for their time, but from a practical point of view their usefulness was extremely limited. Aiming time depended on the extent of adjustment, but it took an additional 2 minutes and 20 seconds to traverse the gun and barbette carriage 90 degrees. The 20-inch gun certainly would have required twice the loading and aiming time of the 15-incher. Hitting a fast-moving ship at any reasonable range with the one shot that could be gotten off in time would have depended largely on luck. Rodman's guns proved his theories, but the 20-inch gun was still too big to be a really effective weapon. These large guns still exist. Old "No. 1" still sits at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, New York, now a public park located near the Verranzano Narrows Bridge. The second 20 inch Rodman looks out over New York Harbor from Fort Hancock at Sandy Hook, in New Jersey. FOR FURTHER READING Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Ripley, Warren, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Charleston, S.C.: The Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS