Arms & Artillery - Terrible Tools of War

This forum contains profiles of different Small Arms & Artillery types used during the American Civil War.

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Tonight as rearranged some older magazines I read some older Civil War related articles. Some were interesting, others less interesting. In the Military Collector & Historian from spring of, 1988 I read Confederate Two Tiered Grapeshot From Savannah, Georgia by Lawrence E. Babits. In his article he discussed an archaeological excavation of a previously unreported type of grape shot. It was a two tiered grapeshot that could have been used by one of four types of cannons; a 42 pounder, a 7 inch Brooke rifle, a 8 inch gun, or a 8 inch Col. Babits believes it was probably for the 8 inch gun. Most larger cannon fired grape that had three or more tiers. His article included a drawing but I can not tell how many balls there were but it appears to have six balls. So some questions: 1) What would be the advantage of two tiered grapeshot for a large cannon? Could it be to save iron? 2) Would have there been any advantage to having two tiers of three larger balls instead of smaller balls? 3) Did the US Army use any two tiered grapeshot in 8 inch guns? If not why would the Confedercy designed these? I do wonder if after 1988 any artillery expert did additional research and cleared up what type of cannon the two tiered grapeshot was made for.
ARTILLERY PROFILEGettysburg NMP ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006. Type: Muzzleloading Rifled Gun In Service With: United States Army - Marked "U.S." State of New Jersey - Marked "N.J." Purpose: Counter-battery & Support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field Invented By: Samuel Reeves, with partners John Griffen, and Emile C. Geyelin; development began in August of 1855 Final Design Requirements by: United States Army Ordnance Board, meeting on July 20th, 1861 Capt. Alexander B. Dyer, president; Capt. Theodore T.S. Laidley, recorder; and Capt. Thomas J. Rodman, member. Patents: U.S. Patent No. 13,984 (J. Griffin) Issued on December 25, 1855 for Manufacture of Wrought Iron Cannon U.S. Patent No. 37,108 (S. J. Reeves) Issued on December 9, 1862 for Improvement in Fagots for Wrought-Metal Cannons, Hydraulic Pumps Rarity: Common MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: Phoenix Iron Company, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania CS Casting Foundries: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia (CS castings are called 3-inch Iron Field Rifles and are not true Ordnance Rifles) Years of Manufacture: 1861 to 1865 Tube Composition: Wrought Iron Muzzle Markings: U.S. Ordnance Inspector's Initials, Registry Number, Foundry Name, Year, Weight Trunnion Markings: Varies - Blank (Both) / Patent Information (Left - Patented Dec. 9, 1862) / Foundry Name (Right) Purchase Price in 1861: $330.00 (US) Purchase Price in 1865: $450.00 (US) Variants: The 1854 Griffin Gun, Type 1 Experimental (2.9 inch smoothbore) The 1861 Griffin Gun, Type 2 Experimental (3.5 inch rifled) Singer-Nimick & Co. of Pittsburg cast Steel versions of the Ordnance Rifle Pattern, weighing 834 lbs., in 1862 There are known post-war breechloading conversion experiments of the Ordnance Rifle Pattern No. Purchased During the Civil War: 956 No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 556+ Special Notes: Lightest and strongest rifled tube of the Era. Sometimes incorrectly referred to as a Rodman gun. John Griffen's U.S. Patent No. 13,984 describing the manufacturing process used to create his experimental Griffen Guns, a precursor to the Ordnance Rifle. Samuel Reeve's U.S. Patent No. 37,108 improving on the process first introduced by Griffen. The date of this patent is the one found on many Ordnance Rifles. Gettysburg NMP ©Michael Kendra, April 2002. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.0 inches Bore Length: 65.0 inches, 21.6 calibers Rifling Type: 7 rifle grooves, right hand consistent twist (1 turn in 11') Trunnion Diameter: 3.67 inches Barrel Thickness: at Muzzle - 1.5 inches; at Vent - 2.355 inches Tube Length: 73 inches Tube Weight: 816 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1,720 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: Typical - 9, 1 Gunner, 8 Numbered Crew Positions Could operate at a reduced rate with as few as 2 Crew AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 1 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: Hotchkiss, Schenkel, & Dyer projectiles are all suited to the rifling of this gun Projectiles Weights: 10 lb. Bolts, 8 to 9 lbs. Shells Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 200 - Loaded in 4 - 50 Round / Mixed Ammo Chests 2 Limbers, each carrying a Chest; 1 to pull the Cannon, and 1 to pull the Caisson, which carried 2 additional Chests PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,215 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): using Case Shot...up to 1,850 yards (1.05 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): using Case Shot...6.5 seconds Max Range (at 16°): using Case Shot...4,180 yards (2.3 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 16°): using Case Shot...17 seconds NOTES Originally derived from experiments with an earlier ordnance design called the "Griffin Gun," the Ordnance Rifle was developed by Samuel Reeves under a legal agreement between himself, John Griffin, as well as Emile C. Geyelin. Once an agreement was made, and a contract between the was three signed on December 8, 1856; soon a testing and development program followed. Griffen had been motivated to build a better artillery platform from the memory of the 1844 ordnance accident aboard USS Princeton, where one gun exploded, and killed six people, including Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur, and Secretary of the Navy Thomas Walker Gilmer. The current President of the United States at the time, John Tyler, narrowly missed injury, as he was also aboard the ship during this event. Geyelin, who had an interest in developing hydraulic equipment, also had a hand helping to design the manufacturing process for industrial use. His design use helped Reeves broaden his patent application to differentiate it from Griffen's original patent. Geyelin would later come to be known as the authority for developing water powered turbines on the East Coast. Reeves used his Phoenix Iron Company in Phoenixville, Pennsylvania, to manufacture the Ordnance Rifle, and the first test articles were produced at that foundry in 1856. To manufacture the original Griffin Gun, strips of wrought iron had been hammer-welded in crisscrossing spiral layers around a mandrel; this was then bored out and the finished product lathe turned into shape. Under Reeves’ updated specifications for the Ordnance Rifle, the mandrel, again either hollow or solid, was not removed after the pile was rolled. Rather the mandrel remained with the mass and became the inner-most layer of the bore. Furthermore, Reeves’ method used a heated mandrel that would actually bond and weld to the iron sheet during the wrapping and rolling process. Though time consuming and expensive to produce, the result was a singularly tough and accurate weapon. The Ordnance Rifle design was adopted by the Federal Ordnance Department in early 1861. The design of this rifle, soon a favorite with artillerists in both armies, is recognized by the complete absence of any discontinuities in the surface of the gun. It was also a major step forward in material, being made entirely of wrought iron. The Phoenix-made rifles were nearly free from any reported failures. Artillerymen preferred them because they didn't have a reputation for catastrophic barrel failures, unlike some of the cast iron guns of the period. The Ordnance Rifle is also one-hundred pounds lighter than the 10-pdr. Parrott Rifle (800 lbs. to the Parrott's 900) which made it a little easier to move. For these reasons, it was the preferred weapon of the fully mounted Horse Artillery. While the Napoleon was the field artillery's piece of choice for short-range duels, the Ordnance Rifle was valued for its long range accuracy. A one pound charge of gunpowder could accurately propel a 10 pound elongated shell a distance of 2,000 yards at only 5 degrees of elevation. Longer distances, could be achieved with higher elevations at the expense of accuracy. At its peak, the Phoenixville factory was producing fifty rifles a week, producing more than 1,000 3-inch Ordnance Rifles during the war at a cost of about $350 each. They were considered prized captures by the Southern Army. Using lower-grade iron, and different, less precise manufacturing process, the Confederacy made some copies of the 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, known as 3-inch Iron Field Rifles. They looked somewhat similar, but didn't have the same performance as their Northern counterparts. The U.S. 3-inch Wrought Iron Field Rifle or "Ordnance Rifle" is sometimes erroneously referred to as a "Rodman Rifle". The process used by Thomas Rodman in casting Columbiads was not used in producing the wrought iron barrel of the Ordnance Rifle. Although Rodman was on the U.S. Army Ordnance Board that gave the final design requirements to Phoenix Iron Works, his involvement in that process has not proven to be notable. As far as can be determined, aside from being present at the board meeting, Rodman had very little, if anything, to do with the design or production of the Ordnance Rifle. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/12/intro-to-3-inch-ord-rifles/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/16/early-3-inch-ord-rifles/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/21/middle-3-in-ord-rifles/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/22/later-3-inch-ord-rifles/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/24/3-inch-rifle-fort-clinch/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/02/13/singer-nimick-and-co-3-inch/ http://artillerymanmagazine.com/Archives/2000/rodman_W00.html
Loved or Hated, the Swamp Angel is easily the most famous cannon of the American Civil War. In the summer of 1863, Fort Sumter, after two years of being pummeled by federal artillery, still defiantly protected the city of Charleston, SC. Union Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, stationed on Morris Island at the entrance to Charleston Harbor, wanted to locate a battery to fire on the city so that he could force its capitulation without having to capture the harbor forts. On August 2, Gen. Gillmore ordered the construction of a battery at a site 4.5 miles from the city. The Swamp Angel is the nickname given to the piece of heavy artillery used at this site. ARTILLERY PROFILEat Cadwallader Park, Trenton, NJ, Photo ©Michael Kendra, 2002 Model: Burst 8-inch Army 200-pdr Parrott Seacoast Rifle, Model of 1861 Type: Muzzleloading Seacoast Rifle In Service With: 11th Maine Infantry, Marsh Battery, United States Army, near Charlestown, SC Under Command Of: Lieutenant Charles Sellmer Purpose: Coastal Defense Invented By: Robert P. Parrott Current Disposition: Mounted as a Monument in a City Park, in Trenton, New Jersey The "Parrott" Reinforcing Band has been Lost Location: Cadwallader Park in Trenton, New Jersey Map Coordinates: 40°14'15.0"N 74°47'16.7"W MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Spring, New York Casting Date: 1862 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Tube, Wrought Iron Reinforcing Band Muzzle Markings: No.6 8IN. W.P.F. A.M. 16,577 1862 Registry Number: No. 6 Foundry Number: 585 Inspectors Mark: (A.M.) Alfred Mordecai, Jr. Purchase Price in 1862: $2,200.00 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 8 inches Tube Length: 163 inches Tube Weight: 16,577 lbs. Carriage Type: Barbette Carriage (8,000 lbs) No. of Crew to Serve: 25 PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: Once every 7 to 8 minutes Rifling Type: 11 rifle grooves, right gain twist, 1 turn in 23' Standard Powder Charge: 16 lbs. No. 7 Black Powder Service Charge Used: 16 lbs. or 20 lbs.* Black Powder * (20 lbs. as per Col. Charles Selmer's Report, Commanding the 11th Maine Infantry at the Marsh Battery, as found in The Story of One Regiment: The Eleventh Maine Infantry Volunteers, Press of J. J. Little & Company, 1896, Page 142. ) Muzzle Velocity: 1,234 ft/sec. (using a 150 lb. shell, with a 16 lb. charge) Effective Range (at 35°): 8,000 yards (4.5 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 35°): Not Recorded (est. 30 to 40 seconds) Projectiles: A mix of 175 lb. shells loaded with "Greek Fire" and 150 lb. standard shells. Recorded Service: 16 Shots Fired Early Morning Hours of April 22st, Target: City of Charleston, SC 20 Shots Fired Night of April 23rd, Target: City of Charleston, SC 36 Shots Fired Total, gun disabled/burst on final shot at least 10 shots prematurely exploded in barrel or in flight Records Broken: 3 Longest-ranged Artillery Bombardment To Date hit targets ranged 7,900+ yards or 4.48+ miles distant First Time Artillery had been Aimed by Compass Bearing Alone Gun aimed by taking a compass bearing of St. Michael’s church’s steeple, and using bearing to aim gun First Deliberate Use of Shelling of Civilians as a Military Tactic Even if Charleston, SC was a Military Target, it WAS filled with civilians NOTES The "Swamp Angel", which fired from the marsh near Morris Island into Charleston, may not have been brand new when it arrived at the man-made firing platform known as the "Marsh Battery". After the 22nd shot, which was the 6th shot on the 2nd night of firing, the reinforcing band slipped, and the crew was forced to continue firing with a "compromised gun barrel". The barrel burst at about 1 am, on the gun's 36th shot, throwing the breech completely off in one direction, and the barrel forward off it's trunnion mount, 4 of the gun's crew were hurt, none seriously. from Engineer and artillery operations against the defenses of Charleston Harbor in 1863, by Quincy Adams Gillmore, 1865. MONUMENT HISTORY Gun Tube Acquired: Recovered as scrap iron by Phoenix Iron Works in Trenton, NJ in 1877 Built: As a Memorial in February 1877 Memorial Construction of: Trenton Brownstone Rededications: 1915, moved & rededicated on April 12, 1961, 1994, August 24, 2013 Original Location: Corners of North Clinton Avenue and Perry Street, Trenton, NJ until April 12, 1961 (Civil War 100th Anniv) Current Location: Cadwallader Park in Trenton, New Jersey Questionable Future Disposition: three former mayors each proposed sending the cannon back to Charleston as a symbol of reconciliation with the South, but never followed through because of resistance from citizens and Civil War enthusiasts. Additional Artifacts: As of 2011, the Gunners Quadrant and the Gunners Level from the Swamp Angel were owned by, and on display at the South Carolina Confederate Relic Room in Columbia, SC HISTORY OF THE SWAMP ANGEL The Marsh Battery Construction Undoubtedly the most famous action taken by the 1st New York Engineers was the construction of the “Marsh Battery.” MG Gillmore requested that batteries be constructed that could take the fort and the city under fire. The first officer assigned the task declared it impossible, but Colonel Edward Serrell, commander of the 1st New York Engineers, would have none of it. He assumed personal responsibility and conducted a series of experiments to establish the capability of the soil (mud) to support weight. After careful consideration of the results of these trials Serrell believed the soil could be stabilized enough to receive the weight of a siege piece. A plan was presented to Gilmore for the construction of a battery on 2 August 1863. It was immediately accepted and several days were spent setting up support activities to supply lumber and other materials. Construction of the battery began on 10 August. The construction began with a rectangular frame of sheet piling driven by a lever activated ram. The first measure to reinforce the soil was “a thick stratum of grass”. This was covered by two layers of tarpaulin followed by “15 inches of well rammed sand”. A platform of three layers of 3 inch pine planks topped off the position. The work was declared prepared to take an eight inch Parrott rifle on the 17th. The final tally of material used in the construction of this battery, all of which had to be transported by hand over a mile on a four foot gangway makes the seven day work a marvel. Materials included: 13,000 sandbags 123 pieces of 15-18” diameter pine logs (Piling) 5000 feet 1” boards 8 Tarpaulins 18X28 feet 9156 feet of 3” pine planks 300 pounds 4” spikes 300 pounds 7” spikes 600 pounds of assorted iron pieces 75 fathoms of 3” rope This material list did not include the materials that were used to build the gangway. The battery was completed with a service road to the edge of the river. Maj. Gen. Quincy A. Gillmore, Photo by USAMHI Actions Against Charleston On August 17, the platform received its gun - a 16,700-pound Parrott rifle made at New York State's West Point Foundry. It was immediately christened with "Swamp Angel". With an 8-inch-diameter bore, 11-foot bore depth, and a 16-pound powder charge, it was capable of firing a 150-pound projectile the 8,000 yards to the heart of Charleston. On August 21, Gillmore sent a message demanding that Confederate Gen. P.G.T. Beauregard, commander at Charleston, immediately evacuate the Rebel posts on Morris Island and Fort Sumter or suffer the shelling of the city. Receiving no reply by midnight, Gillmore ordered the shelling to begin. The gun had been carefully sighted by using the known bearing of the steeple of St. Michael's Church, which could not be seen at the Marsh Battery because of a grouping of trees on James Island, and at 1:30am on August 22, the first shot was fired. Alarm bells and whistles were heard immediately. Fifteen more shots were fired before daylight, 12 of them filled with an incendiary fluid known as "Greek Fire". The next night, August 23, 20 more shells were fired at the city. On this night a number of the shells exploded inside the gun, causing the breech reinforcing band to come loose on the sixth shot. The gun continued to be fired, with the crew of the gun taking cover outside the gun emplacement on each shot. On the last discharge, the Swamp Angel burst, the breech being blown out of its reinforcing band, and the gun thrown to the top of the parapet. Three men were injured in the explosion, but not seriously. No other guns were placed in the battery. The physical damage to Charleston was minimal, and its citizens remained defiant. Trenton, NJ Gets a Cannon Barrel / Markings are Identified After the war, it is believed that the gun was junked and was to be sold as scrap iron. This gun, along with some others were purchased by Charles Carr of Phoenix Iron Company of Trenton, NJ, and when the shipment of scrap arrived, one of the workers, who has served in Charleston recognized the broken gun, and a plan to save the gun was hatched. Notification was given to the New Jersey Adj. Gen. William J. Stryker, who served in the Charleston campaign in 1863, and he helped to setup a plan to put the Swamp Angel up as a monument in Trenton for public display. A spot was found at a busy intersection in town, the gun was welded back together without it's reinforcing band, which had been lost or perhaps removed on purpose, no-one knows for sure, and the completed gun-tube was placed atop it's newly created street-side monument in 1877. When road changes required the movement of the original monument, a new location at Cadwallader Park was found, and a new, smaller stone base was built for the gun, which was rededicated on April 12, 1961. However, by that time, it was getting very difficult to read any of the markings on the barrel, between the years of wear and tear, some abuse from being treated as scrap, and many layers of paint, you couldn't see any numbers or identifying marks on the gun. In the 1970's, cannon expert Warren Ripley disputed the identification of the Swamp Angel, knowing that at least 3 other guns had been burst at Charleston in similar incidents, and that there was only a 1 in 4 chance this particular tube was the correct gun. In recent years, two well respected artillery researchers, Edwin Olmstead and Wayne Stark, removed enough paint to clearly read the Registry No. as "6," agreeing with Gillmore's description of the 8-in Parrott rifle in the Swamp Battery, so the identification may now safely be regarded as conclusive. Today, the gun is relatively well preserved, with 70% of the muzzle markings revealed and protected. The black & white photos below show the "Swamp Angel" in battery, and after it was thrown forward on it's parapet after bursting, these photos are from the Library of Congress. The color photos were taken by Michael & Ami Kendra in June of 2002 in Cadwallader Park, Trenton, NJ. ADDITIONAL PHOTOS Swamp Angel after bursting, -LOC, 1863 4.2 inch Parrott on a Siege Carriage Also Rumored to be Nicknamed "Swamp Angel" in the Marsh Battery at a Later Period -LOC, 1863 or more likely 1864 Remains from a gun, possibly the Swamp Angel, perhaps remains of 2 different guns? from Charleston, SC, -LOC, 1863 Postcard from 1900's showing early monument Corners of N. Clinton Ave. and Perry Street Note: Drinking trough at base for horses! Left Rear of Swamp Angel, ©Mike Kendra, 2002 Right Side of Swamp Angel, ©Mike Kendra, 2002 Detail of crack in breech, ©Mike Kendra, 2002 Marker on base of Swamp Angel, ©Mike Kendra, 2002 FOR FURTHER READING The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, by Olmstead, Edwin, Stark, & Tucker, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. The Story of One Regiment: The Eleventh Maine Infantry Volunteers, Press of J. J. Little & Company, 1896, Page 139. The Artilleryman, Vol 34, No. 4, Fall 2013. "200-pdr. 'Swamp Angel' Parrott Rifle's Firing On Charleston Commemorated", with historical info provided by D. Martin, Ph.D, pages 7-8. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/07/31/serrell-probing-the-marsh/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/08/21/constructing-the-marsh-battery/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/08/22/swamp-angel-firing/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/08/29/the-swamp-angel-at-150/ https://www.nj.com/mercer/2013/08/trenton_celebrates_150th_anniversary_of_civil_war_cannon.html https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/swamp-angel https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/10/08/8-inch-parrott-rifle/ https://www.morphyauctions.com/jamesdjulia/item/lot-2512-historic-cased-artillery-tools-used-on-the-famous-civil-war-cannon-swamp-angel-37557/
Battle of New Market Visitors Center, © Mike Kendra, 11/2013 The Williams Gun was a Confederate gun that was classified as a 1-lb cannon. It was designed by Capt. D.R. Williams, of Covington, Kentucky, who later served as an artillery captain with a battery of his design. It was a breech-loading, rapid-fire cannon that was operated by a hand-crank. The barrel was 4 feet long and 1.57-inch caliber. The hand crank opened the sliding breech which allowed the crew to load a round and cap the primer. As the crank was continued, it closed the breech and automatically released the hammer. The effective range was 800 yards but the maximum range was 2000 yards. ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Breechloading Smoothbore Gun In Service With: C.S. Army Invented By: Capt. David R. Williams Patent: Confederate Patent No. 121, Nov. 5, 1862 Rarity: Very Rare MANUFACTURING Manufactured By: F. B. Deane Jr. & Son, Lynchburg, Virginia Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia Skates & Co, Mobile, Alabama Years of Manufacture: September 1861 to 1863 Tube Composition: Wrought iron Cost in CS Dollars: $325.00 (1862), $900.00 (1863) No. Purchased During the Civil War: 21 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 1.57 inches Tube Length: 4 feet, 0 inches Tube Weight: unknown AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: unknown Projectiles: unknown PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 20 to 65 rounds per minute Effective Range: 800 yards; maximum range: 2000 yards Approximately 40 were made to supply 7 different Confederate batteries. These were made at F. B. Deane Jr. & Son, Lynchburg, Virginia, Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia, and Skates & Co, Mobile, Alabama. At the end of the war, 4 examples of this gun were captured and sent to West Point. The West Point Museum retained one gun. Other examples are now located at Kentucky Military History Museum the Virginia Museum of the Civil War at the New Market Battlefield State Historical Park, and the Watervliet Arsenal Museum. During the early trials of the gun, the Richmond Daily Exchange dated May 20, 1862, reported that: “General Floyd attended a trial of the Williams’ mounted breech-loading rifle, which is claimed will throw twenty balls a minute a distance of fifteen hundred yards". Some sources say it could fire 65 rounds per minute but accuracy was greatly reduced due to the manual loading. The Union troops did not know what the gun was. Some describe it as a rifled cannon. Others reported that it fired nails, probably on account of the noise the projectile made as it tumbled. The Williams Gun was not perfect and the Union had much better rapid-fire weapons than the Confederacy.
The Widow Blakely, ©James N., 2013.This 7.5-inch rifle was called the "Widow Blakely" because it was one of only two 7.5-inch Blakely Rifles of that type imported from England. It's mate was in service at Evansport, Virginia until it was captured by Union forces at Shipping Point on the Potomac River in March of 1862, making the gun in Vicksburg a "Widow". The Evansport Blakely can now be seen on display at the Washington Navy Yard, in Washington, DC. It's been a popularized myth that it's nickname was given because this gun was the only specimen of British Captain Theophilus Alexander Blakely's design in the works at Vicksburg. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: British Naval 42-pdr. with 7 inch bore; reamed, banded & rifled to 7.5" in the Blakely Patent Method Type: Confederate 7.5-inch Blakely Rifle, in service with a short barrel after May 22, 1863 In Service With: Company 'H', 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, Confederate States of America Under the Command of: Col. Edward Higgins, Commander of all River Defense Batteries near Vicksburg Lt. Col. Daniel Beltzhoover, In command of the Lower Batteries of Vicksburg, including 26 cannons Capt. Richard S. Bond, 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery Lieutenant A. L. Slack, Company 'H', 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery Purpose: Fire on any Union ships travelling on the Mississippi River, Defending the City of Vicksburg Current Disposition: Mounted on a steel Siege Carriage, overlooking the Mississippi River Location: Louisiana Circle, Vicksburg National Military Park, Vicksburg, Mississippi Map Coordinates: 32°19'10.3"N 90°53'49.4"W :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING Casting Foundry: Low Moor Iron Works, Bradford, Yorkshire, England Tube Composition: Cast Iron Tube, Semi-Steel Band Year of Manufacture: 1861 Registry Number: Not Marked Markings: Breech Band: BLAKELY'S PATENT 1861. Left Trunnion: LOW MOOR / 10█61 / 1861. Trophy No. Plate: 170 L to R. Patent Stamp, Trunnion Stamps, West Point Plate, and Rifling Detail below right. Photos ©Rusk County Avengers, 2019. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 7.5 inches Rifling: 12 hook-slant Rifle Grooves, Right Hand Twist Tube Length: 100 inches (originally 124 inches) Original Tube Weight: 10,761 lbs. * (5.38 tons) (* the 7 is a guess based on the sister gun's weight. The 3rd digit of the weight is missing on the left trunnion) Carriage Type: No. 2 Siege Carriage (2,300 lbs.) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 13,061 lbs. (6.53 tons) West Point Trophy Plaque: CIVIL WAR - 7.5 IN. BLAKELY CAST IRON - RIFLED GUN MADE BY THE - LOW MOOR IRON CO. ENGLAND IN 1861. - CAPTURED FROM CONFEDERATE FORCES - VICKSBURG MISS. AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 12 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: English Blakely Pattern, CS Britton Pattern, CS Reed Pattern, Tredegar Pattern Projectiles Weights: 120 lbs. solid bolt, Shell with 2.75 lbs. bursting charge NOTES ABOUT THE WIDOW BLAKELY: THE PROBABLE ORIGIN OF THE WIDOW BLAKELY On August 18, 1861, the S.S. Bermuda sailed from Liverpool, England enroute to Savannah, Georgia with the intent of testing the Union Blockade, and delivering supplies to the South. The large cargo ship arrived safely on the 16th of September, and unloaded over $1,000,000.00 worth of cargo, reportedly including: 18 large rifled cannon; two large 124-pdr. whitworth guns (one of which was rumored to be sent immediately to New Orleans); powder, shot, and shells for this ordnance; 6500 Enfield rifles; from 200,000 to 300,000 cartridges; 6000 pairs of army shoes; 20,000 blankets; 180 barrels of gunpowder; a large quantity of morphine, quinine, and other medical stores. At least two, and perhaps up to as many as five of those cannons happened to be large 120-pdr. Rifled Blakely Cannons, bore size 7.5 inches. It's believed that the Widow Blakely was one of these guns. However, beyond some speculation, it's not known exactly how the Widow got to Vicksburg from Savannah, or if there are any undiscovered interesting actions this gun was involved in. FILLING THE GAPS IN THE WIDOW'S HISTORY: THE CAPTURED EVANSPORT "GROOM" BLAKELY Evansport, Virginia, located along the Potomac River, was a point of heavy Confederate resistance, with as many as 30 large guns overlooking the river making passage on the river next to impossible for Union ships. These newspaper clippings help to validate that arrangement: If this clipping is accurate, two "8-inch rifled columbiads of English manufacture" that were brought across the Atlantic via the Bermuda were mounted near Evansport. We can assume the ½ inch error is just a reporting error, was the second gun the Widow Blakely? OR Series 1, Vol 5, Page 835. (Bonus Mention! The "rifled gun taken at Manassas" is likely to be a reference to Long Tom, the 30-pdr. Parrott) There is no way to know if the Evansport Blakely, or even the Widow Blakely are included in the guns of "Heaviest Caliber" in this message, but it's possible. From September of 1861 to January of 1862, several bombardments were traded, with neither side gaining an advantage. In March of 1862, Union forces discovered more than a dozen heavy guns abandoned along the Potomac River. It's believed that the Confederates had abandoned the area and moved on to Richmond. At Shipping Point on the river, one of the many abandoned battery locations, a single 7.5-inch Rifled and Banded Blakely was captured. If the Widow Blakely gun was ever at Evansport, it escaped before the Union forces arrived. The "Evansport Blakely Rifle" as seen at the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC Photo from The Iron Guns of Willard Park by John C. Reilly, Jr. -U.S. Naval Historical Center VIEW MAP - Shipping Point Capture Location Amazingly, just like the Widow, not only do these guns share their origin story, but also their legacy. The captured gun was manufactured at Low Moor Iron Works, and was sent to West Point to become Trophy No. 7. A Plate was affixed that states: "Blakely Gun / Imitation Parrott / Left by Rebels / at Shipping Point / Potomac River." The weight of this gun is 10,759 lbs. This gun like the Widow also has no manufacturer's Registry Number. It was eventually transferred to the Washington Navy Yard in Washington, DC. A TREDEGAR - 7.5 INCH BLAKELY CONNECTION Using the Tredegar Sales book, we made some interesting discoveries: Beginning in December 1861, Tredegar foundry begins casting 7.44-inch rifle shells for a Confederate Government order. By the end of the year they have made over 95 "British Style" shells, and get another order for "Another 200 shells, as fast as possible". Soon Tredegar has shipped 400 shells for a 7.44-inch Rifle to Shipping Point. In the new year another order comes in, another 200 Shell of 7.43” diameter for 7 1/2" Blakely Gun, although a Tennessee Sabot will be substituted for the Lead Sabot. They were up to 600 total rounds ordered for the Blakely's when Shipping point was evacuated. Later, in May of 1862, another 200 rounds of 7.43 inch diameter were ordered with Tennessee Sabot, one might wonder which gun these rounds were intended for, since the Evansport Blakely was captured at this point! Then on May 20, 1862, the Tredegar foundry billed the Confederate Navy for "Hauling a Blakely Gun from Petersburg Railroad Depot to the Richmond docks." It's hard to accurately speculate if this is the Widow Blakely, or some other Blakely Rifle being moved. POSSIBLE MULTIPLE C.S.S. VIRGINIA CONNECTIONS One theory is that the Widow Blakely was going to be mounted aboard the C.S.S. Virginia, but it never made it, it was either rejected or arrived too late. That's a crazy idea right? Well, some of the guns at Shipping Point, Virginia were under the command of Lt. Charles Carroll Simms, his next assignment after leaving Shipping Point was the C.S.S. Virginia. And then, there are these two gems, newspaper clips from the May 1862 Edition of Scientific American, Volume 06, Number 18: Who exactly gave "Capt. Blakely", the man who supplied the confederacy with many of the large guns aboard the Bermuda, the idea that 7½-inch Rifled Cannons were mounted on-board the Merrimac also known as the C.S.S. Virginia? The description given does fit our Widow Blakely or the Evansport Blakely, so that was likely the guns he was referencing. Certainly an interesting connection, even if it didn't happen. The problem is, the C.S.S. Virginia didn't have any 7.5-inch guns. The Virginia is known to have been armed with 6.4-inch and 7-inch Brooke Rifles, and 9-inch Dahlgren Smoothbores. ONE LAST THEORY - A NEW ORLEANS CONNECTION -Memphis Daily Appeal clipping from November 3, 1861 On November 3, 1861 the newspaper Memphis Daily Appeal reprinted an article from the New York Tribune which included a cargo inventory from the Bermuda. One entry might not be completely accurate: "two Whitworth 124 pounders, one of which was immediately sent to New Orleans".* For comparison, the Widow was an English made 120-pdr. Rifle. Whitworth and Blakely were both English cannon inventors, and it's hard to imagine that a newspaper reporter would know the difference between the models of guns. It's also possible that Whitworth's name is more sensational and so one might wonder, could the newspaper reporter have misidentified the cannons, either by accident or on purpose? Perhaps these two guns that are reported to be delivered by the Bermuda are actually the Widow, and the Evansport Groom! One could speculate that if the Groom was sent north to Evansport, to defend the Potomac River in Late 1861, as we know it did... one could also then assume it makes sense the Widow might have been sent south to New Orleans to help defend the Mississippi River. When New Orleans was captured by Captain David Farragut, and later occupied by Major General Benjamin Butler, the Widow must have been moved north to Vicksburg to escape capture. One last consideration in this theory: the gun crew assigned to the Widow at Vicksburg was from Company 'H', 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, who had recently escaped from the Forts of New Orleans. Is this the clue we are looking for? This is perhaps the simplest and easiest explanation of events. However, no documentation beyond the original newspaper article, with "questionable" gun identification, has yet been found. * Reported as "2 Lancaster guns of 168 pounds weight" in the October 26th, 1861 edition of Harper's Weekly DOCUMENTED ACTIONS AT VICKSBURG & BEYOND: MISTAKEN IDENTITY, RETURN TO VICKSBURG OR, Series I. Vol. 24. Part II, Reports, Page 336. Selected Portions of Report Below... ... ... - Click Report to Zoom In - On April 16, 1863, the Ironclad Sidewheel Steamer USS Lafayette was hit 3 times in her dash up the river by the Widow Blakely's 7.44-inch Shells. On May 22, 1863, the "Widow Blakely" was manned by a detachment of Company 'H', 1st Louisiana Heavy Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant A. L. Slack. On that day the Widow, mounted 130 feet high, and overlooking the Mississippi River, engaged four iron-clads and one wooden gunboat. The Widow had the help of nine other guns. The Widow successfully helped to heavily damage two of the ironclads, and repulse the rest of the attacking force. However, in that day's action one of the Widow's shells exploded in the tube while it was firing at a Union gunboat. The explosion took part of the end of the muzzle off, leaving the remainder of the tube intact. The report included on the right includes the official details of that event. The ragged ends of the muzzle were cut smooth by a local gun foundry, and the gun was quickly put back into limited service, being used more in the role of a mortar. It's barrel length had been shortened to about 100 inches after the bursting damage. The cannon tube started out it's service at 124 inches long. When Vicksburg surrendered, the Widow was captured along with several other Confederate guns. The Union had no use for such an odd specimen, and it was loaded on a ship with other captured ordnance, to be sent down the river to New Orleans, and then shipped around to New York. The Widow was taken to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, arriving on May 11, 1865. It was displayed as a trophy for ninety-six years, being misidentified as "Whistling Dick", another famous Confederate cannon from the Vicksburg conflict. When her true identity was recognized in 1959, the Widow was sent back to Vicksburg, the Park Service mounting her on the bluffs about a mile south of her original position. This cannon has also been misidentified as a 7.44-inch caliber rifle. Measurements of the lands, nearly 1.5 inches wide, show diameters between 7.50 and 7.51 inches. One might wonder if the 7.44-inch measurement came from one of the shells for the Widow and not the bore of the gun itself. FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. The Campaign for Vicksburg (3 Volume Set), by Edwin C. Bearrs, Morningside Bookshop, 1991. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://www.hmdb.org/m.asp?m=97124 https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/06/01/named-guns-at-vicksburg/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/05/28/blakely-7_5-inch-rifles/
A Captured Siege Gun at Richmond, Virginia Siege, Garrison, & Naval Artillery Siege & Naval Artillery Pieces Bore diameter (inches) Material Length of tube (inches) Weight of tube (pounds) Weight of projectile (pounds) Weight of charge (pounds) Range at 5° elevation (yards) 4 1/2-inch Rifle 4.50 Iron 133.0 3,450 33.0 3.50 2,078 30-pdr Parrott Rifle 4.50 Iron 136.00 4,200 1 29.0 3.75 2,200 24-pdr Gun 5.82 Iron 124.00 6,240 24.4 6.00 1,901 18-pdr Gun 5.30 Iron 123.25 4,680 18.5 4.50 1,592 12-pdr Gun 4.62 Iron 116.00 3,120 12.3 4.00 1,834 8-inch Howitzer 8.00 Iron 61.50 2,614 1 50.5 4.00 1,241 8-inch Mortar 8.00 Iron 22.50 930 1 44.5 3.75 1 1,200 10-inch Mortar 10.00 Iron 28.00 1,852 1 87.5 4.00 2 2,100 24-pdr Coehorn Mortar 5.82 Bronze 16.32 164 1 17.0 0.50 2,4 1,200 Seacoast & Naval Artillery Seacoast & Naval Artillery Pieces Bore diameter (inches) Material Length of tube (inches) Weight of tube (pounds) Weight of projectile (pounds) Weight of charge (pounds) Range at 5° elevation (yards) 32-pdr Gun 6.40 Iron 125.20 7,200 32.6 8.00 1,922 42-pdr Gun 7.00 Iron 129.00 8,465 42.7 10.50 1,955 8-inch Columbiad 8.00 Iron 124.00 9,210 65.0 10.00 5 1,813 10-inch Columbiad 10.00 Iron 126.00 15,400 128.0 18.00 6 1,814 15-inch Columbiad 15.00 Iron 182.00 50,000 1 302.0 40.00 7 1,518 100-pdr Parrott 6.40 Iron 151.00 9,700 100.0 10.00 8 2,247 150/200-pdr Parrott 8.00 Iron 159.00 16,300 175.0 16.00 2,000 300-pdr Parrott 10.00 Iron 173.00 26,500 250.0 25.00 --- 10-inch Mortar 10.00 Iron 46.00 5,775 1 87.5 10.00 2 4,250 13-inch Mortar 13.00 Iron 53.00 17,120 1 220.0 20.00 2 4,325 80-pdr Whitworth Rifle 5.00 Iron 120.00 8,960 70.0 12.00 7,722 70-pdr Armstrong Breechloading Rifle 6.40 Iron & Steel 110.00 6,903 71.7 10.00 9 2,266 8-inch Blakely Rifle 8.00 Steel 3 156.00 17,000 200.0 50.00 --- 150-pdr Armstrong Rifle 8.50 Steel 129.75 14,896 150.0 20.00 --- 12 3/4-inch Blakely Rifle 12.75 Steel 192.00 54,000 1 700.0 --- --- 1. Weight of Shell. 2. Mortar ranges are given at an elevation of 45°. 3. Bore Length Only. 4. Designed to be moved and operated by two men. 5. Obtained ranges of over 4,812 yards with shell and 27° elevation. 6. Obtained ranges of over 5,600 yards with shell and 39° elevation. 7. Obtained ranges of 4,680 yards with a 315-lb. shell and 50 lbs. powder at 25°. 8. Extreme Range 8,428 yards. 9. Muzzle-loading Armstrongs had practically identical dimensions and ranges.
10 pdr. Parrott Rifles drilling at Ringgold, Georgia, 1864. SMOOTHBORE ARTILLERY Field Artillery Piece Bore diameter (inches) Material Length of tube (inches) Weight of tube (pounds) Weight of projectile (pounds) Weight of charge (pounds) Muzzle velocity (ft./sec.) Range at 5° elevation (yards) M1841 6-pdr. Gun . 3.67 Bronze 60.0 884 6.10 1.25 1,439 1,523 M1841 12-pdr. Gun . 4.62 Bronze 78.0 1,757 12.30 2.50 1,486 1,663 M1841 12-pdr. Howitzer 4.62 Bronze 53.0 788 * 8.90 1.00 1,054 1,072 M1841 24-pdr. Howitzer 5.82 Bronze 64.0 1,318 * 18.40 2.00 1,060 1,322 M1841 32-pdr. Howitzer 6.40 Bronze 75.0 1,920 * 25.60 2.50 1,100 1,504 M1841 12-pdr. Mountain Howitzer 4.62 Bronze 32.9 220 * 8.90 0.50 650 900 M1857 12-pdr. Napoleon . 4.62 Bronze 66.0 1,227 12.30 2.50 1,440 1,619 RIFLED ARTILLERY Field Artillery Piece Bore diameter (inches) Material Length of tube (inches) Weight of tube (pounds) Weight of projectile (pounds) Weight of charge (pounds) Muzzle velocity (ft./sec.) Range at 5° elevation (yards) M1861 10-pdr. Parrott Rifle ** 2.90 Cast Iron 74.0 890 9.50 1.00 1,230 1,850 M1862 20-pdr. Parrott Rifle 3.67 Cast Iron 84.0 1,750 20.00 2.00 1,250 1,900 M1861 3-inch Ordnance Rifle 3.00 Wrought Iron 69.0 820 9.50 1.00 1,230 1,830 M1861 14-pdr. James Rifle 3.67 Bronze 60.0 875 12.00 .75 1,000 1,700 M1861 24-pdr. James Rifle 4.62 Bronze 78.0 1,750 24.00 1.50 1,000 1,800 M1861 12-pdr. Blakely Rifle 3.40 Steel 59.0 800 10.00 1.00 1,250 1,850 6-pdr. Whitworth Breechloading Rifle 2.15 Steel 70.0 700 6.00 1.00 1,550 2,750 12-pdr. Whitworth Breechloading Rifle 2.75 Steel 104.0 1,092 12.00 1.75 1,500 2,800 12-pdr. Whitworth Muzzleloading Rifle 2.75 Steel 84.0 1,000 12.00 2.00 1,600 3,000 6-pdr. Wiard Rifle . 2.56 Steel 56.0 600 6.00 0.60 1,300 1,800 10-pdr. Wiard Rifle . 3.00 Steel 58.0 790 10.00 1.00 1,230 1,850 3-inch Armstrong Muzzleloading Rifle 3.00 Steel 76.0 996 12.00 1.25 1,350 2,200 3-inch Armstrong Breechloading Rifle 3.00 Steel 83.0 918 12.00 1.25 1,300 2,100 * Weight of shell. ** The M1861 Parrott had a 2.90 inch bore diameter, the M1863 Parrott had a 3.00 inch bore diameter. .
Ball's Bluff Battlefield, VA, ©Mike Kendra, 2012The 12-pdr. Mountain Howitzer was a mountain gun used by the United States Army during the mid-Nineteenth Century, from 1837 to about 1870. It saw service during the Mexican–American War, the American Indian Wars, and during the American Civil War (primarily in the more rugged western theaters.) ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: 12-pdr. Mountain Howitzer Type: Lightweight and Highly Portable Smoothbore Howitzer In Service With: U.S. Army C.S. Army Purpose: Highly mobile and easy to transport artillery for use where typical field artillery wouldn't be practical Rarity: Common to Uncommon Special Notes: Referred to as a Model 1835 or a Model 1841 depending on the source, they were nicknamed 'Bull Pups' by many gunners. MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: Cyrus Alger, Boston, Massachusetts Ames, Chicopee, Massachusetts CS Casting Foundry: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia Columbus Arsenal, Columbus, Georgia Years of Manufacture: 1835 to 1870 Tube Composition: Bronze Purchase Price in 1861: $ $165.00 (US) No. Purchased/Used During the Civil War: approx. 400 to 500 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 4.62 inches Powder Chamber: 3.3 inches Bore Length: 30.9 inches Rifling Type: no grooves Trunnion Diameter: 2.7 inches Tube Length: 38 inches Tube Weight: 220 lbs. Carriage Type: Pack Carriage (280 lbs.) Prairie Carriage (720 lbs.) Total Weight: (Gun & Pack Carriage): about 500 lbs. (Gun & Prairie Carriage): about 940 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: With Prairie Carriage, 2 Pack Animals Required to Move: With Pack Carriage, 3 - one for the Carriage, one for the Barrel, and one for the Ammunition No. of Crew to Serve: 6 men on Pack Carriages Up to 8 men on Prairie Carriages AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 0.5 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: explosive shells, spherical case, canister Projectiles Weights: 8.9 lb. round explosive shells or spherical case shot PERFORMANCE Muzzle Velocity: Shells - 1,054 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): up to 900 yards ( miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): 3 seconds NOTES ON THE 12-PDR. MOUNTAIN HOWITZER The 12-pdr. Mountain Howitzer is a type of bronze smoothbore, optimized for firing explosive shells as well as spherical case and canister. Its range was 1,005 yards at 5° elevation with a charge of 1/2 pounds of black powder when firing shell. The original carriage design allowed the piece to be broken down into three loads for pack animal transport: the tube carried on one animal, carriage and wheels by another, and ammunition on the third. The Mountain Howitzer was designed to be light weight and highly portable. Because of this and its ease of disassembly it did not require roads for transportation making it well suited to Indian fighting and mountain warfare. They were used by artillery and infantry units, but their lightweight and mobility also made them well suited for cavalry units. In addition to the pack carriage, a prairie carriage was also created for traditional draft using only two horses. This versatility permitted their use with mounted forces in areas where roads were little more than paths. These small Howitzers provided artillery support for forces where it would otherwise be unavailable. However, their shorter range made them unsuitable for dueling with other field artillery. During the Civil War the Howitzer earned the nickname of the Bulldog, giving the impression it would not back down from a fight. The Indians also had a nickname for it: “The Gun that Booms Twice,” referring to the fact that Spherical Case shot exploded a certain distance after it was fired, causing another explosion after the initial one which launched the round. FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/02/11/us-mountain-howitzer/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/02/20/model-1835-mountain-howitzer/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/04/09/confederate-mountain-howitzer/
Located at Fort Donelson, Stewart County, TN June 2010, ©Rusk County Avengers ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: Model 1841 12-pdr. "Heavy" Smoothbore Field Gun Type: Muzleloading Smoothbore Gun In Service With: United States Army (Pre-War) Confederate States Army Purpose: Support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field Invented By: U.S. Army Ordnance Board Rarity: Rare MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundries: N.P. Ames, Chicopee, Massachusetts Cyrus Alger & Company, Boston, Massachusetts CS Casting Foundry: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, Virginia Years of Manufacture: 1841-1861 Tube Composition: Bronze Variants: Some 12-pdr. Heavy Field Guns were rifled to extend their useful life at the beginning of the war, using 12 or 18 groove right-hand twist rifling No. Purchased Prior to, and During the Civil War: 63 No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 28 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 4.62 inches Bore Length: 74 inches Rifling Type: no grooves Trunnion Diameter: 4.62 inches Barrel Thickness: at Muzzle Swell - 2.86 inches; at Vent - 3.64 inches Tube Length: 85 inches Tube Weight: 1,757 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 3 Field Carriage (1,175 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 2,975 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 8 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 2.5 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: 20 round balls, 8 case shot, 4 canister Projectiles Weights: 12 lb. round balls Weight of each Limber Chest: 499.8 lbs. Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 128 - Loaded in 4 - 32 Round / Mixed Ammo Chests From: 1864 Instruction for Field Artillery PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,486 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): 1,663 yards (0.94 miles) Notes about the Model 1841 12-pdr. "Heavy" Smoothbore Located at East Side Park, Paterson, NJ Sept 2006, ©Mike Kendra. A foreruner to the 12-pdr. Napoleon, and veteran of the Mexican War era, this weapon was one of the most widely used cannon in the United States during the 1840s and '50s. Packing a solid punch and having a respectable 1600-1700 yard effective range, the 12-pdr was a much better weapon than its little brother, the M1841 6-pdr. But its weight of 1800 lbs was a liability, just about at the top limit for the requirements of mobility in the field. With the easy to transport 12-pdr. Napoleon entering service, and the advent of lighter weight and longer range rifled iron guns, most of these heavy pieces were quickly retired or melted down. Some of these smoothbore guns were rifled with 18-grooves at the beginning of the Civil War. Alger and Ames each made one as 4.62-inch rifles with 12 grooves in 1861. The Tredegar Foundry produced at least eight of these guns for the Confederate army. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/12/18/12-pdr-fg-m-1841/
A frontal view, -by Bloodofox, Taken 2007 In 1862, a man named John Gilleland, from the little Georgia town of Athens, came up with this inventive, some would say crazy, idea for a double-barrel cannon. Gilleland, a local house builder and mechanic, a Jackson County dentist, a private in Mitchell’s Thunderbolts and an employee of Cook’s Armory, thought that a cannon such as this would serve the defenses of his community, and the needs of the Confederate Army, very well. It's the only known full size double-barrel cannon of its kind in the United States. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: Gilleland's Double-Barrelled Cannon Type: Experimental Muzzleloading Double 6-pdr. Gun In Service With: Lumpkin’s Artillery (Unofficial Rumors) The Town of Athens Purpose: "mow down enemy lines …. like a scythe cutting wheat" Invented By: John Gilleland Current Disposition: Mounted on a Cannon Carriage at Athens City Hall Location: At the corner of College and Hancock Avenues, Athens, Georgia Map Coordinates: 33°57'35.9"N 83°22'34.7"W Rarity: One of a Kind :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING -Photo Credit: David Earnest, circa 1900-1912 Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library, The Univ. of Georgia Libraries. The double-barreled cannon on the median that divided College Avenue. Casting Foundry: Athens Steam Company, Athens, Georgia Year of Manufacture: 1862 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Purchase Price in 1862: $350.00 (CS) No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 1 Special Notes: Appears to have been cast horizontally, then drilled. The mould casting lines are still visible today. Also this gun has two cascabels, presumably welded on after casting, an odd arrangement for sure! WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches each Rifling Type: no grooves Tube Length: 4 feet, 8 1/2 inches Tube Weight: 1,300 lbs. Carriage Type: Custom Carriage to accommodate extra wide barrel (about 900 lbs., 57" wheels) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): about 2,200 lbs. AMMUNITION -From the Southern Watchman, an Athens, Georgia Newspaper. Published April 30, 1862. Standard Powder Charge: Unknown Projectiles Types: Two solid shot connected by a chain Projectiles Weights: Each ball weighed about 6 lbs. PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: Unknown Muzzle Velocity: Unknown Effective Range (at 5°): Unknown Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): Unknown HISTORIC MARKER THE ATHENS DOUBLE-BARRELLED CANNON This cannon, the only known one of its kind, was designed by Mr. John Gilleland, a private in the "Mitchell Thunderbolts," an elite "home guard" unit of business and professional men ineligible because of age or disability for service in the Confederate army. Cast in the Athens foundry, it was intended to fire simultaneously two balls connected by a chain which would "mow down the enemy somewhat as a scythe cuts wheat." It failed for lack of a means of firing both barrels at the exact instant. It was tested in a field on the Newton's Bridge road against a target of upright poles. With both balls rammed home and the chain dangling from the twin muzzles, the piece was fired; but the lack of precise simultaneity caused uneven explosion of the propelling charges, which snapped the chain and gave each ball an erratic and unpredictable trajectory. Lacking a workable firing device, the gun was a failure. It was presented to the City of Athens where, for almost a century, it has been preserved as an object of curiosity, and where it performed sturdy service for many years in celebrating political victories. 029-5 - GEORGIA HISTORICAL COMMISSION - 1957 NOTES ON THE ATHENS DOUBLE BARREL CANNON John Gilleland's idea was to connect two cannon balls with a long chain (by some reports 8 foot long, others say it was as long as 50 feet!), and fire them simultaneously from this new double-barrel cannon, mowing down enemy lines with this wicked weapon like a scythe cutting wheat. The town of Athens, Georgia took up Gilleland's outlandish idea, and the cannon was financed by a $350 subscription raised by 36 interested citizens. The cannon was cast at the Athens Steam Company in 1862, it's a double six-pounder, cast in one piece, with a three degree divergence from the parallel between the barrels. Each barrel has its own touch hole so it can be fired independent of the other and a common touch hole in the center is designed to fire both barrels simultaneously. A view from behind the double-barreled cannon in Athens, Georgia -Photo by Bloodofox, Taken 2007 Upon it's completion on April 22, 1862, the cannon was taken out to Newton Bridge Road, for a test firing. The test was, to say the least, spectacular if unsuccessful. According to reports one ball left the muzzle before the other and the two balls pursued an erratic circular course plowing up an acre of ground, destroying a corn field and mowing down some saplings before the chain broke. Then the balls adopted separate courses, one killing a cow and the other demolishing the chimney on a log cabin. Those observing the test firing scattered in fear of their lives. Later, some reports claimed that two or three spectators were killed by the firing. The reports of the deaths have not been substantiated. The Watchman, a local newspaper, promptly reported that the test was an unqualified success. The cannon was then sent, at Gilleland’s insistence, to the Augusta Arsenal for further tests. Colonel Rains, arsenal commandant, tested the gun and reported it a failure for the purpose intended. Colonel Rains had tested a similar weapon at Governor’s Island in 1855 with the same results. Gilleland, however, was still of the opinion that the gun was a perfect success and engaged in a heated correspondence with the Confederate Secretary of War. Gilleland contended the cannon had been fired successfully and James W. Camak reports one successful shot. Camak also stated that the cannon was very effective if both barrels were loaded with canister or grape shot and fired simultaneously. Further persistence proving futile, Gilleland then approached Governor Brown in an attempt to interest the state in his gun. Brown declined to provide money for further experiments and the cannon was returned to Athens. For the next few years the double-barrel cannon was used as a signal gun for the town of Athens, to warn of the approach of Union soldiers. There have been claims that the gun was also used against Union infantry, by Lumpkin’s Artillery when they repelled Stoneman’s Raiders at Barbers Creek on August 2, 1864. The cannon was said to be used with canister. The Athens papers did not describe this action in any detail, so further information about the use of the double-barrel cannon in this action is not known. After the war the cannon was mounted on a carriage and placed in the town square. Today this cannon can can still be seen in the square, mounted at the corner of College and Hancock Aves, in the town of Athens, Georgia. ATHENS DOUBLE BARREL CANNON CURRENT LOCATION MAP VIEW MAP FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS http://www.aboutnorthgeorgia.com/ang/Athen%27s_Double_Barrel_Cannon https://www.exploresouthernhistory.com/athenscannon.html
If you are looking for fire, brimstone, and chaos, like nothing has wrought over the battlefield before, you need to get yourself one of these: If you've been around Civil War artillery as long as I have, you probably have seen this cannon before. Athens Double-Barrelled Cannon ©Ed Jackson, Used with Permission It's the Civil War version to the Coach Gun, and you can try shooting it from the hip, but you'll probably kill everyone within shouting distance. Maybe that's a good thing, or maybe not. Here are a few snippets of it's history from my profile of it: Gilleland's idea was to connect two cannon balls with a long chain, and fire them simultaneously from this new double-barrel cannon, mowing down enemy lines with this wicked weapon like a scythe cutting wheat. Upon completion, the cannon was taken out on the Newton Bridge Road in April 1862, for a test firing. The test was, to say the least, spectacular if unsuccessful. According to reports one ball left the muzzle before the other and the two balls pursued an erratic circular course plowing up an acre of ground, destroying a corn field and mowing down some saplings before the chain broke. Then the balls adopted separate courses, one killing a cow and the other demolishing the chimney on a log cabin. Those observing the test firing scattered in fear of their lives. Later, some reports claimed that two or three spectators were killed by the firing. The reports of the deaths have not been substantiated. The Watchman, a local newspaper, promptly reported that the test was an unqualified success. For the full Profile and story, look here: https://civilwartalk.com/threads/athens-double-barrel-cannon.168680/ But, that's not the real story here today. Oh no! I've got a beast here that beats the old Athen's gun, oh yes it does. Born in the depths of hell, this beast boasts a single-double barrel configuration, and I don't know who the lunatic was who decided that piling up literally feet of chain in front of two cannonballs that are about to be fired out of a cannon, and that's a good idea? Only the devil himself knows for sure! He's the only guy brave enough to fire one of these things off. Although, if your going to do one of these, don't make it with one giant knob on the back, it needs two proper knobs, this just looks all wrong... I needed to know what kind of crazy this man was, so I looked up the specifications for his patent, and yep, it's as crazy as it looks! Let's see here, two diverging barrels, with a slot .... "This allows the powder in both barrels to mingle, and a single fuse ignites both, so as to ensure a simultaneous discharge." Oh boy, I still don't think this is going to end well....
When the Civil War broke out in 1861, neither the North, nor the South was prepared to engage in a major war. Decades of relative peace had left limited stockpiles of small arms, the rifles and handguns carried by individual soldiers. As tens of thousands of men volunteered to fight alongside their friends and neighbors, those arms stockpiles were quickly exhausted. Purchasing agents for the Union and Confederacy began buying up every European arm they could find, and shipping them back to American ports. As a result, many volunteers during the first two years of the Civil War found themselves using a wide variety of long-arms, including antiquated weapons dating back to the War of 1812. Meanwhile, American gun manufacturers, Sharps, Colt, Remington, and the United States armory at Springfield, all quickly expanded rifle production. The 1855 introduction of the rifled barrel, which had spiraling grooves running down the barrel that caused the bullet to spin and travel long distances more accurately, made older smoothbore muskets obsolete. Loading a Musket Like a Civil War Era Soldier A muzzle-loading rifle required 9 specific movements to prepare it to fire: (1) lower musket to ground (2) handle cartridge (3) tear cartridge (4) charge cartridge (5) draw rammer (6) ram cartridge twice (7) return rammer (8) prime [place priming cap] (9) shoulder-arms [musket is loaded and ready to fire]* [The next steps would be Ready / Aim / Fire / then Repeat the sequence as commanded.] Trained soldiers were expected to complete these steps in 20 seconds and be able to fire three aimed bullets per minute! * A note on the historic practice of "shoulder arms": Today's Reenactors & Live Fire Ammunition Shooters tend to frown on wandering around with loaded guns for safety's sake! In practice, instead of going to "Shoulder-Arms", a soldier, or someone portraying a person doing this movement will likely go directly to the "Ready" position and prepare for "Aim & Fire". 1861 SPRINGFIELD RIFLE, .58 CAL. The most frequently used rifle of the Civil War was the American-made Springfield rifle musket, a single-shot, muzzle-loading gun detonated with a percussion cap. Not only did it have the rifled barrel, which dramatically increased accuracy over a smoothbore musket, but it also was the first rifle to fire the famous .58 cal. Minié ball--an inch-long, bullet-shaped projectile, rather than a round ball as used in older muskets. The 39-inch-long rifled barrel made it possible to hit a target with a Minié ball as far away as 500 yards. By the end of the war, approximately 1.5 million Springfield rifle muskets had been produced by the Springfield Armory and 20 subcontractors. Since the South lacked sufficient manufacturing capability, most of the Springfield's in Southern hands were captured on the battlefields during the early part of the war. The precursor to the 1863 Springfield, the 1861 had the original 1855 style hammer that was used with the ‘55’s Maynard priming system. 1861 ENFIELD RIFLE, .577 CAL. The second most widely used weapon of the Civil War was the British Enfield three-band, single-shot, muzzle-loading musket (above). It was also the standard weapon for the British army between 1853-1867. Originally produced at the Royal Small Arms Factory at Enfield, England, approximately 900,000 of these muskets were imported during 1861-1865. Many officers, however, preferred the Springfield muskets over the Enfield muskets--largely due to the interchangeability of parts that the machine-made Springfield's offered. 1863 C.S. RICHMOND RIFLE, .58 CAL. Utilizing 1855 Rifle Musket parts taken from the Harpers Ferry Arsenal, the Confederacy manufactured this long arm at the Richmond Armory in Richmond, VA. Similar in design to the 1861 Springfield, the Richmond Musket utilized a different rear sight, brass buttplate and a brass forend cap. 1841 MISSISSIPPI RIFLE, .54 & .58 CAL. This historic percussion lock weapon gained its name as a result of its performance in the hands of Jefferson Davis’ Mississippi Regiment during the Mexican War. The Mississippi is also known as the “Yager” (a misspelling of the German “Jaeger”). The rifle was obsolete by 1855. However, it had previously proven so effective that it was rebuilt to take the .54, then the .58 Cal. Minié. SMITH CARBINE, .50 CAL. The Smith was one of the most successful breech loading carbines of the Civil War. Its hinged breech action permitted quick and easy reloading while on horseback. 1859 SHARPS CAVALRY CARBINE, .54 CAL. Popular with both sides during the War between the States, the Sharps was one of the first, and one of the best black powder breech loaders. Approximately 115,000 of these carbines and variants were made during the Civil War, and it was a favorite of cavalrymen of both the North and the South. It’s design carried over into the cartridge era with great success. “BERDAN” 1859 SHARPS RIFLE, .54 CAL. Col. Hiram Berdan formed his 1st and 2nd U.S. Sharpshooters Regiments early in the Civil War. The exploits of the green uniformed “Berdan’s Sharpshooters” soon gained them the reputation as the most formidable fighting unit in the Union Army. Legendary Union sniper “ California Joe” Head was the first sharpshooter to be issued the New Model 1859 Sharps rifle for test and evaluation. It proved so effective, Col. Berdan ordered 2000 rifles with the optional set triggers. In the hands of these marksmen, the “Berdan” 1859 Sharps rifle became one of the deadliest weapons of the war. 1861 MUSKETOON, .577 CAL. The 1861 Enfield carbine that was a popular muzzleloader used by Southern Cavalry and Artillery units. 1862 WHITWORTH, .45 CAL. Sir Joseph Whitworth of England created a muzzleloading rifle with a twisted hexagonal bore and then shaped bullets to match this bore. He patented his hexagonal bore in 1854. A Confederate weapon in the Civil War, when outfitted with a telescopic site this firearm had an effective range of 1,500 yards. The twisted hexagonal bore imparted a steadiness of flight to its .45 caliber bullet, and made this rifle the favorite of Confederate sharpshooters. The Confederacy imported a small number of the rifles from the Whitworth Rifle Company of Manchester, England beginning in 1862. 1863 SPENCER REPEATING CARBINE, .52 CAL. 1863 SPENCER REPEATING RIFLE, .52 CAL. Yankee officers cited the Spencer as one of the single greatest factors in winning the War. No confederate arm was a match for the .52 caliber Spencer, which fired seven shots from its magazine in less than thirty seconds. Because the repeaters weighed a hefty 10 pounds when loaded and took exotic primed rimfire cartridges, the conservative chief of ordnance James Ripley blocked their purchase until 1863. 1861 CASE HARDENED IRON FRAME HENRY RIFLE, .44 CAL. RIMFIRE 1861 BLUED IRON FRAME HENRY RIFLE, .44 CAL. RIMFIRE 1863 MILITARY HENRY RIFLE, .44 CAL. RIMFIRE The forerunner of all Winchester lever actions, the Henry was referred to by Confederates as that "...D*mn Yankee rifle that can be loaded on Sunday and fired all week". About 14,000 Henry’s were made between 1860 and 1866 by the New Haven Arms Company. Quite a few company-size Union organizations, especially those from Kentucky, Illinois, Indiana, and Missouri, carried Henry rifles, purchased at their own expense. Although this rifle only saw limited action during the Civil War, 1,731 were delivered to the Army Ordnance Department at a cost of more than $36,000. They were chambered in .44 Henry, which was a rimfire cartridge with a copper case. The magazine held an astounding 15 rounds. A lever action simultaneously cocked the rifle, ejected the spent case, and put a fresh cartridge in the chamber. Only two organizations, the 1st Maine and 1st District of Columbia cavalry regiments, were known to have been issued Henry rifles by the Army. 1863 REMINGTON CONTRACT RIFLE, .58 CAL. (a.k.a. "The Zouave") On April 18th, 1863, Remington began shipping the Government an approved order of 10,001 rifles of what the Army called it's "Harpers Ferry Pattern" Rifle in Official Documents. Produced between 1862 and 1865, the Remington was never actually issued to any documented units during the American Civil War. That may be because the Army had already standardized on the Springfield Rifle. However, there have been at least three claims that Remington Contract Rifle remains have been identified after being recovered from excavation sites in the Petersburg area. If these claims come from real wartime rifles, it's been speculated that one or more late war units was issued Remington Rifles on a temporary basis, later to be replaced with Springfield Rifles as they became available. However, there couldn't have been many instances, if this was the case. Any evidence of this may also be further hidden by confusion of this rifle pattern with the Mississippi Rifle, and/or the Harper's Ferry Rifle, and any researcher looking for evidence needs to watch out for any or all of these identifying names.... Most of these rifles may have been simply crated up and put into storage at Watervliet Arsenal in New York, perhaps as a reserve for the defense of Washington, DC, if the Rebel army had ever attempted to attack the city directly. Many of these "nearly mint" guns made it into the hands of reenactors in the 1950's and 1960's. In addition, around 1961, the very first reproduction Civil War musket was introduced, it was a copy of the Remington Contract Rifle, but if it had been sold as a "Remington", it would have legal complications. So, to solve this marketing problem, the reproduction guns were sold as "Zouave Rifles", associating them with the colorful uniforms and the "Elite" reputation of the period Zouave Units. The nickname, "Zouave", became so well known it was applied to originals too, but it should really only apply to the reproduction version of the gun. MORE LONG ARMS OF THE CIVIL WAR While this article has explored quite a few different long arms from the era, it is by no means an exhaustive listing of arms used or issued during that time period. For a listing with additional information, and future additions, please see the: TABLE of CIVIL WAR SMALL ARMS - LONG GUNS
Image Name / Type Mfr Date No. Mfr. Caliber 1841 U.S. Percussion Rifle "Mississippi" Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle 1841 to 1861 100,000 .54/.58 1842 U.S. Percussion Musket "Harper's Ferry Musket" Single Shot Muzzle-loading Smoothbore Musket 1844 to 1855 275,000 .69 Austrian Lorenz Rifle-Musket Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1854 to 1861 Austrian Import 326,924 .54 1855 U.S. Percussion Rifle-Musket "Harper's Ferry Rifle" Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1857 to 1861 60,000 .58 1861 Springfield Rifle-Musket Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1861 to 1865 660,000 .58 1863 Springfield Rifle-Musket Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1863 to 1865 700,000 .58 1853 Pattern Enfield Rifle-Musket (P53) Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1854 to 1867 English Import 900,000 .577 1858 Pattern Enfield Naval Rifle (P58) Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle 1858 to 1867 English Import 50,000 .577 1861 Colt Special Contract Rifle-Musket Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1862 to 1864 197,000 .58 1863 C.S. Richmond Rifle-Musket Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Musket 1861 to 1865 Unknown .58 1862 Remington Rifle "Zouave" Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle 1863 to 1865 12,500 Not-Issued .58 1855 Burnside Carbine Single Shot Breech-loading Rifle Carbine 1858 to 1870 100,000 .54 1856 Maynard Carbine Single Shot Breech-loading Rifle Carbine 1856 to 1866 20,000 .52 1857 Smith Carbine Single Shot Breech-loading Rifle Carbine 1861 to 1865 30,000 .50 1859 Sharps Carbine Single Shot Breech-loading Rifle Carbine 1859 to 1866 100,000 .54 1860 Gallagher Carbine Single Shot Breech-loading Rifle Carbine 1861 to 1865 17,782 .50 1861 Pattern Enfield Musketoon Carbine (P61) Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Carbine 1861 to 1865 English Import Unknown .577 1863 C.S. Richmond Carbine Single Shot Muzzle-loading Rifle Carbine 1863 to 1865 Unknown .58 1855 Colt Revolving Rifle 6-Shot Revolver Action Repeating Rifle 1855 to 1862 5,000 .44/.56 1860 Spencer Carbine 7-Shot Lever Action Breechloading Repeating Rifle Carbine 1860 to 1869 95,000 .52 1860 Spencer Rifle 7-Shot Lever Action Breechloading Repeating Rifle 1860 to 1869 100,000 .52 1860 Henry Repeating Rifle 14-Shot Lever Action Breechloading Repeating Rifle 1860 to 1866 14,000 .44 1854 Whitworth Rifle Single Shot Muzzle-loading Sharpshooter's Rifle 1857 to 1865 English Import 13,400 .45
Civil War Cannon-Balls and Cannon-Shells came in a large variety of sizes! Some were as small as a modern baseball, and some were much larger than a modern basketball! Confederate torpedoes, shot, and shells in front of the arsenal, Charleston, SC, 1865. Photo by Selmar Rush Seibert. -National Archives First it's important to note that smoothbore guns typically fired round balls, and rifled guns most frequently fired elongated shot, similar to the shape of bullets you would see in use today. Rifled shot was typically 2 to 4 times heavier than the equivalent Round Ball shot by bore size. HOW BIG WERE CIVIL WAR "CANNON BALLS"? To explain, we will use the size of the cannon's bore, which would be just slightly larger than the diameter of the projectile or ball. The notation for this was known as the cannons caliber, and it was measured in inches. It would also similar to the size of the hole that would be punched in a target by the projectile or ball. Here are some Typical Examples, with a few modern equivalents (in green), and Famous Civil War Cannons (in blue) for comparison: Caliber or Size of Shot Caliber in Metric Round Ball Size Common Civil War Era Cannons of this Bore Size * 2.46 inches 62.4 mm 2-pdr. (an uncommon size during the ACW) 2.6 inches 66.0 mm - 6-pdr. Wiard 2.91 inches 73.9 mm 3-pdr. 10-pdr. Parrott (Baseball 2.875") 3.0 inches 76.2 mm - 3-inch Parrott, 3-inch Ordnance Rifle, 12-pdr. Whitworth 3.2 inches 81.3 mm 4-pdr. (an uncommon size during the ACW, much more common post-war, late 1800's) 3.4 inches 86.4 mm - 12-pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer 3.5 inches 88.9 mm - 12-pdr. Blakely Rifle 3.67 inches 93.2 mm 6-pdr. 6-pdr. Gun, 20-pdr. Parrott, 12-pdr. Wiard (Croquet 3.625") 3.8 inches 96.5 mm - 14-pdr. James Rifle (Softball 3.82") 4.2 inches 106.7 mm 9-pdr. (Bocce ball 4.2") 4.5-inches 114.3 mm - 30-pdr. Parrott, Siege Rifle (Long Tom) 4.62 inches 117.3 mm 12-pdr. 12-pdr. Napoleon, 12-pdr. Howitzer, 24-pdr. James Rifle (Duckpin Bowling Ball 5") 5.29 inches 134.4 mm 18-pdr. M1845 18-pdr. Iron Siege Gun 5.82 inches 147.8 mm 24-pdr. 24-pdr. Howitzer 6.41 inches 162.8 mm 32-pdr. 100-pdr. Parrott, 32-pdr. Howitzer U.S. 7.02 inches 178.3 mm 42-pdr. 42-pdr. Howitzer 7.50 inches 190.5 mm - 7.5" Blakely Rifles (Widow Blakely) 8.0 inches 203.2 mm 8-inch VIII Dahlgren, 8" Rodman, 150/200-pdr. Parrott (Swamp Angel) (Volleyball 8.39") 9.0 inches 228.6 mm 9-inch IX Dahlgren (Basketball 9.4") 10.0 inches 254.0 mm 10-inch X Dahlgren, 10" Rodman, 300-pdr. Parrott 11.0 inches 279.4 mm 11-inch XI Dahlgren (Monitor's Guns) 13.0-inches 330.2 mm 13-inch XIII Dahlgren, 13" Rodman, 13" Seacoast Mortar (The Dictator) (Lg. Medicine Ball 13.7") 15.0 inches 381.0 mm 15-inch XV Dahlgren, 15" Rodman *Equivalent Modern Sports Ball Equivalent Size Provided for Reference in Green RULES FOR NAMING SMOOTHBORE CANNONS The size-name of smoothbore cannons and their projectiles (for example: 6-pounder or a 12-pounder) was signified by the size of the bore diameter of the cannon's barrel, or caliber. The caliber size would then be matched up to the approximate weight of the solid iron cannonball shot. You can think of it like this: a cannon like a Napoleon with a bore diameter of 4.62 inches would shoot a solid iron ball that would weigh about 12 pounds, but a cannon with a bore diameter of 7.02 inches would shoot a ball that weighed as much as 42 pounds. So, for smoothbore guns, the size of the cannon was referred to in terms of the average weight of the solid ball shot they could fire. A cannon that shot a 6-pound ball was called a 6-pounder, and might be abbreviated as: "6-pdr." A smoothbore cannon that shot a 24-pound ball was called notated as: 24-pdr. This naming practice had been in place for over a century in the United States, including for guns used during the American Revolution. One new change in the modern era of smoothbore guns was that any smoothbore gun above 7-inches in caliber is designated by it's size in inches, rather than weight. So the Rodman Cannon, with the 15-inch bore, was a 15-inch Rodman. The Navy used a similar system, except it used roman numerals for the inch measurements. So a Dahlgren Gun, with a 15-inch bore, was a XV-inch Dahlgren! All these simple rules had to be re-written with the invention of "Rifling", as militaries learned of the advantages of distance and accuracy in the new system, the new guns just couldn't be classified with this system. "View of rows of stacked cannon balls." -National Archives Photo taken by Mathew Brady between 1861-1865. Note: On the Left side, the first set of stacks in the rear includes Whitworth Shells, probably of the 12-pdr. variety. CONFUSION IN RULES FOR NAMING RIFLE CANNONS Rifled guns couldn't easily follow the rules smoothbores had used for over a hundred years, not exactly. It seems that depending on the manufacturer, some rifled guns were designated with a classic smoothbore weight like name, and others by the caliber in inches. Rifled guns were such a new technology for the military, the armies had yet to make a standardized naming system for them. All of this confusion comes from the elongated shell making the projectile two to four times heavier then round balls in the same caliber gun. Also, the weight could vary depending on the length of the projectile, and some rifled guns did have multiple length shells available for use. That didn't stop manufacturers from using the popular "pounder" designation though, even when it didn't completely make sense. Take for instance, the 2.9 inch, 10-pdr. Parrott Rifle, this would be a 3-pdr. gun if it was shooting round balls. This common Civil War cannon was redesigned in 1863 as a 3-inch rifle to be more compatible with other guns also in the field, but they still considered the gun a 10-pounder Rifle! At least most of it's ammunition was still between 9¾ lbs. and 10½ lbs. On the other hand, you have the Army 200-pdr. Parrott Rifle. How heavy would you expect it's typical projectile to be? Well, typically this gun fired 150 lb. shells from it's 8-inch bore! An early design shell did in fact weigh 200 lbs. but a lighter design was found to function more favorably. However, the confusion doesn't end there because, this exact same gun was also called the 150-pdr. Parrott by the Navy, and that just to adds to everyone's confusion. Why no-one thought to just call this gun an 8-inch Parrott Rifle for both the Army and Navy, and be done with it, is amazing! Mismatches like this weren't uncommon among the many varied Civil War era rifle cannons, and some of the imported cannons for the Confederacy were unique and didn't always classify easily with other guns. As an example, the British Whitworth Rifle fires a 12 pound projectile, so it's called a 12 pounder Whitworth Rifle. That's the easy part. What is it's bore size? You might see it listed as a 3-inch gun, and you might see it listed as a 2.75 inch gun. Why the discrepancy? Well, the bore, and the projectiles aren't round per say, they are hexagonal, and when you measure them you can do it two ways. You can measure the flats, that's the smaller "bore diameter" of 2.75 inches, or you can measure from opposite corners, and that's the larger measurement of 2.99" or nearly 3-inches. Even after years of study, there is always something new to learn about Civil War Artillery!
12-pdr. "Blakely Pattern" Rifle by Fawcett & Preston, Type 6, at the Old Cyclorama Building Gettysburg NMP, ©Mike Kendra, Sept 2002Smuggled into the South by way of blockade runners, the Confederacy purchased and imported many guns during the Civil War. Of these, Blakley's guns were the most common imported type of rifled artillery. Some were also captured by Union ships that managed to capture an unlucky cargo ship attempting to run the blockade. However, much of the documentation of the use and service history of Blakely rifles has been lost to history. In the 1960's, Warren Ripley assigned type numbers to all surviving Blakely rifles in order to simplify the classification and identification of these guns. His type numbers are still the standard for identification used today. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: 12-pdr. Blakely Rifles In Service With: Confederate States Army United States Army (at least 2 batteries, 12 guns) Type: Muzzleloading Field Rifle Purpose: Lightwieght Ordnance for Field Artillery Use Invented By: Royal Artillery Captain Alexander Theopilis Blakely Rarity: Very Rare :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING Casting Foundry: Blakely's Contractor - Fawcett, Preston & Company, Liverpool, England Years of Manufacture: 1860 - 1863 Tube Composition: Wrought Iron or Steel Variants: At least seven different varieties of Blakely Field Rifles have been discovered in the many battlefields and museums across the country, most with variations on banding and breech designs. Five and perhaps as many as six of the seven varieties are 3.5 inch 12-pounders. Type 1 - The Galena Blakely, bore as current measurements run, 3.75 inches, with low profile breech reinforcing band Type 2 - Most common variant with breech reinforcement Type 3 - This variant has a heavy breech reinforcement band Type 4 - This variant has a small trunnion ring seated against the breech reinforcement Type 5 - These are actually Type 2 guns, with a 6" repair collar band in front of the trunnions Type 6 - "Blakely Pattern" Rifle made without a Blakely license by Fawcett & Preston, has a large center trunnion ring but no obvious breech reinforcement unlike any other Blakely 12-pdr. gun. No. Purchased During the Civil War: Unknown No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 17 (3.5 inch) Purchase Price in 1861: Sold to Union Army for £230 each Sold to Confederate Agents for £110 each WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.5 inches Exception Type 1: 3.75 inches after heavy use Tube Length: Type 1: 84 inches Type 2: 58 inches Type 3: 60.34 inches Type 4: 66 inches Type 6: 67.15 inches Rifling Type: Type 1: hook-slant rifling Type 2: 7 groove hook-slant rifle grooves, with a right hand twist Type 3: 6 groove saw-tooth rifle grooves, with a right hand twist Type 4: 6 groove saw-tooth rifle grooves, with a right hand twist Type 6: 7 groove hook-slant rifle grooves, with a right hand twist Tube Weight: Between 600 & 800 lbs. Carriage Type: M1841 No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1,500 to 1,700 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 AMMUNITION Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 240 Standard Powder Charge: 1.5 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles: Sixty 12 lb. Bashley Britten Patent (Imported) shot & shells per Limber box, 4 boxes total. Confederate Copies & Read Patent Shells were substituted, but performed poorly compared to Genuine Imported rounds PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: unknown ft/sec. Maximum Range: 2,320 yards (1.31 miles) NOTES ON THE 12-PDR. BLAKELY RIFLE British Captain Theophilus Alexander Blakely was a prolific designer of rifled cannon, and since his own government did not adopt his designs, he sold his weapons overseas. Blakely, pioneered a banding system for his rifled cannon. With each experiment of his design a different cannon was developed with the end result of at least five, and possibly as many as ten, distinct types of Blakely cannons were manufactured. However Blakely had no foundry of his own, so he used contractors to produce all of his guns. Some of these guns were smuggled through the Union blockade for use in the Confederate armies. The guns themselves were very light, and this caused quite a shock to the carriage upon firing, causing a damaging recoil. The ammunition was also usually imported and quite expensive. 12-pdr. Blakely Rifles, Repaired Type 2 (Former Type 5- Left & Center Photos), Type 4 (on Right). Shiloh NMP, © rob63 12-pdr. Blakely Rifle, "Lady Polk", Type 2. Museum Of The Mississippi Delta in Greenwood, Mississippi, © bdtex FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/04/09/blakely-3-75in-rifle/
On the Deck of the USS Monitor, a XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Gun peeking out it's porthole. Hampton Roads, Virginia. (Library of Congress Photo, July 9, 1862).When John Ericsson designed the Monitor, he knew that a 15-inch Rodman existed, but that was an Army gun. He hoped that that a gun like that could go in his design. Unfortunately, the largest gun adopted by the Navy at that moment was the XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Guns, which is still really big, but not what he hoped for. Dahlgren wasn't convinced that guns larger than 11 inches were safe, and in the confines of an armored turret, well, he had even more reservations about such big guns. So at his direction, Ericsson submitted his experimental plans for the Monitor tailored to fit two XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Guns in the turret. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Guns Type: Muzzleloading Smoothbores In Service With: U.S. Navy, Aboard the U.S.S. Dacotah, transferred to the U.S.S. Monitor Under the Command of: Lieutenant John Lorimer Worden, in command of U.S.S. Monitor, Feb. 25, 1862 - Early Sept. 1862 Lieutenant Samuel Greene, Executive Officer, supervised loading and firing of one Dahlgren Acting Master, Louis N. Stodder, supervised loading and firing of one Dahlgren Commander John P. Bankhead, in command of U.S.S. Monitor, Early Sept. 1862 - Dec. 30, 1862 Purpose: All Purpose Naval Armament on Turret Ironclad Gun Placement: Gun 27: U.S.S. Monitor Turret, Port Side Gun 28: U.S.S. Monitor Turret, Starboard Side Used in Battle: March 9, 1862, Battle of Hampton Roads, Virginia, against ironclad C.S.S. Virginia Invented By: John A. Dahlgren, USN Lost at Sea: On-board the sinking U.S.S. Monitor, Atlantic Ocean, southeast off Cape Hatteras, on December 31, 1862 MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Springs, New York Year of Manufacture: 1859 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Registry Numbers: 27 & 28 Trunnion Markings: Not Available Foundry Numbers: Not Available Inspectors Mark: Not Available Additional Engraving: added during a maintenance period in October of 1862... Gun 27: "WORDEN. MONITOR & MERRIMAC." Gun 28: "ERICSSON. MONITOR & MERRIMAC." Purchase Price in 1859: $1,391.00 ea. (US) WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 11 inches Bore Length: 131.2 inches Tube Length: 161 inches Tube Weights: Gun 27: 15,720 lbs. Gun 28: 15,617 lbs. Carriage Type: Turret Carriages No. of Crew to Serve: 7 men per gun PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: One round, every 7 to 8 minutes each Rifling Type: None, Smoothbores Standard Powder Charge: Up to 15 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Later, charges safely increased to 30 lbs., too late for Hampton Roads Muzzle Velocity: 1,120 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): 1,712 yards (0.97 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): 5.81 seconds Maximum Range (at 15°): 3,650 yards (2.07 miles) Projectiles: Round Balls, 166 lb. Solid Shot or 133.5 lb. Shells HISTORY OF THE MONITOR'S DAHLGRENS John Ericsson had been assured that two XI-inch Dahlgren shell guns would be provided for the new Monitor project. When it was discovered that the intended guns had not shipped, and were not available, a search for available guns was made. The U.S.S. Dacotah which just happened to be docked nearby, had two slide-mounted pivot guns installed, these just happened to be lightly used XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Guns, Registry numbers 27 & 28. It was just what they needed. The Dahlgren guns were removed from Dacotah, and mounted aboard the Monitor, inside the new armored rotating turret. Back in 1860, before the Monitor was designed, during a test firing, a Dahlgren shell gun exploded. To prevent any catastrophic gun bursting within the confined turret on the Monitor, each of the XI-inch Dahlgren guns was restricted to using 15-lb gunpowder charges by the always cautious Commander John Dahlgren. When the Monitor entered it's first Battle at Hampton Roads, it fired it's Dahlgrens in anger against the C.S.S. Virginia, formerly the Merrimack. Forty-one shots were fired by the Monitor in that engagement, but with the restricted gunpowder charge of 15 lbs., even though the 165 lb. solid shot easily dented and scuffed the armor plate on the Virginia, it didn't do any serious damage to the iron-clad vessel. Tests conducted after the battle confirmed that using 30 lbs. of black powder in the 11-inch Dahlgren would have easily punctured the Virginia’s hull. After the Battle of Hampton Roads, the Monitor attempted to engage the Virginia when it came out on May 8th, firing a few shots at distance, but the Virginia didn't take the bait. The Confederates abandonded the City of Richmond a few days later, burning the Virginia in their wake. Free from patrolling the Virginia, the Monitor moved on to participate in the Battle of Drewry's Bluff, firing at a few targets with the Dahlgrens and scoring hits, but finding it difficult to elevate their guns effectively at short range. When the U.S.S. Monitor was ordered to move down to North Carolina in late December, it took a voyage that it wouldn't sail home from. In the evening of December 30th, a storm hit off the coast of Cape Hatteras, and waves caused the ship to take on water and begin sinking. Later that night the doomed ship took 16 men with it to the sea floor, and the two XI-inch Dahlgren Shell Guns. ARTIFACT RECOVERY Wreck of USS Monitor Discovered: August, 27, 1973 Location of Wreck: 35°0′6″N 75°24′23″W, designated as Monitor National Marine Sanctuary Atlantic Ocean, about 16 mile SSE of Cape Hatteras Lighthouse, North Carolina, about 230' below the surface. Turret / Dahlgrens Recovery Date: August 5, 2002 Dahlgrens Current Disposition: Undergoing Conservation at the Mariners' Museum in Newport News, Virginia After the turret was raised in 2002, conservators began the long process of excavating the fragile cannons from the turret and stabilizing them. The cannons were removed from the turret in 2004 and placed in conservation tanks. The guns underwent an extended soaking process to remove chlorides from the iron. This process took approximately five years. Additional work to remove concretions outside and inside the guns has been completed. Both guns are currently undergoing electrolytic reduction and desalination in the Batten Conservation Laboratory Complex. Photos, L to R: USS Monitor Turret Recovery 2002, Monitor's Dahlgrens going into Conservation Tanks, and Excavating the Bore of one of the Monitor's Dahlgrens. -Photos from NOAA.gov Navy Official Reports, North Atlantic Blockading Squadron Report of Lieutenant Jeffers, U. S. Navy Regarding ammunition expended by the U. S. S. Monitor U. S. CASED BATTERY MONITOR, Hampton Roads, March 16, 1862. SIR: In answer to your enquiry I have to report that the Monitor expended forty-one solid cast-iron shot in her engagement with the Merrimack, equally divided between guns 27 and 28. On inspection of the bore with a mirror no trace of injury can be observed. I have no means of examining the vent by taking an impression. Unless absolutely necessary I shall fire no more cast-iron solid shot, as I am satisfied that shells are not more liable to fracture. The bronze coated shot I shall reserve for especial occasion. The wrought-iron shot I shall send on shore to remove the temptation to fire them. I am satisfied that the Merrimack can not seriously injure the Monitor, but an explosion of a gun might destroy the turret. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, WM. N. JEFFERS, Lieutenant, Commanding. Flag-Officer L. M. GOLDSBOROUGH, Commanding North Atlantic Blockading Squadron. NAVY OR, Series I--Volume 7, From March 8 To September 4, 1862. pp. 1-81 FOR FURTHER READING The Story of the Monitor: The First Naval Conflict Between Ironclad Vessels - Archive.ORG (Free) by William S. Wells, Issued by the Cornelius S. Bushnell National Memorial Association, New Haven, CT; 1899. Shells, and Shell-guns by John Dahlgren, King & Baird, Philadelphia, 1856. - Google (Free) The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/10/13/guns-of-the-uss-monitor/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/04/27/xi-inch-dahlgrens/ https://www.marinersmuseum.org/blog/2015/03/remembering-uss-monitor-her-designer-and-their-arch-rival/
In Jackson County, a blast furnace was constructed in 1861. Saltpeter was made here in large caves during the war. An incident of interest relative to this county was that at the outbreak of the war, General John B Gordon was operating coal mines here. But he dropped the coal business at the first shot, raised a company called the Raccoon Roughs, which was enlisted in the Sixth Alabama, of which Gordon soon became colonel. Serving on General Gordon's staff was a son of Samuel G. Jones, now Judge Thomas G. Jones. In the county of Cherokee, which adjoins Calhoun, on the north there were three furnaces supplying iron to the Confederate government, the old Round Mountain furnace whose records were given in Moses Stroup's biography, the Rock Run furnace, and the Cornwall iron works. The destruction of Rock Run was accomplished early in the war at the time of Streight's raid. The stirring tale of General Forrest and the girl Emma Sanson, all told over and over again by the local historians, is glorious incident of this time and place. One halts a second, riding by, and salutes the brave girl, and General Forrest. Cornwall Furnace near Cedar Bluff, Alabama, Photo CC by Thomson200, 2015. The Cornwall furnace was put up immediately at the outbreak of the war, by the firm of James Noble, and Sons, of Rome, Georgia. It was a six ton charcoal furnace, located on the Chattooga River, near Cedar Bluff, and adjacent to an ore field discovered late in the fifties by James Noble, and his son Samuel Noble. They named the plant after their home county in England. The Noble foundry in Rome, Georgia was one of the first enlisted by General Gorgas to supply ordnance department needs. These iron works were then the most extensive in the State of Georgia. Back of their founding is an odd little incident linking them with early iron making days in Alabama. In an earlier chapter, mention was made of the fact that Jonathan Ware, and Edward Mahan of Bibb County, sent a specimen of their best charcoal blooms to the Sydenham Exposition in 1851, where it took first prize. Now, it happened that the excellent and fibrous quality of this iron so attracted James Noble, one among the many thousand sightseers, that it led to his decision to prospect through the Southern States of America, in search of the ore that could turn out that quality of iron. Mr. Noble had then a rather extensive, and unlucky experience in Pennsylvania, a State he had immigrated to in 1837. He was a Cornwall boy, descendant of a long line of iron and mining men. His father was a copper and tin mine owner, and he born in Cornwall in 1805, had been brought up to the trade. In 1826, he married Jenifer Ward a descendant of the La Hammells, of France, and the Brockenshires of London. He left England with his family for the United States. Mr. Noble settled at Reading, Pennsylvania and built there a foundry and machine shop. He had fourteen children, twelve of whom six sons, and six daughters lived to maturity, and seven of whom survive to day. His works at Reading were destroyed by both fire and freshet. When on his return visit to the mother country to see the big world's fair, he ran across the southern brand of iron he decided then and there to go South. The larger market for his foundry products had always been in Tennessee and North Carolina. Returning he completed his inspection tour and deciding to locate at Rome, Georgia, he shipped his machinery by sea, and with the help of his six boys, each one of whom he had trained to the business, he erected his big foundry and machine shops at Rome in the summer of 1855. Nobel Brother's Machine Shop Lathe, Rome, Georgia. Photo ©bankerpapaw, 2016. The Nobles manufactured steam engines of a superior make, and a great variety of other kinds of salable machinery and castings. Prior to the war they built engines and boilers for steamboats plying the Coosa River. They also made a twenty five ton locomotive which was the first built south of Richmond, Virginia. The Nobles had also in connection with their Rome enterprise, a large capacity rolling mill making all classes of merchant bar iron, and supplying the market in a wide territory. On their prospecting tours into Alabama, after iron ore particularly in the wilds of Cherokee, James Noble and his sons are said to have been taken by the county folk for escaped lunatics because they filled bags and pockets with the useless dye rock, John E Ware says. The product of the Cornwall Furnace plant was consumed in their shops at Rome in making cannon and shot for the Confederate government, and in the manufacture of horseshoe iron for the cavalry service. This furnace was destroyed in 1864 by the Federal forces under General Blair, and in 1865 General Sherman ordered the destruction of their works in Rome, which included a large brick foundry machine works, gun carriage shop, pattern and smith shops, and rolling mill. Before the torch was applied however, Sherman took the wise precaution to save the very valuable machinery by dismantling and shipping it to Chattanooga, and Nashville, which were inside the Union lines. Immediately after the war, the Nobles rebuilt their works on a more extensive scale, and began the manufacture of railroad car wheels and axles, and to their rolling mill they added a large nail mill, making as much as one hundred kegs of nails per day. Excerpted with edits for clarity from: The Story of Coal and Iron in Alabama by Ethel Armes, 1910 https://books.google.com/books?id=iuZYAAAAYAAJ&lpg=PA184&ots=uLyqaUrGP7&dq=A%20History%20of%20American%20Manufactures%20Noble%20Iron%20Works%20rome%20georgia&pg=PA183#v=onepage More about the Noble Iron Foundry
"No. 1" Field Carriage "No. 2" Field Carriage "No. 3" Field Carriage 1st & 2nd Model Prairie Carriages Carriage Weight 900 lbs. 1,125 lbs. 1,175 lbs. 363 lbs. Wheel Height 57" wheels 57" wheels 57" wheels 42" Wheels Distance between trunnion plates 9.6" 11.65" 12.15" 7.0" Height of trunnion axis above ground 43.1" 44.8" 45.2" 30.5" Trunnion Hole Diameter 3.7" 4.25" 4.65" 2.75" Track of Wheels 60" 60" 60" 42.5" Distance of Front of Wheels to End of Trail when gun is in Battery 116.6" 122.75" 122.75" 83.0" Length of Carriage, No Wheels 104.4" 111.4" 113.5" 68.0" Intended for use with these Barrels 6-pdr. Smoothbore Gun 12-pdr. Howitzer 10-pdr. Parrott Rifle 3-inch Ordnance Rifle 12-pdr. Napoleon Gun 24-pdr. Howitzer . . 12-pdr. Heavy Field Gun 32-pdr. Howitzer 20-pdr. Parrott Rifle . 12-pdr. Mountain Howitzer Ames 4-pdr. Gun . . 12-pdr. "No. 1" Siege Carriage 18-pdr. "No. 2" Siege Carriage 24-pdr. "No. 3" Siege Carriage Carriage Weight 2,248 lbs. 2,350 lbs. 2,522 lbs. Wheel Height 60" wheels 60" wheels 60" wheels Distance between trunnion plates 14.95" 16.95" 18.15" Height of trunnion axis above ground 52.2" 52.6" 53.0" Trunnion Hole Diameter 4.65" 5.35" 5.85" Track of Wheels 60" 60" 60" Distance of Front of Wheels to End of Trail when gun is in Battery 141" 142" 142" Length of Carriage, No Wheels 130" 133" 133.6" Intended for use with these Barrels M1841 12-pdr. Heavy Gun . . M1845 18-pdr. Siege Gun 4.5 inch Siege Rifle 30-pdr. Parrott Rifle M1845 24-pdr. Seacoast Gun . . To be added... Naval, Fort, and additional Siege Carriages...
The "Dictator" on flatcar near Petersburg, Va. (Matthew Brady, 1864) -LOC Collection. Large Heavyweight Seacoast Mortars were typically used for defensive purposes at fixed locations, and in Siege operations, but rarely in other offensive operations. The large 13-inch Seacoast Mortar was the largest mortar available in Federal arsenals, the measurement in it's name describing the diameter of the gun bore. Major General Butler conceived the idea of an experiment, making use of a large mortar, to be mounted on a specially designed and reinforced railroad car for this purpose. The chosen mortar was cast at the Fort Pitt Foundry in 1862 by Mr. Charles Knapp, was a famous 13-inch Seacoast Mortar, and used for a short time in the summer and fall of 1864 during the siege operations near Petersburg, Virginia. It was given the nickname "The Dictator" by some Union soldiers, but also the "Petersburg Express" by other soldiers. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: Model 1861 13-inch Seacoast Mortar Type: Muzzleloading Mortar mounted on a Railroad Flatcar In Service With: Battery G, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery; July 8th - 30th, 1864 Battery I, 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery; Aug 6th - September 30th Under the Command of: Colonel Henry L. Abbot Purpose: Dropping large munitions behind fortified positions Current Disposition: Unknown, no surviving mortar with expected weight has been discovered. May have been sold for scrap iron. MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: Fort Pitt, Pittsburg, Pennsylvania Years of Manufacture: 1862 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Muzzle Markings: Unknown Registry Number: Unknown Foundry Number: Unknown Purchase Price in 1862: $1,341 (US) WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 13 inches Bore Length: 35 inches Rifling Type: no grooves Trunnion Diameter: 15 inches Barrel Thickness: at Muzzle - 15 inches Tube Length: 56 inches Tube Weight: 17,186 lbs. (8.56 tons) Carriage Type: Iron Mortar Carriage (About 5,000 lbs.) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): about 22,000 lbs (11 tons) No. of Crew to Serve: A gunner, 9 men to service piece AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 14 to 20 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles: 220 lb. Mortar Shells PERFORMANCE Effective Range (at 45°): 4,325 yards (2.45 miles) Time to Impact (at 45°): about 30 seconds Maximum Range (at 45°): 4,752 yards (2.7 miles) The Dictator, weighing in at 17,120 lbs. was made portable for limited field use during the Siege of Petersburg by being mounted on a railroad flatcar, specially strengthened with extra beams and iron rods to withstand the strain of firing. The mortar was placed on the car and run up the tracks from City Point along the City Point and Petersburg Railroad, to a point in the ravine in rear of what is now generally known as Battery No. 5, near the Jordan House, a side track from the main road being constructed especially for the purpose of moving the Dictator. The unusual mortar on a flatcar arrangement also was a favorite subject of photographers covering the war at Petersburg, making it one of the more famous individual weapons of the conflict. The "Dictator" and Crew, at a fixed platform at Petersburg, Va. (Alexander Gardner, 1864) -NARA Collection. The men of Company G of the 1st Connecticut Heavy Artillery, served the Dictator. A curve in the tracks allowed the Dictator's gunners to stay mobile and adjust the plane of fire. A platform was also constructed at a nearby railroad spur, giving the Dictator a more Heavy Duty platform. A member of the 1st Connecticut Artillery wrote, “This 13 inch mortar was used principally against what was known as the ‘Chesterfield Battery,’ which from the left bank of [the] river, completely enfiladed our batteries on the right; all our direct fire seemed to have no effect. From this mortar was the only fire that seemed to hold the battery in check” The power of this weapon was enough to shatter most field magazines and bomb-proofs, and it is credited with causing the Confederate gunners to withdraw their attempts at enfilade fire along the right of the Union line. The Dictator fired a shell weighing 218 lbs., with a charge of 20 lbs. of powder. At an angle of 45 degrees the range is set down in the Ordinance Manual at 4,325 yds., but, if it is true that the shell thrown by the Dictator reached Centre Hill, in Petersburg, then it must have been carried at least 2.7, miles, or 4,752 yds. Reports state that the flatcar recoiled 10 to 12 feet each time the mortar was fired. The recoil of the Dictator was so powerful, after firing just five rounds on July 11th, the mortar broke the flatcar it was sitting on, even despite the flatcar’s iron reinforcing rods and plates. After repairs and additional structural reinforcement for the flatcar, the mortar was able to return to action. On July 30th, during the Battle of the Crater, the Dictator fired 19 rounds in support of the Union attack. One good shot from the Dictator took out a cannon in the Chesterfield Battery, and another shell killed ten or so men near the same location. The Dictator remained in service at Petersburg though the month of September, firing a total of 218 rounds. After that, the mortar was returned to the City Point ordnance depot on September 28, 1864, never to be fired again during the Civil War. Excerpt about Mortars including the "Dictator", from a book written by Noah A. Trudeau, Little Brown and Company, Boston: 1991, pages 291-2. Soldiers on both sides hated the mortars. "These mortar shells were the most disgusting, low-lived things imaginable," declared W. W. Blackford, a Confederate engineer. "There was not a particle of the sense of honor about them; they would go rolling about and prying into the most private places in a sneaking sort of way." "Mortar shells fly into the works occasionally," a Maine soldier confirmed, "at which times we get out in double-quick time." Added a Georgia infantryman, "Old veterans can never forget the noise those missiles made as they went up and came down like an excited bird, their shrieks becoming shriller and shriller, as the time to explode approached." A soldier in the 35th Massachusetts described a mortar attack: "In the daytime the burst of smoke from the Confederate mortars could be seen; a black speck would dart into the sky, [and] hang a moment, increasing in size, rolling over and over lazily, and the revolving fuse [would begin] to whisper audibly, as it darted towards us, at first, softly, 'I'm a-coming, I'm a-coming'; then louder and more angrily, 'I'm coming! I'm coming!;' and, at last, with an explosion to crack the drum of the ear, 'I'm HERE!'" Mortar batteries alternated with tubed guns all along the front. Some artillery even acquired nicknames: one seven-gun siege battery just south of Fort Morton was called the Seven Sisters, while Union soldiers referred to several different artillery pieces as The Petersburg Express, most notably the thirteen-inch heavy mortar that was also know as the Dictator. This gun, the only one of its size at Petersburg, went into action on July 9, and remained active until September, firing 218 times, from various positions. 'It made the ground quake', one infantryman swore.' The current whereabouts of the Dictator are unknown, this famous weapon may no longer survive. Its oft-repeated identification as the 13-inch Mortar, No. 95, at Hartford, Connecticut may be false, as that piece does not match the recorded weight of the Dictator. Some have suggested that the original gun was melted down for scrap metal. FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://ironbrigader.com/2011/12/13/seacoast-mortar-called-the-dictator-siege-petersburg-1864/ https://connecticuthistory.org/a-monument-memorializes-the-fallen/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/03/25/13-inch-mortars/
As previously seen outside the Fredericksburg Area Museum Fredericksburg, Virginia, 2012. Damaged by a cannon shot from the U.S.S. Cumberland, this IX-inch Dahlgren is evidence of some of the very limited damage done to the C.S.S. Virginia by cannon fire from other ships or from shore based batteries. This gun was also aboard the Virginia during her March 9th, 1862 encounter with the U.S.S. Monitor, but as far as we know, it was not used and considered "disabled" for that famous engagement. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: IX-inch Dahlgren Type: Muzzleloading Smoothbore Shell Gun In Service With: C.S.S. Virginia, Confederate States Navy Under the Command of: Lt. Hunter Davidson Invented By: John A. Dahlgren, USN Current Disposition: Mounted inside the Front Entrance, The Mariners’ Museum, Newport News, Virginia Map Coordinates: 37° 3' 18.648'' N, 76° 29' 17.1708'' W Special Notes: This gun is sometimes referred to as the "Merrimack Gun", in reference to the ship's previous name. MANUFACTURING C.S.S. Virginia in action against the U.S.S. Cumberland off Newport News, March 8, 1862 -Engraving from Harpers Weekly Magazine, March 22, 1862 Casting Foundry: Tredegar Foundry Year of Manufacture: 1859 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Markings: Right Trunnion: P / GM (Navy Proof Mark / Inspectors Initials) Right Vent: TF (Tredegar Foundry) Registry Number: 277 Foundry Number: Unknown Ordnance Inspector: GM - Federal Naval Ordnance Inspector George Minor Purchase Price in 1859: $690.00 (US) Inscription: One of the Guns of the MERRIMAC in the action with the U.S. Frigates CUMBERLAND and CONGRESS March 8th 1862 when the chase was shot off. The mutilation of Trunnions shows the ineffectual attempts to destroy the Gun, when the U.S. abandoned the Norfolk Navy Yard, April 20th 1861. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 9 inches Rifling Type: no grooves Tube Length: 131 inches (undamaged) Tube Weight: 9164 lbs. (undamaged) Carriage Type: Marsilly Carriage No. of Crew to Serve: 16 plus a powder boy AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 10 to 13 lbs. Projectiles: 90 lb. Exploding Shells, 150 lb. Solid Shot PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: One shot every 40 seconds Range (at 5°): firing Shell, 1,712 yards ( miles) Range (at 15°): firing Shell, up to 3,450 yards (1.96 miles) Notes on the C.S.S. Virginia Gun Just before the Norfolk Navy Yard was abandoned on April 20, 1861, workers attempted to destroy the remaining guns to keep them out of the hands of the Confederates. With little time, and without the proper equipment, they resorted to mutilating the trunnions and the cascabel of this gun. They were unable to do enough damage to keep this gun out of Confederate service. In 1862, Confederates successfully mounted this gun aboard the newly reconstructed ironclad ship, then named C.S.S. Virginia. On March 8, 1862, the C.S.S. Virginia, formerly named U.S.S. Merrimack, encountered and defeated the Union ships, U.S.S. Cumberland and U.S.S. Congress, near Newport News, VA. This gun was one of the six Dahlgren guns mounted on the C.S.S. Virginia. It was apparently the forward-most port (left) broadside gun (gun #2, Midshipman Marmaduke, under the command of Lt. Hunter Davidson). As the Virginia approached the Cumberland to ram her, the Cumberland's gunners fired a broadside at the Virginia, inflicting the only serious damage ever done to the Virginia by cannon shot. A shell hit the muzzle of this gun, causing it to break off and discharge. Another gun on Virginia's port side was also damaged and disabled in the same volley. One man was killed and several wounded, including Midshipman Henry H. Marmaduke. Despite the obvious damage to this gun, they continued to use it but it kept setting fire to the two feet of wood on the inboard side of the iron shield. -U.S. Naval Historical Center photos, taken at the Washington Navy Yard, in D.C. Above Photo from the late 1880's or 1890's, Below Photo from April 1933. On the next day, the C.S.S. Virginia engaged in battle with the U.S.S. Monitor. This was the famous confrontation between the first two ironclad ships. Unfortunately for the Virginia, having two guns disabled from the previous day's battle, including this Dahlgren, one side of the Virginia now had a blind spot on the port side, with no guns able to fire against the Monitor. The outcome of the Battle on March 9th was called a draw, but it changed naval warfare. When Union forces captured Norfolk just a few weeks later, they found this damaged gun at the Gosport Navy Yard and claimed it as Union Navy "Trophy No. 1". After the war, this gun was displayed by the Washington Navy Yard. From 1960, it was exhibited at the Dahlgren Naval Base as a reminder of its namesake. For a time, it resided on the grounds of the Fredericksburg Area Museum in the historic Fredericksburg district. Today it is on display inside the U.S.S. Monitor Center at The Mariners’ Museum in Newport News, Virginia. FOR FURTHER READING The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Iron Dawn: The Monitor, the Merrimack, and the Civil War Sea Battle that Changed History, by Richard Snow, Scribner, November 1, 2016. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://www.marinersmuseum.org/blog/2010/03/newly-conserved-artifacts-now-on-display/ https://www.history.navy.mil/research/library/online-reading-room/title-list-alphabetically/u/uss-monitor-versus-css-virginia-and-the-battle-for-hampton-roads.html#virginia1
VMI Parade Grounds, Lexington, Va. ©James N, 2018. These four "cadet" 6-pounders were designed specially for the use of the students at the Virginia Military Institute. They were slightly lighter than the regulation M1841 6-pounder and were mounted on custom designed smaller carriages. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: 6 pdr. Smoothbore "Cadet Guns" Type: Four Identical Lightweight Muzzleloading Smoothbore Guns In Service With: Pre-war and Post-war: Virginia Military Institute (V.M.I.) Civil War Years: 1st Rockbridge Artillery, Confederate States Army Under the Command of: Civil War Service: Captain William N. Pendleton Purpose: Training cadets in School of Artillery, without need of horses Current Disposition: On display at the Virginia Military Institute Location: Parade Grounds, Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia Map Coordinates: 37°47'26.2"N 79°26'09.9"W Also Known As: The Four Apostles :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING The Four Apostles, pained green at the time of this photo, 2006. US Casting Foundry: Cyrus Alger & Company, Boston, Massachusetts Year of Manufacture: 1848 Tube Composition: Bronze Muzzle Markings: Top: Registry No. Bottom: R.L.B. (Ordnance Inspector Initials) Registry Numbers: 86, 87, 88, and 89 Foundry Numbers: n/a Trunnion Markings: Right: C. & A. CO. / BOSTON Left: 1848 U.S. Ordnance Inspector: R.L.B. - Rufus L. Baker Purchase Price in 1848: About $228.00 (US) each gun barrel. Price was set at $0.40 per pound for these gun barrels. The cost for engraving the "Seal of Virginia" was extra. Special Markings: Large "Seal of Virginia" between trunnions WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches Bore Length: 43 inches Rifling Type: no grooves Trunnion Diameter: 2.8 inches Tube Length: 51 inches Tube Weight: 576, 562, 568, & 568 lbs. (300 lbs. less then the typical 6 pdr.) Carriage Type: Down-scaled No. 1 Field Carriage (in 2016 the Wood Carriages were replaced with Cast Aluminum ones) Special Note: On the old marker near the site where the Battery is on display, it explains that the guns were made by Watervliet Arsenal in New York, but we know the barrels were all cast by Cyrus Alger in Boston. One might wonder if the carriages were built by Watervliet, and the person who wrote the first plaque just made an error when examining the completed guns and assumed the name on the carriage was the maker. If anyone can confirm any markings on the carriages, specifically a stamp by Watervliet on the front of the cheeks, it would explain a lot! AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 1.25 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Type: Solid Shot Projectiles Weight: 6 lbs. Donated to VMI by President Zachary Taylor in 1850, these four guns were christened as "The Four Apostles: Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John" by Episcopal rector Col. William Nelson Pendleton and the seminary students "because they spoke a powerful language". The Adjutant General of Virginia requested that the carriages be painted red with black metal parts so that whenever the cadets were on parade, the public would instantly identify the cannon as the V.M.I. Cadet Battery. For years, students at V.M.I. were trained, and took pride in caring for these unique field artillery pieces. Maj. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson instructed artillery tactics with the red guns for 10 years prior to the Civil War. Many of Jackson’s most colorful moments at VMI relate to his command of the Cadet Battery. At the start of the Civil War the guns were turned over the the 1st Rockbridge Artillery (then under the command of Pendleton). Pendleton loved working with these cannons and felt it was a "good sign from God". The guns of Rockbridge Artillery saw their first action on July 2, 1861, in a small skirmish at Falling Waters. After first imploring, "May the Lord mercy on their souls!" battery commander Pendleton shouted, "Fire!" and a large body of charging Union cavalry was sent scurrying for safety. VMI Parade Grounds, Lexington, Va. ©James N, 2018. Nineteen days later the Cadet Battery was used in the fighting on Henry House Hill at the Battle of First Bull Run, and played a part in the repulse of repeated attacks on that position. The guns also accompanied the Stonewall Brigade on the winter campaign to Romney, WV, and were heavily engaged in Jackson's famous spring 1862 Shenandoah Valley campaign. On May 14, 1863, the guns fired every half hour as a memorial tribute to their old commander, Thomas Jackson. Superseded by heavier guns, they were retired and were later taken to Richmond, where they were captured when Richmond fell. It is interesting to note that these guns, among the prized mementos of V.M.I., never participated in the Battle of Newmarket. The Cadet Battery was returned in 1874 to V.M.I., where the cadets continued to train on them until official retirement ceremonies were held May 10, 1913. The guns also served for a short time in training men during World War I. The Cadet Battery was placed at the foot of the Jackson monument on the parade ground at VMI where they can still be seen today. FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. The First and Second Rockbridge Artillery, Robert J. Driver, Virginia Regimental Histories Series, 1987. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/06/01/cadet-6-pdrs/ https://www.encyclopediavirginia.org/First_Rockbridge_Artillery https://www.vmi.edu/news/headlines/2015-2016/cadet-battery-to-be-restored.php
Fredericksburg NMP, ©Mike Kendra, Sept 28, 2013Early in 1861, one of the very first 30-pdr. Parrott Rifles made at the West Point foundry was accepted for Federal Service, shipped to an Arsenal and mated to a Siege Carriage, and sent on to Northern Virginia, and prepared for service. Obviously the gun was designed for service within fortifications and wasn't intended for use in the field. However, this 30-pounder, nicknamed "Long Tom" by its crew, accompanied McDowell's army to Bull Run and would fire the first shot of the battle. The gun was also nicknamed "President Lincoln's baby maker." ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: 30 pdr. "Army" Parrott Rifle Registry No: - 2 Foundry No: - 293 Unit Assigned To: U.S. Army, Battery G, 1st U.S. Artillery Commanded By: 2nd Lt. Peter C. Hains Battle(s) Participated In: 1st Bull Run, and other "Legendary Actions" with Confederate Units Current Disposition: Unknown, Presumed Lost, Possibly Burst in Action MANUFACTURING Lt. Hains, -LOC, 1862 US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Spring, NY Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1861 Year of Manufacture: 1861 Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band Purchase Price in 1861: $520.00 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 4.2 inches Rifling Type: 5 grooves, 1.3 inches wide, right hand gain twist, 1 turn in 24' Tube Length: 131.5 inches Tube Weight: 4,190 lbs. (2.1 tons) Carriage Type: No. 2 Siege Carriage (2,300 lbs.) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 6,490 lbs. (3.25 tons) Horses Required to Pull: 10 No. of Crew to Serve: 9 AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 3¼ lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles: 24 lb. Bolts, 24 to 29 lb. Shells PERFORMANCE Muzzle Velocity: 1,155 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 15°): Using a shell... up to 4,800 yards (2.7 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 15°):Using a shell... 17⅝ seconds Max Effective Range (at 25°): Using a shell... up to 6,700 yards (3.8 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 25°): Using a shell... 27 seconds Max Range (at 35°): Using a bolt... 8,453 yards (4.8 miles) "Long Tom" was assigned to Battery G, 1st U.S. Artillery. Lt. Peter Hains, freshly graduated from West Point, commanded the gun. "It was a great gun -- a thirty-pounder Parrott rifle, drawn by ten horses as green as could be, horses from the farm that had not been trained even to pull together," Hains wrote. "There were five riders or drivers, one man to each pair, and six men rode on the caisson and limber as cannoneers." According to Hains, "The piece weighed six thousand pounds; a huge casting reinforced by a breech band to stand the strain of the discharge. The shot was more than four inches in diameter and over a foot in length, weighing about thirty-three pounds. Upon the rear of the projectile was shrunk a soft metal band with a hollow opening about a sixteenth of an inch wide all around the base. The gas from the discharge was expected to fill this opening and swell the band to make it take the rifling of the gun." Opening the Battle: "Long Tom" was selected to fire the first shot of the battle. As Lt. Hains wrote: "'Three shots at daylight will be the signal for the fight to begin,' came the word," Hains remembered, "and as my giant gun was the loudest speaker of the whole united armies, it was chosen for that sacred duty. I would open the fight between the armies of the North and South." Inexplicably, "Long Tom" led the advance during the early morning hours and contributed to the delay of Heintzelman's and Hunter's divisions as they made their flanking march. "I unlimbered the gun and waited," Hains wrote. "It was loaded with a percussion shell and was trained upon a house across Bull Run at about a mile and a half range." There Hains and the crew waited. "A little after six o'clock ... the order came. I sighted the rifle carefully, and the men grinned their delight. Then I stood back. 'Fire!' came the order. Across the little stream, true to it's destination, sped that first shot. I saw it strike fairly upon the side of the house, and the smoke and dust that followed told of its excellent work.... I followed that shot with two others, and to the signal had been given to McDowell's army that they were to begin hostilities. The first big battle of the Civil War had begun." During the Battle: Not surprisingly, it was very difficult to maneuver the gun due to its massive size. Hains unlimbered at first to the right of the road. "Every few minutes that hot morning orders came: 'Bring the gun up here -- this is the place for it," or "Send the gun over to that rise where it can do so and so"; all equally impossible. I received not less than a score of orders, not more than three of which I could obey by any possible chance." From it's position on the right of the Warrenton pike, the gun fired whenever Confederate infantry came into view on the other side of Bull Run. "The country being mostly open and of a rolling nature," Hains wrote, "I could often get a food shot in and those shells certainly made things uncomfortable wherever they struck. The piece was amazingly accurate, and all i wanted was to see something to fire at." As the fighting raged on the other side of Bull Run, a Confederate battery opened up on Long Tom. "We began at once to work on them," Hains wrote. "A few shrapnel placed carefully among them stirred them up, and their fire slackened. Then we hammered them hard with repeated shots, and before the hour was out they were either destroyed or had dragged their tiny guns out of action." During this time the Confederates were driven back to Henry House Hill. Victory appeared imminent. "By one o'clock we had done all we could, and the firing for us was nearly over, as there was no chance to take an active part in the advance. Officers began to congratulate themselves. The talk among the men was that we had won the day." The Tide Turns: Throughout the afternoon the tide of battle began to turn. Hains wrote that all knew when Ricketts's and Griffin's batteries were captured. "Word came flashing along that our right had given way," Hains wrote. Hains and his battery were still positioned in the field on the right side of the Warrenton Pike. They watched as Union lines began to give way on the other side of Bull Run. "I had received no orders to pull out, and remained silent there, waiting for developments, hoping with a desperate hope that we might at least be able to form a rearguard action with that gun and hold the Confederates back. Late in the afternoon General McDowell came riding up. 'What are you doing there with that gun?' he asked. 'Awaiting orders, sir,' I answered. 'Get it out, get it out quick,' he said, and rode on. Too Late: The crew limbered the gun and the ten horses began to drag it back toward Centerville. "By this time everything was in confusion. The road was massed with all sorts of debris, wagons, guns, knapsacks, clothing, and everything that a green man sheds quickly in the desperate heat of a day when panic has its cold hand upon his heart." During the retreat, Hains found that the team couId not pull the gun if it could not go in a straight line. Whenever they had to move around an obstacle or go around a curve, they found it nearly impossible to move. They stopped at a well to get water. Hains was taking a drink when "I noticed a couple of squadrons of cavalry right across the road in the field opposite.... While I looked I suddenly became aware that the cavalry a few yards distant was not Union cavalry." Hains tried to form a defense but the cavalry charged. "The men about me began firing now with a will, recognizing that the enemy was upon us. Still, half of those present had not realized that we had met an enemy." The cavalry charge was beaten off and the retreat continued. The cavalry reappeared and charged again, wrecking the rest of Carlisle's battery. "Old Tom" still moved on. "Finally we came to a steep hill. Here the road was so hopelessly massed with stuff that we could go no farther.... The men lashed the sweating, panting animals again and again. But the great gun refused to move up the incline. All the time men and wagons had been streaming past us. Now, as the daylight was failing, the road was deserted, and we soon found that we were getting to be the last of the rout." Hains rode to the rear and found a brigade commander (he didn't specify which) and asked for a regiment to pull the gun to safety. The brigade commander promised to send them, and Hains returned to the gun. No one came. Angry, Hains found the brigade commander and asked for the men. The brigade commander told him, "Too late now -- too late," and marched away with his men. Hains considered dying with his gun, but eventually decided to abandon it. The crew spiked it, and Old Tom fell into Confederate hands. FOR FURTHER READING THE ARTILLERYMAN, The Quest for Long Tom, (pp 18-25) by James Burgess, Vol 38, No. 3, Published Fall 2019. TENNESSEE HISTORICAL QUARTERLY, The Legend of “Long Tom” at Cumberland Gap, (pp 256-264) by William B. Provine, Published Fall of 1965. Cumberland Gap was heavily fortified during the Civil War, and one of the legendary aspects of its Confederate defense was the huge rifled cannon, “Long Tom.” It was supposed to fire a 60 pound projectile over five miles. The legend of this gun, mounted on “the Pinnacle” in early 1862, is recounted. During loss of the Gap to the Union in June 1862, the Confederates rolled the gun off the cliff. When Confederates occupied the gap again, they unspiked the gun. It then changed hands, ending up with the Union at the end of the war. However, the author casts doubts on the gun’s existence. Long Tom was not one gun, but instead a group of guns – the original appears to be a thirty-pound Parrott. The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast, and Naval Cannon, by Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, 1997. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://lccwrt.wordpress.com/2011/06/16/june-program-on-video/ https://bullrunnings.wordpress.com/2013/06/24/hains-related-questions-answered/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2014/01/05/long-tom-to-wilmington/
Fredericksburg NMP, ©Mike Kendra, Sept 28, 2013 The 30 pdr. Parrott saw service as early as the First Battle of Manassas. A Union 30 pdr. Parrott with Company G, 1st U.S. Artillery fired the opening shot of the battle. The gun was given the nickname "Long Tom" by it's loving crew. Due to the difficulties of moving such a large gun quickly, the gun position was overrun by Confederates. The gun served the South for the remainder of it's lifetime. ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Rifled Siege Gun In Service With: U.S. Army C.S. Army (Copies & Captured Pieces) Purpose: Reducing Fortifications, Siege Operations Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1861 Rarity (Field): Rare Rarity (Siege and Fortification): Common MANUFACTURING Captain Shaw, 3rd Regiment, Battery Wagner 2nd Battle of Ft. Wagner Morris Island, SC, Haas & Peale, 1863. Two 30-pdr. Parrotts and stacks of shells inside Fort Putnam Morris Island, SC, during the Campaign against Charleston Harbor. -Ranges of Parrott Guns, and Notes for Practice by R.P.Parrott, 1863 Vicksburg NMP, ©Rusk County Avengers, 2019 Muzzle Detail Below West Point Foundry, Registry #353, Foundry #229 Cast in 1864, Weight 4150 lbs., Inspector RMH ©Rusk County Avengers, 2019 US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Spring, NY CS Casting Foundries: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, VA Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1866 Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band Purchase Price in 1861: $520.00 (US) No. Purchased During the Civil War: 391 No. of Surviving Pieces Today: ??? Variants: The "Navy" version is shorter & lighter, the bore is only 96.8" long WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 4.2 inches Tube Length: 131.5 inches Tube Weight: 4,200 lbs. (2.1 tons) Rifling Type: 5 grooves, 1.3 inches wide, right hand gain twist, 1 turn in 24' Carriage Type: No. 2 Siege Carriage (2,300 lbs.) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 6,500 lbs. (3.25 tons) Horses Required to Pull: 10 No. of Crew to Serve: 9 AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 3¼ lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectile Weights: 24 lb. Bolts, 24 to 29 lb. Shells PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 round per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,155 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 15°): Using a shell... up to 4,800 yards (2.7 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 15°):Using a shell... 17⅝ seconds Max Effective Range (at 25°): Using a shell... up to 6,700 yards (3.8 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 25°): Using a shell... 27 seconds Max Range (at 35°): Using a bolt... 8,453 yards (4.8 miles) NOTES The 4.2-inch (30-pounder) rifles were the most widely used of the Parrott siege guns. It was mounted on a conventional siege carriage. The early pattern guns had the elevating screw under the breech, while newer pattern gun had a long screw running through the cascabel. The long elevating screws of the newer models was subject to breaking (Abbot 1867, p. 90). The 4.2-inch Parrott rifles were preferred over the 4.5-inch siege rifles by some gunners because of the superiority of Parrott shells over the various shells available for the 4.5-inch siege rifle. Union 30 pdr. Parrott rifles did not have as many severe problems with bursting as was commonly found with larger Parrott rifles, however Tredegar's 30 pdr. Parrott copies were not nearly as reliable. At Fredericksburg, the effect of two Confederate Tredegar 30 pdr. Parrotts was devastating to Union attackers, but both guns burst during the battle, one on the thirty-ninth round, the other on the fifty-fourth round. Lee, Longstreet, and other high officers were standing near one of the cannon when it exploded, but miraculously all escaped injury. (Charles B. Dew, Ironmaker to the Confederacy: Joseph R. Anderson and the Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond: Library of Virginia, 1999, p. 187) During the siege of Petersburg 44 Union 4.2-inch Parrott rifles fired 12,209 rounds. Only one gun burst when a shell detonated before clearing the muzzle. One 4.2-inch Parrott rifle also burst during the campaign against Charleston harbor, but only after it had fired 4,606 rounds (Abbot, Henry L., Siege artillery in the Campaigns Against Richmond, with Notes on the 15-inch Gun, Including an Algebraic Analysis of the Trajectory of a Shot in its Ricochets Upon Smooth Water, Washington, D.C., 1867, p. 87,160,170). FOR FURTHER READING The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Olmstead, Edwin, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/06/25/30-pdr-army-parrott-rifle/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/12/05/30-pdr-parrotts-fredericksburg/
Gun elevated to 35°, At the Arsenal, Washington, D.C. -Mathew Brady, 1862, Washington, D.C. Norman Wiard, a Canadian working for the United States invented several light artillery pieces which, although apparently excellent weapons, do not seem to have been very popular. Wiard advertised his weapons as being made of semi-steel in two calibers: a 6-pdr Rifle with a 2.6 inch bore and a 12-pdr smoothbore with a 4.62 inch bore. However, in practice, only rifled guns were ever sold. ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Muzzleloading Rifled Field Guns In Service With: U.S. Army Purpose: Support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field Invented By: Norman Wiard Patent: None Found Rarity: Rare MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: A mystery yet to be solved. The gun blank was believed to be forged at a sub-contractor, and is the subject of much speculation, possible sub-contractors may include: Tugnot & Dally of New York for forging gun Carpenter & Platt of New York for boring the Barrel “O.F.” as engraved on the gun, might be for the O’Donnell’s Foundry in New York City, the firm originally thought to be the founder of the gun, but evidence shows this may not be correct. Another theory says these are the initials of the inspector, perhaps John O’Donnell of the foundry completed the inspection. It's all speculation at this point... Norman Wiard's own Trenton Wiard Ordnance Works in New Jersey was known for forging barrels, we just don't know if they forged these barrels, or if they only supplied the semi-steel. Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1862 Tube Composition: Puddled-Wrought-Iron “semi-steel” a mixture of low-carbon cast iron and scrap steel It's been suggested that weaker "conventional iron" was substituted in later castings (#024 & up) as a cost saving measure Muzzle Markings: None Right Trunnion Markings: "N.W." - Norman Wiard - Inventor "N.Y.C." New York City "O.F." - Unknown at this time. Left Trunnion Marking: Year of Manufacture Top of Barrel Marking: "U. S." and "WIARD" Above Right Rimbase: 3 Digit Tube Number Cost in 1862 Dollars: Sold by Wiard at a price of $11,500.00 for a full 6 Gun Battery: Four 6-pdr. Rifled Guns, Two 12-pdr. Howitzers, Six Wiard Carriages with Limbers, Six Caissons with Limbers, One Battery Wagon, One Traveling Forge All the Implements, Equipment, and Spare Parts you need to keep a functional unit in the field No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: 6-pdr. Rifle: 40 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 12 12-pdr. Rifle: 20 No. of Surviving Pieces: 6-pdr. Rifle: 25 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 4 12-pdr. Rifle: 12 Wiard's 6-pdr. Rifle & 12-pdr. Rifle On display at the Gettysburg NMP Old Visitor's Center ©Mike Kendra, 2004 Wiard 6-pdr. Muzzle Featuring "U-Groove" Rifling & Front Sight Attachment. Ft. Shenandoah, VA, ©Mike Kendra, 2009 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameters: 6-pdr. Rifle: 2.6 inches 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 3.4 inches 12-pdr. Rifle: 3.67 inches Rifling Type: Unique “U-groove” Style Rifling 6-pdr. Rifle: 8 grooves, left hand twist, 1 turn in 9' 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 12 grooves, left hand twist, 1 turn in 12' 12-pdr. Rifle: 8 and 12 groove versions, left hand twist, 1 turn in 12' Trunnion Diameter: 4.62 inches Tube Length: 6-pdr. Rifle: 52.5 inches 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 53.75 inches 12-pdr. Rifle: 63.5 inches Tube Weight: 6-pdr. Rifle: 725 lbs. 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer: 785 lbs. 12-pdr. Rifle: 1,175 lbs. Carriage Type: Wiard Field Carriage, 1,100 lbs. (Same Carriage for 6 & 12-pdr. Rifles) Iron Naval Carriage for 12 pdr. Rifled Boat Howitzer Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 6-pdr. Rifle: 1,825 lbs. 12-pdr. Rifle: 2,275 lbs. Horses Required to Field Guns Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 6-pdr. Rifle: ¾ lb. Cannon Grade Black Powder 12-pdr. Rifle: 1¼ lb. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: Hotchkiss Shells, Canister Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 6-pdr. Rifle: 320 total rounds, 80 per chest PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Max Range (at 35°): 6-pdr. Rifle: 7,000 yards Projectile Flight Time (at 35°): 6-pdr. Rifle: 34 seconds Special Notes: Wiard designed a unique carriage for his pieces. The first unusual feature was the axle and cheek arrangement which was designed for strength and high angle of barrel elevation, as high as 35°. This arrangement also permitted tighter storage and transportation because one carriage could slide beneath the next. Another innovation was the flat trail plate with a metal keel to guarantee that upon recoil the trail would slide straight and not dig in to soft dirt. Wiard also devised a better system for braking a gun carriage using a steel skid that held the carriage wheel from turning without damaging the iron tires. Wiard only was only able to make five orders for his field guns through 1862, after that the orders ended. Although this sounds like the end of the ordnance business for Wiard, in reality, he just moved on to developing and building larger siege weapons for the Army and the Navy. Here are the five signed contract orders for field guns in some detail: May 1861 from Gen. Sickles, New York, Delivery Oct - Nov '61 (Twelve 2.6" Rifles + Six 3.67" Rifles) 18 Guns Guns #001-018 Confiscated to Washington Arsenal by Ripley for inspection and testing. Three guns failed proof testing and had barrels replaced immediately by Wiard. Replacement Barrels #021-023 None of these Rifles ever left the Arsenal August 1861 from Gen. Fremont, Delivered to Dept. of the West, Sept '61 Two 2.6" Rifles Guns #019-020 Contract was cancelled by Ripley, guns not returned, Wiard went unpaid Wiard's 12-pdr. Rifled Steel Boat Howitzer, Photo ©BarryCDog October 1861 from State of New York, for Burnside's NC Expedition, Delivered Jan '62 (Twelve 3.4" Rifled Steel Boat Howitzers + Four 2.6" Rifles) 18 Guns Guns #024-027, Howitzers #001-012 - 1st New York Marine Artillery November 1861 from State of Ohio, Delivered Jan-May '62 (Sixteen 2.6" Rifles + Eight 3.67" Rifles) 24 Guns Guns #028-051 - 1st Ohio Artillery, Batteries G & K, and the 12th & 14th Ohio Independent Batteries #045 - Last gun of 1861 / #046 - First gun of 1862 used in action, Shiloh, Stones River, Cross Keys, 2nd Manassas Guns of the 14th OH, 4 6-lb, & 2 12-lb. Guns, were captured by Confederates at Shiloh, were spiked, dismounted, & had front sights removed, before being recaptured and returned to service. Early 1862 from State of New York, Delivered July-November '62 (Six 2.6" Rifles + Six 3.67" Rifles) 12 Guns Guns #052-063 - 3rd New York Artillery, Batteries F & G Used in action near Charleston and Goldsboro 1 Wiard Rifle exploded during action during the Goldsboro expedition, no injuries were reported Tube #063 is believed to be the gun that exploded, based on the surviving gun Registry Numbers 6-pdr. Wiard guns at the Arsenal, Washington, D.C. Gen. Daniel E. Sickles by the Gun in first photo -LOC, Mathew Brady, 1862. From: Appleton's Annual Cyclopaedia and Register of Important Events 1870, Pages 33-34. Wiard's Steel Cannon (1861-1862) The first steel cannon produced in the United States was manufactured in June 1861 from plans devised during the two preceding months by Mr Norman Wiard of New York. It was a 6-pounder ready for service on the first of July, and on the 3d of the month mounted upon an improved field carriage, also of his invention, it was tested at Camp Scott, Staten Island, in fulfilment of a contract with Gen. D.E. Sickles, who had ordered 3 batteries to consist of two, 12, and four, 6-pounders each. The contract being assumed by the War Department, the batteries were completed and delivered to the Government at Washington. Gen. Fremont next ordered 2 batteries for the department of the West, which however were afterwards diverted to the Burnside expedition, which at very short notice was supplied with twenty four, 6 and 12-pounders, and two other rifled guns, all of which up to the time of these sheets going to the press have been of the most efficient service in the various actions engaged in by this expedition. The governor of Ohio through the U.S. Ordnance Department ordered and obtained four 6 gun batteries, which have been in active service in the important campaigns at the West. The guns bear a high reputation as being most accurate, substantial, and effective, and at the same time lighter than other pieces of the same caliber. They are forged under heavy steam hammers from puddled steel blooms, specially made for this purpose at the rolling mills at Troy NY and Trenton NJ, the puddling process being stopped at the point where the carbon unexpelled gives to the metal a steely character. The weight of the 6-pounders is 700 lbs. and of the 12-pounders 1,200 lbs. each. They are forged solid at the works of Messrs. Tugnot & Dally, New York and bored by Messrs. Plass & Co. The trunnion bands are shrunk on, and do not affect the strength of the piece in resisting the explosive action. The 6-pounders are of 2.6 inch bore and the 12-pounders 3.67 inches The rifling turns to the left once in 9 feet in the 6-pounders, and once in 12 feet in the 12-pounders, the former having 8, and the latter 12 bands and furrows. The projectile preferred is the Hotchkiss. With a 6-pounder at an elevation of 39°, a flight of 5 miles has been obtained. The carriages, which are made by Messrs. Stephenson of New York are peculiar in the construction of the wheels, with iron adjustable hubs, and felloe wedges, so that by the aid of a small wrench, the wheels can be set up, or taken down, and the tire be set, and any shrinking of the wood be compensated for at any time. The corresponding parts of all the wheels in any number of batteries are counterparts of each other and interchangeable. The trail is hung under the axle, which admits of a much greater elevation being given to the piece than is practicable on the standard carriage. The forward portions of every part of the carriage are rounded off, so as to render it more secure against harm when struck by shot in action. Beside the pieces named Mr. Wiard has furnished to the United States Navy several steel howitzers for boat service of 3.4 inch caliber weighing 800 lbs. each also, 50-pounders of 5.1 inch caliber. Those are the largest steel guns yet made in this establishment. Only about one gun in a hundred is found to be defective when tested. The steel is reported by the manufacturers as sustaining a strain of 107,000 to 118,000 lbs. to the square inch, thus showing a tensile strength of 3 to 4 times that of the best iron and bronze. Marked as "View in the Arsenal Yard, Charleston, S.C. Captured Blakely Guns in the foreground" On the ground, lying on wood ties you can plainly see one Parrott Rifle, one 12-pdr. Wiard Rifle, and two 6-pdr. Wiard Rifles. -LOC, Taken by E. & H.T. Anthony, 1865 FOR FURTHER READING "Wiard’s Steel Rifled Cannon,"The New York Times, August 2, 1861. Wiard's System of Field Artillery, as Improved to Meet the Requirements of Modern Service, Norman Wiard, 1863. "Not So Weird, Norman Wiard", The Artilleryman, Vol. 38, No. 1 (Winter 2016), pp. 22-30. "Revealing the Makers of the Wiard Rifle",The Artilleryman, Vol. 36, No. 3 (Summer 2015), pp. 44-46. "Wiard Rifles By the Numbers, How Many Were Made & Survive", The Artilleryman, Vol. 34, No. 3 (Summer 2013), pp. 6-9. "Wiard Rifles Article Addendum", The Artilleryman, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Fall 2013), page 6. Battery F, 3rd NY Artillery Sergeant P. Birchmeyer, 2nd parallel (Battery Wagner), with 12-pdr. Wiard Rifles. 2nd Battle of Fort Wagner, Morris Island, SC. -Photo: Hagley Museum and Library, Haas & Peale, 1863. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/tag/norman-wiard/ https://www.historynet.com/norman-wiards-unique-cannon.htm https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/08/19/wiard-guns-morris-island/ 12-pdr. Wiard Rifle, Stones River NB, Murfreesboro, TN © James N., 2019 (Click Photos to Zoom In) Recently Live Fired Original Wiard 6-pdr. attached to a Wiard Limber Note the Segmented Wheel, and the Wiard Engraving in the Third Photo Ft. Shenandoah, VA, ©Mike Kendra, 2009
Reproduction Hughes Cannon at Ft. Shenandoah, VA © Mike Kendra, Oct. 2009D.W. Hughes, a native of Ohio, began making guns in the Spring of 1861 at Street and Hungerford in Memphis, Tennessee. He was an expert machinist, and was able to design and build his first gun in early 1862. It was small breechloader firing a one-pound ball six to eight times a minute. ARTILLERY PROFILE Models: Smoothbore & Rifled Breechloaders 1.5-inch & 2-inch Breechloaders Type: Breechloading Gun Purpose: Highly mobile rapid fire artillery Invented By: D. W. Hughes of Arizona Patented: Confederate Patent #149 For "Improvement in Breech Plugs", February 16, 1863 Rarity: Very Rare :CSA1stNat: MANUFACTURING CS Manufacturer: Street, Hungerford & Company of Memphis, Tennessee Years of Manufacture: 1862 to 1863 Tube Composition: Varied... Some gun tubes Bronze Some gun tubes Wrought Iron from "broken locomotive axles" Purchase Price in 1862: $600 (CS) (based on $6,000.00 bill for 10 guns) No. Purchased During the Civil War: at least 12, possibly as many as 50 were produced No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 1 known WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 1.5 & 2 inch Bore Length: 32 to 36 inches Rifling: 15 rifle grooves (when present) Overall Length: Up to 47.5 inches (Barrel & Breech Action) Barrel Weight: 65 to 90 lbs. (Empty) Carriage Type: Light Wooden Carriage Built with shoulder boxes designed to hold ammo & tools Light enough for transport by a few men alone Crew Size: 2 or 3 men Special Notes: Barrel includes a copper sleeve water jacket, it surrounds the barrel. When filled with water, it helps to improve cooling during rapid fire. AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: unknown Projectiles: Lead balls (smoothbore), unknown (rifle) PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 6 to 8 rounds per minute Effective Range: up to 3 miles (smoothbore), unknown (rifle) NOTES ON D. W. HUGHES AND THE CANNON HE DESIGNED Located in Memphis, Tennessee, the foundry of Street, Hungerford & Company, operated by Anthony S. Street and Fayette H. Hungerford, employed nearly 100 hands in the production of wagons, railroad cars, plows, and iron castings. Sensing the oncoming war, Street and Hungerford converted their business to cannon and munitions production. Prior to the war, the foundry produced a wide variety of ordinance. After the firing on Fort Sumter, activities were enlarged to include the casting of 6-pound cannon. Hughes, who had designed a new breechloading gun mechanisim while working at Street and Hungerford, took his gun's breech-plug design to the Confederate Patent office. On February 18th, 1863 he was issued Confederate Patent No. 149. -Patent Drawing & Article on Right from American Machinist, Vol 28, 1905. The above illustration accompanied the patent. The patent describes a removable plug of a breach loading cannon, the plug having radially projecting lugs which turn into interlocking engagement with seats in the bore of the gun. The plug also has a rubber "gum" gas check that helps to seal the breech when locked. Street and Hungerford's cannon casting quickly grew to include Hughes' gun design, as well as Parrott guns, and a few other heavy guns. Some of the barrels of the experimental Hughes Cannons were supposedly turned from broken locomotive axles. In an 1862 test, different size experimental Hughes Cannons were put on trial in Memphis, and it was found that lead ball could be fired up the river a distance up to three miles. As experimenting went on, it was found that the larger bore guns performed better than the smaller ones. Street and Hungerford's prior production of a variety of wood products made for an easy transition to the manufacture of gun carriages. The firm produced a large number of such carriages, some of which were made for the guns cast at the nearby Quinby & Robinson plant. A Battery of Hughes Cannons was ordered for General M. Jeff Thompson of Missouri to be used around New Madrid, Mo. and South into Arkansas. Additional Hughes Cannons were constructed at Jackson, Mississippi for the State by the order of Governor Pettus. A 2-pounder breech-loading Hughes gun is believed to have participated in the Siege of Port Hudson, Louisiana, in 1863. One remaining example of the Hughes Cannon is known to exist, it is a smoothbore gun of 1.5 inch caliber. Copy of Hughes' Certified Confederate Patent No. 149 Confederate Veteran D.W. Hughes & his Breechloading Cannon January 1908, No. 1, Page 44 > Click Article Image to Zoom In < https://archive.org/details/confederateveter16conf/page/44 VIDEO OF REPRODUCTION HUGHES GUN RELOADING AND FIRING FOR FURTHER READING Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Civil War Collector's Encyclopedia: Arms, Uniforms and Equipment of the Union and Confederacy, Francis A. Lord, Courier Corporation, 2013. American Machinist, Volume 28, McGraw-Hill, 1905, Page 315. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://robinsonsbattery.org/250634.html Scroll to the Robinson's Battery Page Bottom to see Photos of Original Gun, & Construction of a Reproduction
Chatham Manor, Fredericksburg NMP, ©Mike Kendra, Sept 2012 The 4.5 inch Siege Rifle is a large siege and garrison gun that actively served in Union Field Artillery batteries, and had a reputation for being easy to transport, more reliable than the 20 pdr. Parrott Rifle and 800 lbs. lighter than the 30 pdr. Parrott Rifle The Siege Rifle was sometimes mistakenly called a 4.5 inch Ordnance Rifle or 4.5 inch Rodman Rifle because of it's shape. However, it did not use the welded wrought iron construction of the 3-inch ordnance rifle, nor the hollow casting process used to make Rodman guns. Instead it was made from a conventional solid cast iron gun block, bored and then rifled. It's shape is deliberate and designed to minimize failures from "planes of weakness". ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Muzzleloading Rifled Siege Gun In Service With: U.S. Army Purpose: Siege Operations & Limited Long Range Field Work Developed By: U.S. Ordnance Department Rarity: Rare MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: Fort Pitt Foundary, PA Years of Manufacture: 1861-1866 Tube Composition: Cast Iron Purchase Price in 1863: $0.13/lb. or $448.50 (US) Variants: None No. Purchased During the Civil War : 113 No. of Surviving Pieces Today : 56 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 4.5 inches Bore Length: 120.0 inches Rifling Type: 9 rifle grooves 0.10 inches deep, Uniform Right Hand Twist, 1 turn in 15 feet Trunnion Diameter: 5.3 inches Barrel Thickness: at small of Muzzle - 2.25"; near Vent - 5.75" Tube Length: 133 inches Tube Weight: 3,450 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 2 Siege Carriage (2,300 lbs.) Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 5,750 lbs. (2.8 tons) Horses Required to Pull: 8 AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 3.25 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectile Types: Hotchkiss, Dyer, and Schenkl Shells Projectile Weights: 25 to 32 lbs. PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 12 to 20 rounds an hour Effective Range (at 5°): 2,100 yards (1.19 miles) Max Effective Range (at 10°): 3,265 yards (1.85 miles) In addition to its use as siege artillery, two batteries of 4.5-inch Siege Rifles, 8 guns total, accompanied the Army of the Potomac as “heavy” field artillery between 1862 and 1864. The big guns were intended for long range firing against Confederate artillery. Although the guns showed very good mobility, they saw very limited action. Regarding the usefulness of the 4.5 inch Siege Rifle, while detailing siege operations in the Richmond area, Henry L. Abbot wrote, "The two siege batteries of 4.5 inch Ordnance guns, which accompanied the army of the Potomac in all its movements from Fredericksburg until the final crossing of the Rapidan, were of great use, from their superior range and accuracy, in silencing troublesome field batteries and in other field service; and could be moved with the reserve artillery without impeding the march of the army." The only problem that periodically cropped up with this gun was that it suffered from excessive enlargement of the vent caused by the hot gasses rushing through the vent when the gun was fired. The vent could become too large to fire the piece after about 400 discharges. To fix this problem, the gun crew could be installation a copper vent piece called a bouché. Three 4.5 inch Siege Rifles of 1st Connecticut Battery at Stafford Heights, on the banks of the Rappahannock River, overlooking the town of Fredricksburg. These rifles are in their traveling position, with implements loaded and trails connected to the limbers. -. FOR FURTHER READING Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Ripley, Warren, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Charleston, S.C.: The Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2008/09/24/45-inch-rifle/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2013/11/07/4-5-inch-rifle-at-kellys-ford/
At Phoenixville, Chester county, twenty seven and a half miles from Philadelphia, are one of the oldest, and largest establishments for manufacturing iron in the United States. The works originally consisted of a Rolling mill, and Nail Factory, the power for driving which was derived from the damming of French Creek, just above the present foundry, the old site of the Rolling mill, and date their operations as far back as May 3, 1783. -Engraving of Phoenix Iron Works, Phoenixville, PA, circa 1856 In the year 1827, they came into the possession of Reeves and Whitaker, and during the period of their ownership, a new Rolling mill was built on the site of the present North Mill, and puddling introduced as a process in the manufacture of iron. The old Rolling mill was pulled down, and on its site a charcoal furnace was built in 1838, which again in 1841, was converted into an Anthracite furnace. This was one of the earliest of the experimental Anthracite furnaces, which marked the era of the introduction of Anthracite coal as a fuel in the process of smelting iron. The nail factory of the firm was burned down in 1847, and on its site was erected one of the extensive machine shops now belonging to the Phoenix Iron Company. In the year 1846, Reeves Buck & Co. became proprietors of the Phoenix Iron Works, and during their proprietorship very extensive improvements were made. They built in 1846, the present Rail mill, the dimensions of which are two hundred and sixty feet by one hundred and sixty feet. Also a new puddling and re heating mill, one hundred and eighty five feet, by one hundred and ninety two feet, with a wing, thirty two feet, by one hundred and thirty feet. Besides these, they erected new Smith shops, Pattern shops, Foundry machine shop, offices, and warehouses. The offices, pattern, and drawing rooms of the company are probably the most complete of any in the country, and cost we understand, $26,000. In 1855 the firm of Reeves Buck & Co. procured an Act of the Legislature incorporating them as The Phoenix Iron Company, and under this name the present extensive operations of the Works are managed. During the last four years, the Company have spent a large sum of money in remodeling, and readjusting their Works, and in increasing their capacity, which at this time amounts to twenty thousand tons of railroad iron, and fifteen thousand tons of bar iron iron beams, and girders angle iron, wrought iron columns, rolled railroad chairs, and spikes axles, and many other shapes. Rounds have been turned out of the Merchant Mill, of twelve inches in diameter, and squares up to eight inches, by twenty five feet long. During the late Rebellion, thirteen hundred wrought iron guns were made at these Works. -Illustration of the Phoenix Iron Works by T.J. Kennedy in 1860 This establishment produces a greater variety of work than any other in the country. In addition to their regular business of manufacturing iron, the Company have lately erected a very extensive machine shop, specially appropriated to framing iron rafters, flooring, and bridge work. This building is two hundred and six feet, by ninety feet, and is filled with tools and machinery of the latest improved styles, suited to the business. The manufacturing of wrought iron columns and beams, for fireproof structures, has become one of their great specialties, and the framing for the roofs, and floors of the new buildings, lately erected by the United States Government at the Frankford and Alleghany Arsenals, which are entirely fire proof, was all made at the Phoenix Iron Works. This Company also possess three Blast furnaces, capable of turning out about twenty three thousand tons of pig iron per annum. The mills contain twenty four heating, and twenty two double, and twelve single puddling furnaces. LOCATION MAP VIEW MAP The officers of the Company are as follows: David Reeves, President, Phoenixville; Samuel J Reeves, Vice President and Treasurer, Philadelphia; Robert B Aertsen, Secretary, Philadelphia; George H Sellers, General Superintendent, Phoenixville; George Walters, Engineer, Phoenixville. From: A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860, by John Leander Bishop, Philadelphia, 1868, Page 478-479 https://books.google.com/books?id=fbI-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA478#v=onepage&q&f=false ASSOCIATED LINKS http://www.hspa-pa.org/iron_works.html https://gettysburgcompiler.org/2017/01/30/cannons-and-columns-the-phoenix-iron-company-and-the-civil-war/
3-inch Ordnance Rifle, No. 233, GNMP Photo ©Michael Kendra, 2002This 3-inch Ordnance Rifle is one of four guns of Battery A, 2nd U.S. Artillery that today stand at the base of the Buford monument at Gettysburg, on the spot where they fired the opening artillery salvo of that pivotal battle. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: Standard 3-inch Ordnance Rifle Type: Muzzleloading Rifled Gun In Service With: Horse Battery A, 2nd U.S. Artillery, Cavalry Corps Under Command of: Lieutenant John Calef Purpose: Counter-battery, plus infantry & cavalry battlefield support Invented By: John Griffen in 1855 Current Disposition: Mounted on stone base facing West at the John Buford Monument Location: Chambersburg Pike, Gettysburg National Military Park, Pennsylvania Map Coordinates: 39°50'16.5"N 77°15'05.9"W MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: Phoenix Iron Company, Phoenixville, Pennsylvania Year of Manufacture: 1862 Tube Composition: Wrought iron Muzzle Markings: TTSL No. 233 PICo. 1862 816 lbs. Registry Number: No. 233 Foundry Number: 244 (Not visible) Trunnion Markings: None Visible U.S. Ordnance Inspector: (TTSL) Maj. Theodore T.S. Laidley Purchase Price in 1862: $330.00 (US) Buford Monument, with 4 guns of Battery 'A', 2nd U.S. Gettysburg NMP, ©Kendra, 2002 Plaque Mounted on Opening Gun Gettysburg NMP, ©Kendra, 2002 Muzzle Detail, Opening Gun Gettysburg NMP, ©Kendra, 2019 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.0 inches Bore Length: 65.0 inches, 21.6 bore diameters Tube Length: 73 inches Trunnion Diameter: 3.67 inches Barrel Thickness: at Muzzle - 1.5 inches; at Vent - 2.355 inches Tube Weight: 816 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1716 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: Typical - 9, 1 Gunner, 8 Numbered Crew Positions PERFORMANCE Max Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Rifling Type: 7 rifle grooves, right hand consistent twist (1 turn in 11') Standard Powder Charge: 1 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Muzzle Velocity: 1,215 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): using Case Shot...up to 1,850 yards (1.05 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): using Case Shot...6.5 seconds Max Range (at 16°): using Case Shot...4,180 yards (2.3 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 16°): using Case Shot...17 seconds NOTES The John Buford Statue can be found on the Chambersburg Pike in the Gettysburg National Battlefield Park. It stands facing westward toward the position of the advancing Rebel army position of July 1, 1863. When a design for the Buford statue was under discussion in 1888, John Calef, the commander of Horse Artillery Battery "A" under Buford's command, suggested that the design incorporate four Ordnance Rifles that were in the battery. Included in his suggestion was gun number 233, the same gun that fired the first Union artillery shot of the battle. The Army Chief of Ordnance tracked down all four guns and donated them to the monument design committee. During the dedication ceremony of the John Buford statue on July 1st, 1895, Major John Calef symbolically spiked all four tubes. Muzzle Detail of all four guns at Buford Monument, including illuminated Rifling of Opening Gun 1862 no. 233 "Opening Gun" / 1862 No. 244 / 1863 No. 632 / 1864 No. 756 Gettysburg NMP, ©Kendra, 2019 (CLICK TO ENLARGE PHOTOS) "OPENING GUN" PLAQUE TEXT THE FOUR CANNON GUARDING THE BASE OF THE STATUE BELONGED TO HORSE BATTERY "A" 2ND U.S. ARTILLERY THIS PIECE WAS THE OPENING GUN OF THE BATTLE FIRED FROM THIS SPOT UNDER THE PERSONAL DIRECTION OF GEN. BUFORD JULY 1, 1863 FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://www.waymarking.com/waymarks/WMEV67_The_Four_Cannons_the_First_Shot_Gettysburg_PA https://www.timesherald.com/lifestyle/the-first-union-artillery-piece-fired-at-gettysburg/article_bc76bae8-c8d4-11e9-b910-0ff555dcc3bc.html
Gettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006The 20 Pounder Parrott Rifle was one of the heaviest field artillery pieces of the American Civil War. It was highly accurate, cheap to make, and easy to operate. However, it was soon discovered that some Parrott Rifles, particularly the 20 pounders, were prone to bursting... killing and injuring many artillerymen. The cast iron design of these large rifles just couldn't contain the stresses of firing. ARTILLERY PROFILE Type: Muzzleloading Heavy Rifled Field Gun In Service With: U.S. Army State of New York U.S. Navy C.S. Army (Copies & Captured Pieces) Purpose: Fortifying Field Positions, Counter Battery Fire Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1861 Patent: For Manufacturing Issued October 1, 1861, U.S. Patent # 33,401 Rarity: Uncommon Macon Arsonal 20-pdr. Confederate "Parrott" Rifle Copies W. Confed. Ave, Gettysburg NMP, ©Mike Kendra, Dec 2019 -Ranges of Parrott Guns, and Notes for Practice by R.P.Parrott, 1863 -20 pdr. Parrott Rifles of the 1st NY, Peninsula Campaign, June, 1862. MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: West Point Foundry, Cold Springs, NY CS Casting Foundries: Tredegar Iron Works, Richmond, VA (45) Macon Arsenal, Macon, Georgia (5) Noble Brothers & Company, Rome, Georgia (Copies ordered, unknown if any delivered) Years of Manufacture: Between 1861 and 1865 Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band Purchase Price in 1861: $ 380.00 US; $_550.00 CS Purchase Price in 1865: $ 387.00 US; $4500.00 CS Variants: Confederate copies using various manufacturing techniques. No. Purchased During the Civil War: 330 (Army) and 300 (Navy) No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 56 U.S., 14 C.S. Special Notes: Highly accurate, excellent for counter-battery fire, challenging to transport, prone to bursting. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches Bore Length: 79 inches Rifling Type: 5 lands & grooves, 0.1" depth right hand gain twist, 1 turn in 10 ' Trunnion Diameter: 4.62 inches Reinforcing Band: Thickness - 1½ inches, Length - 16¼ inches Barrel Thickness: at small of Muzzle - inches; at Vent - 5.415 inches Tube Length: 89 inches Tube Weight: 1750 lbs. (0.8 tons) Carriage Type: No. 3 Field Carriage (1,175 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 2,925 lbs. (1.46 tons) Horses Required to Pull: 8 No. of Crew to Serve: Typical - 9, 1 Gunner, 8 Numbered Crew Positions AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 2 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: Designed to use Parrott, may substitute Hotchkiss, forbidden to use Schenkl ammunition Projectiles Weights: 20 lbs. solid bolt, 19½ lbs. case, 18¾ lbs. common shell, cannister Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 100: 4 chest with 25 rounds each. PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 to 2 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,250 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): For shell - 2,100 yards (1.1 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): For shell - 6½ seconds Max Range (at 15°): For shell - 4,400 yards (2.5 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 15°): For shell - 17¼ seconds By December of 1862, General Henry Hunt attempted to eliminate the 20 pdr. Parrott completely from the Army of the Potomac. He wrote, "I have the honor to report that the practice in the recent battle with the 20-pounder Parrott was in some respects very unsatisfactory, from the imperfection of the projectiles, which, notwithstanding the pains which have been taken to procure reliable ones, are nearly as dangerous to our own troops as to the enemy, if the former are in advance of our lines. In addition, the guns themselves are unsafe. At Antietam two of the twenty-two, and on the 13th instant another, were disabled by the bursting of the gun near the muzzle. The gun is too heavy for field purposes, and can be used with advantage only as batteries of position. For the last purpose it is inferior to the 4½-inch siege-gun, which requires the same number of horses and only half the number of drivers. I therefore respectfully propose that, as the allowance of artillery in this army is small, the 20-pounders be turned in to the Ordnance Department as soon as they can be replaced by light field guns." Regarding the usefulness of the 20 pdr. Parrott, while detailing siege operations in the Richmond area, Henry L. Abbot wrote, "The 20-pounder Parrott proved to be too small to give the precision of fire demanded of a siege gun, and to be too heavy for convenient use as a field gun. Moreover its projectiles did not seem to take the grooves as well as those of either smaller or larger calibers. The gun was accordingly not regarded with favor." Henry L. Abbot wrote about the usefulness of the 20 pdr. while giving details about the siege operations near Richmond, writing, “The 20-pounder Parrott (calibre 3.67 inches) proved to be too small to give the precision of fire demanded of a siege gun, and to be too heavy for convenient use as a field gun.” Because of this issue, and the fact that the projectiles had performance issues, Abbot believed gunners were less enthusiastic about the 20 pdr. "worst of both worlds" Parrott than the more useful 10 pdr. Field Gun and 30 pdr. Siege Gun options. The 20 pdr. Parrott Rifles may not have been the best field guns, but they could be produced quickly and in quantity at a time when the Army was desperate for rifles, not necessarily the best rifles, but rifles. When the war was over they were not used again. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2010/03/14/20-pdr-or-3-67-inch-army-parrott-rifle/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2017/01/10/macon-20-pdr-parrott/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2017/01/19/battle-of-the-bands-pt-2/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/03/14/navy-mod-army-parrott/ https://books.google.com/books?id=_xpXAAAAcAAJ
From: The Hudson, from the Wilderness to the Sea, by B. Lossing, 1866.At Cold Spring, New York, was established by Gouverneur Kemble, who with others were incorporated under the name of the West Point Foundry Association. The first Works were erected in 1817, and were designed for the casting and boring of Cannon for the Navy and Army, requirements of the United States, official assurances of support and encouragement having been given should Ordnance for the government be satisfactorily made. From the expiration of the time for which the charter of the Association was given, the Works have been conducted as a private establishment by one of the proprietors who leased the shares of the others. They were carried on in this manner by Mr. Gouverneur Kemble until 1851, and from that date to the present time by Mr. Robert Parker Parrott, who had become connected with the Foundry in 1836, and continued in it during the lease of Mr. Kemble upon the expiration of which, Mr. Parrott became the sole lessee, and has conducted the establishment up to the present time, assisted in its management by Mr. Gouverneur Paulding. Mr. Parrott was a graduate of West Point and Captain in the Ordnance Department of the United States. LOCATION MAP VIEW MAP Gouverneur KembleIt was found by experience, that the Cannon called for were not ordered in such quantity, or with such regularity, as to give steady employment, and other work was necessarily sought for. By degrees, general castings, steam engines, and boilers, and all heavy machinery were introduced with a forging department, capable of executing the heaviest pieces. Among the products of this Foundry were: the Engines of the United States Steamers Missouri, and of the well known Merrimac, the Cornish Pumping Engine at Belleville for the Jersey City Waterworks, and the Pumping Engine of the Dry Dock at Brooklyn, sugar mill machinery with steam engines, hydraulic presses, and blowing engines of the largest size have been turned out in large quantities. Much of this machinery has been exported from the United States, and has borne a high reputation in competition with that of other countries. The establishment, though limited originally to a Cannon Foundry of moderate extent, costing about $90,000, has grown entirely by the application of means earned by itself, to one of immense capacity not only for Cannon, but heavy Machinery Steam engines, and general Castings and Forgings. The facilities for finishing and fitting up work, although very large, are exceeded by those for casting and forging, and at times large quantities of Water Pipes, Wrought-iron Shafts, and other forgings, have been added to the ordinary work. The position of the West Point Foundry at Cold Spring was determined by two considerations; one the desire of the Government at that time, that a Gun foundry should not be too near the coast, and the other to obtain water power from a stream entering the Hudson at Cold Spring. This though quite insufficient for the power now required is still useful in the boring of Guns. Cold Spring having at the commencement of the Foundry consisted of only a small landing place of three houses, and West Point being the only well known place in the vicinity, (although on the opposite side of the river,) the name of West Point Foundry was given to the new establishment. From: Harpers Weekly, Issued Sept 14, 1861Mr. Gouverneur Kemble, the original proprietor, still lives to enjoy the vigorous growth of the Foundry, and of the Village, which may almost be said to have been founded with it, as well as to receive the tribute of universal regard for a conspicuous display of qualities commanding respect throughout a long succession of years. This Foundry has recently been brought prominently into notice in connection with the manufacture of Rifled Cannon, a subject which has been much discussed since the Crimean War, although such cannon were not used successfully at that time. Numerous experiments in their manufacture have been made in Europe, and in 1858 and 1859 many trials of Rifled Cannon were made in this country, chiefly with Guns ordered by the Ordnance Department, according to plans devised and brought forward by different inventors. The Cannon were the usual Cast-iron Guns, bored somewhat smaller, and rifled. A projectile, frequently used at that time, was that of Dr. J.B. Read of Alabama, in which a cup or flange of wrought iron is cast in the projectile, and it was expected that the force of the powder would cause the rim of this cup to take the grooves. Better forms of projectiles have since been devised, although this was made to work moderately well in small Guns, owing in some degree to an improvement made by Mr. Parrott of swaging out the cup partially to the form of the grooves, and thus facilitating the taking of them by the projectile. Robert P. ParrottIn 1860, Mr. Parrott introduced the first of the Guns, now known as Parrott Guns. It was the smallest size of bore, and called the ten-pounder, and this Gun has since been increased from two and nine-tenth-inches, to three-inches bore, and is called the three inch Gun. The principles upon which it was constructed have been observed in all, so that the same system has prevailed throughout. One peculiarity of the Parrott Gun is the band or reinforce of wrought iron made by coiling a bar of iron upon a mandril, and then welding this coil into a cylinder which is afterward bored, and turned, and shrunk upon the Gun. The manner of attaching the band to the Gun is another peculiarity, and the rifling is another. The thickness, length, and position of the wrought iron band, and thickness of the cast iron are also arranged by a regular rule. In 1860, was also made the Parrott, twenty-pounder Rifle, and before April 1861, the thirty-pounder Gun, and the Parrott projectile, first and exclusively used for this Gun as well, as for all the larger calibres, afterward made, and subsequently adopted for the ten and twenty-pounder Guns. This projectile is cylindrical, with a flat base, and rounded but pointed end. It is made to take the grooves by the expansion of a brass ring cast upon the projectile near the base. The ring being so disposed as to be flush with the sides and bottom of the projectile, no irregularity whatever is presented, and the projectile can be entered with perfect freedom into the Gun. For the larger calibres, the Parrott projectiles appear to be peculiarly well suited, and have performed well up to six-hundred pounds in weight, from a Gun of twelve-inch bore. From: Harpers Weekly, Issued Sept 14, 1861Before April 1861, Mr. Parrott had made the ten, twenty, and thirty-pounder Guns. This he had done without any order from the Government, and entirely according to his own views of the principles to be followed in Rifled Ordnance. At the commencement of the late Rebellion, all those he had on hand were taken by the Ordnance Department, and to their performance alone is he indebted for the pressing orders which flowed in, and the very large number supplied in consequence. Late in 1861, Mr. Parrott made the one-hundred-pounder and early in 1862 the eight-inch or two-hundred-pounder Gun. These Guns were in each case, made and offered for trial, without any order, and the large calls for them were the result of the impression made by the Guns themselves. Both were mounted in the batteries at Yorktown, and their powers as there exhibited were highly commended. An interesting account of them was given by the Prince de Joinville, an eye witness showing that they were in advance of any other attempt at making heavy Rifled Cannon. In pursuance of the same course of action, Mr. Parrott made in 1862, a ten-inch or three-hundred-pounder Rifle. This was only tried in service at Charleston, the first one was unfortunately disabled by the bursting of a shell, which carried off about three feet from the end of the Gun. It was however, used to a considerable extent after the accident, while another Gun of the same kind, was fired twelve hundred rounds, and then only failed from the same cause as the first. Gettysburg ©Michael Kendra, December 2019The Parrott Guns continued to be largely used in the war both in the Navy, and Army, and while it was not claimed that they were perfect in their results, or that disappointments did not occur, yet when due allowance is made for the novelty of the subject in actual war, the immense extent of the demand and the necessary want of experience under the circumstances, it may be fairly concluded that the system so often doing that well which had never been accomplished before, must be based on correct principles, and only required a reasonable measure of practical experience, and care, to make it equally successful, at all times. In the capture of Fort Macon, the Parrott Guns were singularly distinguished, and they also contributed largely to the success at Fort Pulaski. At the bombardment of Fort Sumter, from Morris Island as well, as in the shelling of Charleston, the Parrott Guns were almost wholly used. The performance of these Guns and projectiles at the destructive bombardment of Fort Sumter, at distances over four thousand yards, after the assault upon Fort Wagner had failed, was a most brilliant as well, as a timely success, and may almost be said to have inaugurated a new era in siege warfare. So important had the success of these Guns made them, that Mr. Parrott was called on for about three thousand Cannon, more than half of which were of the thirty pounder, and larger calibres, together with Projectiles, Iron Carriages for Fortifications, Fuzes, etc. constituting chiefly the Rifled Ordnance of the country. From: A History of American Manufactures from 1608 to 1860, by John Leander Bishop, Philadelphia, 1868, Page 485-488 https://books.google.com/books?id=fbI-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA485#v=onepage&q&f=false
At Gettysburg NBMP, by ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006The 10 pdr. Parrott Rifle, invented by Robert Parker Parrott, was manufactured by the West Point Foundry in the North, and copies were made at several foundries in the South. The patented manufacturing process started with a cast iron barrel, which on it's own was too brittle to use as a cannon, and combined it with a large reinforcing band made of tougher wrought iron overlaid on the breech of the casting. By designing the cannon this way, the barrel was intended to be strong, light, cheap, and effective as a rifled cannon, a relatively new type of field artillery for the era. ARTILLERY PROFILE Models: 10-pdr. Parrott Rifle - Model of 1861, or Old Model Parrott, with a 2.9 inch bore 3-inch Parrott Rifle - Model of 1863, or New Model Parrott, still a 10-pdr. Parrott Type: Muzzleloading Rifled Gun In Service With: United States Army - Marked "U.S." State of New York - Marked "S.N.Y." Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (10) - Marked "C.P." Commonwealth of Virginia (13 Early WPF Pieces) - Unmarked? Marked "C.V."? Confederate States Army (Copies & Captured Pieces) Purpose: Counter-battery & Support the infantry and cavalry forces in the field Invented By: Robert Parker Parrott in 1859-1860 Patent: For Manufacturing Issued October 1, 1861 U.S. Patent # 33,401 (see illustration) Rarity: Common Improvement to the Manufacture of Ordnance By Application of a Wrought-Iron Reinforce to a Gun Made of Cast-Iron Google: U.S. Patent 33,401 At Gettysburg NBMP, by -Gary Todd, July 1978 At Chickamauga Battlefield by -Gary Todd, Aug 2012 At Chickamauga Battlefield by -Gary Todd, Aug 2012 MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: 1 West Point Foundry, Cold Springs, NY CS Casting Foundries: 4+ J. R. Anderson Co. of Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, VA (80+ copies produced) Bujac & Bennett, New Orleans, LA (about 20 copies produced) Macon Arsenal, Ga (about 10 copies produced) Street, Hungerford & Jackson in Memphis, TN (about 3+ copies produced) Also possible evidence Noble Brothers making copies Years of Manufacture: Between 1860 and 1865 Tube Composition: Cast Iron, Wrought Iron Breech Band Purchase Price in 1861: $180 (US); $ 300 (CS) Purchase Price in 1865: $187 (US); $3,000 (CS) Variants: 3 Major Variants, with at least 4 Confederate Foundries Making Copies Parrott Model 1861 2.9 Inch: (228 to 255 produced) Characterized by a muzzle swell, as well as a "step" in the profile in front of the trunnions. Early models made use of a centerline front sight blade mounted on the muzzle. Typical Markings: Tube top between trunnions: "U.S.", "S.N.Y." or "C.P." Muzzle: Registry "No. ###" at top, "10 Pdr.", and "2.9" at bottom Right Trunnion: "R.P.P." at top and "W.P.F." at bottom Left Trunnion: 4 Digit Year of Manufacture Breech: Weight in lbs. under knob & "CAV" or "PATENTED 1861" stamped at top of reinforce. From 1864 to 1865, the U.S. Army removed about 119 units from inventory to convert them to 3" guns. None are known to have survived the conversion process or have ever been found, it has been theorized that these guns were scrapped. Parrott Model 1863 3.0 Inch: (279 produced) Characterized by a straight muzzle, and straight profile lines, and a right trunnion mounted front sight blade, with a matching offset socket attached to the reinforcing band for the rear sight. Many battlefield examples are missing the socket and only the threaded hole in the band remains. Typical Markings: Tube top between trunnions: "U.S." Muzzle: Weight in lbs., Registry "No. ###", Year of Mfr, "W.P.F." at top, Initials of Ordnance Inspector, "3.0 IN" at bottom Right Trunnion: "R.P.P." Left Trunnion: "10-Pdr." or Unmarked Breech: "3.0 IN. BORE" above knob, Weight in lbs. under knob & "PATENTED 1861" stamped at top of reinforce. Confederate Copies of 2.9 & 3.0 Inch Parrott Models: produced by 4 different foundries Characterized by overall appearing longer and larger than Parrott's made in New York, and having a lengthier and heavier reinforcing band that usually shows a bevel or taper at the front (trunnion) side. Sometimes have no readable markings, and a rougher looking casting. No. Purchased During the Civil War: approx. 630 Includes more than 80 made by the CS No. of Surviving Pieces Today: 190+ Special Notes: 10 pdr. Parrott Rifles were easy to Manufacture, Inexpensive, Reliable, and Accurate to Shoot. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 2.9 inches (Model 1861-62) 3.0 inches (Model 1863-65) Bore Length: 70 inches Rifling Type (US): 3 equal lands & grooves, 0.1" depth right hand gain twist, 1 turn in 10' Rifling Type (CS): (1 turn in 16') 3 groves right hand twist 12 grooves left hand twist Trunnion Diameter: 3.67 inches Reinforcing Band: Thickness - 1.10", Length - 13.0" Barrel Thickness: at small of Muzzle - 1.22 inches; at Vent - 4.2 inches Tube Length: 78 inches (US); 81 inches (CS) Tube Weight: 890 lbs. (US); 1,150 lbs. (CS) Carriage Type: M1841 No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1,800 lbs. (US); 2,060 lbs. (CS) Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: Typical - 9, 1 Gunner, 8 Numbered Crew Positions Could operate at a reduced rate with as few as 2 Crew Capt. Pettit's Battery B, 1st NY Light Artillery, LOCAMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 1 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types: Elongated Projectiles; Shell, Shrapnel/Case Shot, Canister Shot, Solid Shot Designed to use Parrott Patent Rounds, Also Compatible with Hotchkiss Shells, Never to use Schenkl Shells. Projectiles Weights: Case Shot 10½ lbs., Shells 9¾ lbs. Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 200 Loaded in four - 50 round / mixed ammo chests Cannon had one limber with chest; Caisson had one limber with chest, and carried two additional chests. As of November 1863, chests should be filled with 25 shells, 20 case shot, and 5 canister As of March 1865, chests should be filled with 30 shell, 15 case shot, and 5 canister for horse artillery PERFORMANCE Sights: Early models utilized a tall skinny front site on the muzzle, and a pendulum hausse rear sight centered behind the reinforcing band. Soon, Parrott introduced a brass tangent sight of his own design that could be mounted in a socket on the right side of the wrought iron band, and a front sight blade mounted on top of the right rimbase where it was less likely to be bent or broken. Rate of Fire: Max 2 to 3 rounds per minute (max rate achieved with no sponging) Muzzle Velocity: 1,230 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): up to 1,900 yards (1.1 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 5°): about 8 seconds Max Range (at 35°): 5,000 yards (2.8 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 35°): about 21 seconds Table from Ranges of Parrott Guns, and Notes for Practice by R.P.Parrott, NY, 1863. NOTES Parrotts were produced in two bore sizes, 2.9-inch and 3.0-inch. Until 1864, Union batteries used only the 2.9 inch Parrotts, but they also employed 3" Ordnance rifles, causing supply problems. In 1863, plans were made in the North to re-bore all remaining 2.9" Parrotts to 3" to standardize ammunition, and shifting West Point Foundry manufacturing to new 3" Parrott Rifles. Due to the limited availability of cannon, Southern batteries had to employ both 2.9" and 3.0" guns, and would outfit four Parrott rifles of the same bore size to each battery as they became available, frequently employing older captured M1861 2.9" Parrotts from the U.S. Army, for the duration of the war. This only added to the ammunition supply complications for the South. Many Confederate cannons have bands and are frequently misidentified as Parrott rifles, even though they are not. The Brooke Rifle, which has a similar appearance to the Parrott Rifle is sometimes said to be a Parrott Copy. Many attribute this to the fact that some characteristics of Brooke Rifles were copied directly from examining the Parrott design, but Brooke Rifles were their own design in many ways, including manufacturing process. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS http://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/01/18/10pdr-parrott-models/ http://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/07/16/tredegar-parrott-bands/ http://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2008/02/20/antietams-collection-of-10-pdr-parrott-rifles/ http://antietam.aotw.org/weapons.php?weapon_id=8 https://books.google.com/books?id=_xpXAAAAcAAJ
Gettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006.When positioned in defensive positions and field fortifications, 24-pounder Field Howitzers were extremely useful pieces of ordnance because of their powerful 5.82 inch shells. Their 1400 pound weight made them a very hard to maneuver in the field, and their 1300 yard effective range put them at a disadvantage to other artillery pieces. Nevertheless, infantrymen could not have relished the idea of charging a battery of 24-pdr howitzers. ARTILLERY PROFILE Model: 24-pdr. Field Howitzer Type: Muzzleloading Field Howitzer In Service With: United States Army Confederate States Army Purpose: To fire heavy explosive shells in a high trajectory over terrain & enemy fortifications for plunging and ricochet fire, and also for short range defense using canister. Invented By: Various Cannon Manufacturers at the request and specification of the U.S. Army Ordnance Board in 1831 Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863 Tube Composition: Bronze Rarity: Rare MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundry: N.P. Ames, Chicopee, Massachusetts Cyrus Alger & Company, Boston, Massachusetts CS Casting Foundries: Quinby & Robinson, of Memphis, Tennessee Variants: Pre-1841 U.S. Iron 24 pdr. Flank Howitzer Confederate Iron 24 pdr. Flank Howitzer Austrian 7-pdr. Field Howitzer (5.87" bore, 7 pdr. by Austrian weighting system of 1850's.) No. Purchased During the Civil War: about 65 No. of Surviving Pieces Today: ? WEIGHTS & MEASURES - The Ordnance Manual for the Use of Officers of the United States Army, 1850. Bore Diameter: 5.82 inches Inner Chamber Diameter: 4.62 inches Tube Length: 61 inches Bore Length: 10.48 cal, or 61 inches Rifling Type: None Trunnion Diameter: 4.2 inches Tube Length: 71 inches Tube Weight: 1,318 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 3 Field Carriage (1,175 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 2,493 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 8 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 AMMUNITION Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 12 shells, 8 case, and 3 canister; 23 projectiles per chest Each gun had 4 limber chests A total of 94 projectiles per gun Projectiles: 18.4 lb. spherical case, common shell, canister Standard Powder Charge: 2 to 2.5 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,060 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): Using Shell & 2 lbs. Powder... 1,322 yards (0.75 miles) Effective Range (at 3° 30'): Using Spherical Case & 2.5 lbs. Powder... 1,200 yards (0.68 miles) Projectile Flight Time (at 3° 30'): Using Spherical Case & 2.5 lbs. Powder... 4¾ seconds NOTES ON THE 24-PDR. FIELD HOWITZER The companion to the 12 pdr. Field Gun & 12 pdr. Napoleon, the Model 1841 24 pdr. Howitzer was the heaviest ordnance intended for use in the field. In Federal service, nearly all howitzers had been replaced by Napoleons. The Confederates, having a shortage of field pieces, maintained them in their arsenal. Howitzers like the 24-pounder fired solid shot, spherical case, and canister. E. Porter Alexander, General Longstreet's Chief of Artillery for much of the war, called them "my favorite guns." On occasion, he even had them mounted on skids and used as mortars. The 24-pounder Field Howitzer in the photo above is one of four used by the Confederates at Gettysburg, and are of Austrian manufacture. They are easily distinguished by the twin "handles" on either side of the tube. Because the bores of this weapon was 5.87 inches instead of the normal 5.82 inches, these guns have the complication of having additional unwanted windage when using standard shells, which were 5.68 inches in diameter by U.S. and C.S. ordnance regulations. With a 0.19 inch windage to overcome, gunners were directed to wrap standard ammunition in canvas bags help alleviate the gap issue. . FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/10/31/24-pdr-field-howitzers/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/11/06/confederate-24-pdr-howitzers/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/11/08/foreign-24-pdr-howitzers/ https://www.gettysburgdaily.com/gettysburg-artillery-part-2/
Gettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006The 12-pounder Whitworth Breechloading Rifle, manufactured in England, was invented by Sir Joseph Whitworth, and imported into North America during the Civil War. It was a very rare gun during the war, but was an interesting precursor to modern artillery in that it was loaded from the breech and had exceptional accuracy over an enormous range. An engineering magazine wrote in 1864 that, "At 1600 yards the Whitworth gun fired 10 shots with a lateral deviation of only 5 inches." This degree of accuracy made them effective in counter-battery fire, used almost as the equivalent of a sharpshooter's rifle, and also for firing over bodies of water. They were not popular as anti-infantry weapons. ARTILLERY PROFILE In Service With: United States Army (6) United States Navy (2 for experimental purposes) Confederate States Army (4) Type: Breechloading Rifled Gun Purpose: Long Range Harassing Fire & Counter Battery Support Invented By: Sir Joseph Whitworth Patent: English Patent #2410 in 1855 Years of Manufacture: 1861-1865 Tube Composition: Steel Bore Diameter: Lands to Lands - 2.73 inches (Grove to Grove is 2.99) Rarity: Imported; Very Rare 12 pdr. Whitworth Rifle at Richmond, VA, April 1865, LOCGettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, May ‎2002Whitworth's English Patent #2410 Whitworth Rifles at Gettysburg NMP, Undated, NPS PhotoGettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, May ‎2002PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 to 2 rounds per minute Rifling Type: hexagonal (6 sided) one turn in 55 inches, right hand twist Standard Powder Charge: 1.75 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Muzzle Velocity: 1,500 ft/sec. Effective Range (at 5°): 2,800 yards (1.59 miles) Max Range (at 35°): 10,000 yards (5.68 miles) Projectiles: 12 lb. 11 ounce cast iron hexagonal "bolt" (sold shot), Also bespoke hexagonal shells. WEIGHTS & MEASURES Tube Length: 104 inches Tube Weight: 1,092 lbs. Carriage Type: Designed for use with a British Field Carriage Substitute with M1841 No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): with No. 1 Field Carriage, 1,992 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: About 12 (US & CS) No. of Original Pieces You Can See in the Field Today: ?? Cost in 1860: £300 in England (or $1,487.00 U.S. at 0.2017 exchange rate in 1860) MANUFACTURING Casting Foundry: Whitworth Ordnance Company, Manchester, England Variants: A 6-pdr. breechloader and a 12-pdr. muzzleloader variant was also produced. Special Notes: The 2.75 inch bore of the Whitworth was hexagonal in cross-section, and the projectile a long bolt that twisted to conform to the rifling. It is said that these bolts made a very eerie sound when fired, which could be distinguished from other projectiles. An article from the August 10, 1861 edition of Harper’s Weekly described the gun: The Whitworth rifled cannon obtains its remarkable power and accuracy by the adoption of a polygonal spiral bore of uniform pitch, more rapid than could be obtained by grooves. The 12-pounder-one of which was a few days since exhibited in this city—with a bore of 3.2 inches, has one turn in sixty inches; it is eight feet long and breech-loading. The projectile is oblong, made of cast iron, and formed to fit the grooves of the barrel. The breech of the gun is covered with a cap which screws on, and on being removed swings to one side upon a hinge ; the projectile is then inserted into the open breech, and followed by a tin cartridge-case containing the powder, and capped by a cake of wax or other lubricating composition; the breech-cap is then swung to and screwed on by its handles, a fuse inserted into the vent, and the gun is discharged. The lubricating matter being carried out with the ball effectually cleanses the gun, and the deposit is afterward withdrawn with the cartridge-case. As there is no exhalation of gases from the breech-cap, one of the worst features of breech-loading guns is avoided. The range of this gun is said to be greater than the Armstrong gun, and its accuracy more positive. Guns of the size herein described cost £300 in England. Despite the great range and accuracy of this rifle, the Whitworth was difficult to keep operational. First, ammunition was unique to the rifle, and also expensive and difficult to import. Second, the breechloading mechanism was prone to jam, forcing many guns to be loaded as a conventional muzzle-loader of the era. The handle at the breech of the Whitworth with the heavy balls on the end act as a hand operated revolving "hammer action" that a cannoneer can use to deliver mechanically advantaged "strikes" to the breech cap, used to open a jammed breech cap, or screw it tightly closed. It's basically an integrated manual impact wrench, and the British call this cannon bit a "tappet". Although the Whitworths are generally associated with the C.S.A.--most were run through the Union blockade--there was one 6 gun battery in Federal service in 1861. This battery only saw field service during the Peninsula Campaign in 1862, and for the remainder of the War was part of the defenses around Washington, DC. Whitworth also exported a .451 caliber sharpshooter infantry rifle manufactured with the same hexagonal barrel and bullet concept. A small number were successfully delivered and used by Confederate States troops. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://www.gettysburgdaily.com/gettysburg-artillery-part-7-with-licensed-battlefield-guide-george-newton/ Whitworth gun, after being struck by a car on the battlefield.
Gettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006An effective, serviceable cannon before the American Civil War, the 12 pdr. Field Howitzer was a poor weapon in comparison to new weapons such as the 12 pdr. "Napoleon" Light Field Gun, and 3 inch rifles. Most howitzers in Federal service were melted down, and replaced with more Napoleons, except in the west where light and more maneuverable weapons were required. The Confederate Army, with a shortage of usable cannon, maintained them in their arsenal for most of the war. ARTILLERY PROFILE In Service With: United States Army Confederate States Army Virginia Military Institute; Arkansas Military Institute; State of Georgia; State of New York; State of Connecticut Type: Muzzleloading Field Howitzer Purpose: To support infantry and cavalry forces by firing explosive shells in a high trajectory over enemy fortifications for plunging and ricochet fire, and also for short range anti-personnel missions using spherical case shot and canister. Invented By: Various Cannon Manufacturers at the request and specification of the US Army Ordnance Board in 1831 Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863 Tube Composition: Bronze Bore Diameter: 4.62 inches Inner Chamber Diameter: 3.67 inches Rarity: Uncommon to Rare PERFORMANCE- The Ordnance Manual for the Use of Officers of the United States Army, 1850. Rate of Fire: 1 rounds per minute Rifling Type: none Standard Powder Charge: 1 lb. Cannon Grade Black Powder, 0.75 lbs. for Case Shot Muzzle Velocity: 953 ft/sec. for Case Shot; 1,015 ft/sec. for Canister; 1,054 ft/sec. for Shell Effective Range (at 5°): With Shells, 1,072 yards (0.6 miles) Effective Range (at 3° 45'): With Case Shot, 1,050 yards Projectile Flight Time (at 3° 45'): With Case Shot, 4 seconds Projectiles: 8.9 lb. Shells, 11.0 lbs. Case Shot, 9.64 lbs. Canister 15 shells, 20 spherical case shot, and 4 canister rounds per limber box WEIGHTS & MEASURES Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 156 rounds in 4 Limber boxes (39 ea.) Tube Length: 53 inches Tube Weight: 788 lbs. Trunnion Diameter: 3.67 inches Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1688 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: 8 No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: about 250 No. of Original Pieces That Are Known to have Survived Until Today: ? Cost in 1862 Dollars: about $500.00 (US) MANUFACTURING US Casting Foundries: Cyrus Alger of Boston,Massachusetts; N.P. Ames of Springfield, Massachusetts; Miles Greenwood’s Eagle Foundry, Cincinnati, Ohio; William Marshall’s Western Foundry, St. Louis, Missouri; B. F. Lemmon, New Albany, Indiana CS Casting Foundries: Tredegar Foundry, Richmond, Virginia; Leeds & Co., New Orleans, Louisiana; Quinby & Robinson of Memphis, Tennessee; the Washington Foundry in Richmond, Virginia; Columbus Iron Works in Columbus, Georgia; Noble Brothers, Rome, Georgia; Quinby & Robinson, Memphis, Tennessee; T.M. Brennan, Nashville, Tennessee; and a few other small vendors. Variants: 12-pdr Iron Field Howitzer, Tredegar variants looked similar to Ordnance Rifles, with a more prominent reinforce at the breech. Special Notes: In companion to the 6 pdr. Smoothbore Field Gun, the 12 pdr. Howitzer was designed to fire at a higher trajectory in order to attack targets masked to flat trajectory gun fire. The 12 pdr. Field Howitzer was by far the most effective field piece of the war for use at any range under 400 yards. Its large shells gave it firepower, while its light weight, less than 800 lbs, made it highly mobile and easy to position, even by hand. Because of its mobility, the piece was readily adaptable for close infantry support. The 12-pdr howitzer's great weakness was its effective range, which is not much over 1,000 yards, well under that of even the 6-pdr gun. It made the piece an easy target for other artillery. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/12/07/12-pdr-fh-origins-and-early-models/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/12/11/12-pdr-field-howitzer-model-1841/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2009/12/23/confederate-12-pdr-field-howitzers-part-1-bronze-types/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/10/08/tredegar-12-pdr-iron-fh/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/03/10/unidentified-12pdr-howitzers/
Clipped from First Battle of Bull Run, chromolithograph by Kurz & Allison, 1889 Union & Confederate Artillery Pieces Participating At First Manassas TYPE OF PIECE No. of USA Artillery % of USA Artillery No. of CSA Artillery % of CSA Artillery No. of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY % of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY (R) 10 pdr. Parrott Rifle 16 28.0% 6 10.9% 22 19.6% (R) 10 pdr. Ordnance Rifle 10 17.5% 3 5.4% 13 11.6% (R) 20 pdr. Parrott Rifle 2 3.5% - - 2 1.6% (S) 6 pdr. Smoothbore Field Gun 14 24.5% 41 74.5% 55 49.1% (S) 12 pdr. "Napoleon" Light Field Gun 4 7.0% - - 4 3.5% (S) 12 pdr. Howitzer 8 14.0% 5 9.0% 13 11.6% (S) 12-pdr. Naval Howitzer 2 3.5% - - 2 1.6% (R) 30 pdr. Parrott Rifle 1 1.7% - - 1 0.8% TOTALS: 57 55 112 (R)IFLES: 29 50.8% 9 16.3% 38 33.9% (S)MOOTHBORES: 28 49.1% 46 83.6% 74 66.0% Union Artillery Lost in the Battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861 from the Official Records, Series I, Volume II p. 328 Batteries (Equipped With) Commanders Rifled Lost Smoothbore Lost Total Lost Remarks First U. S. Artillery, Company G (two 20-pounder Parrotts, one 30-pounder Parrott). Lieutenant Edwards 1 1 Two 20-pounders saved First U. S. Artillery, Company I (six 10-pounder Parrots) Captain Ricketts 6 6 None saved Second U. S. Artillery, Company D Captain Arnold 2 2 4 None saved Second U. S. Artillery, Company E (two 13-pounder James, two 6-pounders (old), two 12-pounder howitzers). Captain Carlisle 2 2 4 Two 6-pounders saved Fifth S. Artillery [Company D], (two 10-pounder Parrotts, two 6-pounders (old), two 12-pounder howitzers). Captain Griffin 1 4 5 One 10-pounder saved Rhode Island Battery (six 13-pounder James) 5 5 One saved Total Lost 17 8 25
Clipped from Battle of Shiloh by Thure de Thulstrup, 1888 Union & Confederate Artillery Pieces Participating At Shiloh TYPE OF PIECE No. of USA Artillery % of USA Artillery No. of CSA Artillery % of CSA Artillery No. of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY % of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY (R) 10 pdr. Parrott Rifle 12 8.8% - - 12 5.1% (R) 10 pdr. Ordnance Rifle 2 1.5% 7 6.4% 9 3.8% (R) 20 pdr. Parrott Rifle 12 8.8% - - 12 5.1% (S) 6 pdr. Smoothbore Field Gun 36 28.5% 58 53.2% 94 40.0% (S) 12 pdr. "Napoleon" Light Field Gun 4 3.1% 8 7.3% 12 5.1% (S) 12 pdr. Howitzer 18 14.2% 36 33.0% 54 22.9% (S) 24 pdr. Howitzer 4 3.1% - - 4 1.7% (R) 14 pdr. James Rifle 30 23.8% - - 30 12.7% (R) 6 pdr. Wiard Rifle 4 3.1% - - 4 1.7% (R) 12 pdr. Wiard Rifle 4 3.1% - - 4 1.7% TOTALS: 126 109 235 RIFLES: 64 50.7% 7 6.4% 71 30.2% SMOOTHBORES: 62 49.2% 102 93.5% 164 69.7%
Clipped from Battle of Antietam lithograph by Unknown author, circa 1888 Union & Confederate Artillery Pieces Participating At Antietam TYPE OF PIECE No. of USA Artillery % of USA Artillery No. of CSA Artillery % of CSA Artillery No. of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY % of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY (R) 10 pdr. Parrott Rifle 57 18.9% 43 17.8% 100 18.4% (R) 3 in. Ordnance Rifle 81 26.9% 42 17.4% 123 22.6% (R) 20 pdr. Parrott Rifle 22 7.3% - - 22 4.0% (S) 6 pdr. Smoothbore Field Gun - - 41 17.0% 41 7.5% (S) 12 pdr. "Napoleon" Light Field Gun 117 38.8% 14 5.8% 131 24.1% (S) 12 pdr. Howitzer 3 0.9% 44 18.2% 47 8.6% (S) 24 pdr. Howitzer - - 4 1.6% 4 0.7% (S) 32 pdr. Howitzer 6 1.9% - - 6 1.1% (R) 14 pdr. James Rifle 10 3.3% - - 10 1.8% (R) 12 pdr. Whitworth Breechloading Rifle - - 2 0.8% 2 0.3% (R) 12 pdr. Blakely Rifle - - 7 2.9% 7 1.2% (S) 12 pdr. Naval Howitzer 5 1.6% 2 0.8% 7 1.2% Unidentified Pieces - - 42 17.4% 42 7.7% TOTALS: 301 241 542 RIFLES: 170 56.4% * 94 * 39.0% * 264 * 48.7% SMOOTHBORES: 131 43.5% * 105 * 43.5% * 236 * 43.5% * Figures do not take into account unidentified pieces.
Clipped from "Hancock at Gettysburg" by Thure de Thulstrup, 1887 Union & Confederate Artillery Pieces Participating At Gettysburg TYPE OF PIECE No. of USA Artillery % of USA Artillery No. of CSA Artillery % of CSA Artillery No. of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY % of TOTAL USA & CSA ARTILLERY (R) 10 pdr. Parrott Rifle 60 16.6% 42 15.4% 102 16.1% (R) 10 pdr. Ordnance Rifle 146 40.5% 73 26.8% 219 34.6% (R) 20 pdr. Parrott Rifle 6 1.6% 10 3.6% 16 2.5% (R) 3.67 inch Navy Parrott Rifle - - 4 1.4% 4 0.6% (S) 6 pdr. Smoothbore Field Gun - - 1 0.3% 1 0.1% (S) 12 pdr. "Napoleon" Light Field Gun 142 39.4% 107 39.3% 249 39.3% (S) 12 pdr. Howitzer 2 0.5% 26 9.5% 28 4.4% (S) 24 pdr. Howitzer - - 4 1.4% 4 0.6% (R) 14 pdr. James Rifle 4 1.1% - - 4 0.6% (R) 12 pdr. Whitworth Breechloading Rifle - - 2 0.7% 2 0.3% (R) 12 pdr. Blakely Rifle - - 3 1.1% 3 0.4% TOTALS: 360 272 632 RIFLES: 216 60.0% 134 49.2% 350 55.3% SMOOTHBORES: 144 40.0% 138 50.7% 282 44.6%
Photo ©Michael Kendra, 2006ARTILLERY PROFILE In Service With: U.S. Army Experimental Type: 20 inch Rodman Gun, Model of 1861 Purpose: Coastal Defense Invented By: Major Thomas J. Rodman in 1861 Patent: Rodman's Casting Process, Patent Granted August 14, 1847 U.S. Patent No. 5,236 Years of Manufacture: 1864 and 1869 Tube Composition: Rodman Process Cast Iron Bore Diameter: 20 inches Rarity: Very rare PERFORMANCE Rate of Fire: 1 rounds every 7 to 10 minutes estimated. Rifling Type: None Standard Powder Charge: 200 lbs. Unknown Grade of Black Powder Max Range (at 25°): up to 8,000 yards (4.5 miles) Projectiles: 1,080 pound round ball, solid shot WEIGHTS & MEASURES Tube Length: 243.5 inches Tube Weight: 116,497 lbs, or 58.2 tons Carriage Type: Watertown Arsenal iron frontpintle barbette carriage Carriage Weight: 32,000 lbs. or 18 tons Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): about 148,500 lbs. or 74.25 tons No. of Crew to Serve: 7 men + Gunner No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: 1 No. of Original Pieces You Can See in the Field Today: 2 Cost in 1864 Dollars: $32,781.37 USD Each in 1864 20 INCH RODMAN NO.1 Muzzle Markings: NO. 1, FORT PITT, PA., S.C.L., 1864, 116497 lbs. Casting Foundry: Fort Pitt Foundry, Pittsburgh PA Casting Date: February 11, 1864 Foundry Number: 2053 Inspected by: Stephen Carr Lyford, Ordnance Officer Inspecting, 1863-65. First Test Shot:October 25, 1864 Test-fired 8 times total; 4 times in 1864, and 4 additional shots in 1867 Service History: None. Stored awaiting further testing. Declared surplus property by the federal government in 1903, and given to the Borough of Brooklyn. On display at the Fort Hamilton military complex. Current Disposition: On public display at Fort Hamilton, Brooklyn, NY VIEW MONUMENT MAP 20 INCH RODMAN NO.2 Muzzle Markings: NO. 2, KFPF PA., J.A.K, 1869, 115100 lbs. Casting Foundry: Knap’s Fort Pitt Foundry, Pittsburgh PA Casting Date: 1869 Foundry Number: 3387 Inspected by: John Alexander Kress, Ordnance Officer Inspecting, 1867-69 Service History: Sent to the Coast Artillery facilities at Fort Monroe, Hampton Roads, Virginia for testing, gun is never fired. In 1876 gun is nearly lost in transport en route to Philadelphia International Exhibition when the 100 ton ship nearly capsized because the gun wasn't properly centered on the deck before setting sail. After the exhibition, the gun was sent to the U.S. Ordnance Proving Grounds at Sandy Hook, NJ for further testing. In 1903, the 20-inch Rodman is transferred to grounds of Fort Hancock for Preservation as a monument “to the old class of guns.” Current Disposition: On public display at Fort Hancock, Sandy Hook, NJ VIEW MONUMENT MAP Records Broken: 2 Largest muzzle loading guns ever made Largest iron guns cast in one piece Special Notes: 1 additional 20-inch piece was cast, or perhaps it was a spare, and was sold to Peru in the Late 1870's, Unknown current disposition. HISTORY Like the famed Gun Club of Jules Verne's "Journey from the Earth to the Moon and Around It," Rodman wanted an even bigger gun to test, and proposed building one as soon as the first 15-inch Rodman had been accepted by the War Department. In his report of April 17, 1861, he expressed no doubt that a reliable gun of almost any size could be made with complete success using his casting process. He felt, or at least said, however, since he seems to have limited his ambitions rather reluctantly, that a 20-inch gun firing a half-ton shot would be quite big enough. Anything larger would require massive machinery for loading, and "it is not deemed probable that any naval structure, proof against that caliber, will soon if ever be built...." Rodman's newest monster--one of the largest iron castings to say nothing of the largest gun ever attempted--was three years in the making. Expected to weigh over 100,000 pounds finished, the gun was much heavier than the 40-ton capacity of Knapp, Rudd's largest furnace. The foundry, however, had a total pouring capacity of 185 tons, and expected to cast the new gun from six furnaces at once. New plans had to be drawn, molds had to be made, new casting procedures were essential, and new finishing machinery had to be designed and built. The great day finally came on February 11, 1864. With Major Rodman, then superintendent of Watertown Arsenal, Mass., supervising the operation, the huge gun was poured. Filled in sequence from different furnaces, the 4-piece mold took 160,000 pounds of molten iron. Cooling, by both running water and streams of air, took nearly a week, after which the gun was finished on a specially built lathe. The finished barrel weighed 116,497 pounds, and the muzzle of the gun was inscribed: "20 inch, No. 1, Fort Pitt, 116,497 lbs." Destined for Fort Hamilton in New York harbor, the gun was placed on a double railway truck, also specially built, at the foundry to await shipment. As the Pittsburgh Gazettte reported on July 23, 1864, "Juveniles, aged from ten to fifteen years, were amusing themselves today in crawling into the bore on their hands and knees. A good sized family including ma and pa, could find shelter in the gun and it would be a capital place to hide in case of a bombardment.... Rodman supervised the building of a special carriage for the 20-inch gun at Watertown Arsenal, for the cannon was far too big for any standard mount. The finished product, an iron frontpintle barbette carriage weighing 36,000 pounds was shipped off to New York and assembled at Fort Hamilton. The 20-inch gun was a sizable piece of artillery. Total length was 20 feet, 3 inches, with the bore length 17 feet, 6 inches; thus the bore length-diameter ratio of 10.5 was even lower than that for the 15-inch Rodman gun. Both the shot and the shell for the 20-incher were more than twice the weight of the same projectiles for the 15-inch model, the solid shot weighing 1,080 pounds, slightly over half a ton, and the explosive shell 725 pounds empty of the bursting charge. The First Test The first test, not for range but simply to see if and how the gun would shoot, was held on October 25th, almost as soon as the gun was mounted. A huge crowd turned out, including Rodman, of course, and even Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. A 100-pound blank charge loaded for the first shot wouldn't fire with a standard friction primer, and at first it appeared that the gun had a blocked vent. After the charge was pulled, a man was sent down the bore, which Harper's Weekly reports he did very easily, to check for obstructions from the inside. The trouble was finally found. The 20-inch gun, over 5 feet in diameter, had a small vent hole almost 23 inches long, and a standard friction primer simply hadn't the power to carry its flame that far to the charge. When the vent was filled up with fine powder before the primer was inserted, the blank charge fired perfectly. The next shot was fired with a 50-pound powder charge and the 1,080-pound solid shot, at zero elevation. The Scientific American's on-the-spot correspondent wrote that "the shot struck the water throwing up showers of spray as large as a ship." The third and final shot of the day used 100 pounds of powder behind a solid shot, with the gun at an elevation of 25 degrees. "At the report the ponderous globe rushed up through the air with a hoarse roar, and sweeping its long ellipse, fell a great distance, estimation 3 1/2 miles, away into the sea...." The shot's clearly visible flight was timed at 24 seconds. The tests were continued on October 27th, again with a huge crowd present. Only two shots were fired, both with round shot and the gun at zero elevation. On the first shot, with a 100-pound powder charge, the ball hit and richocheted 8 times on the water. Recoil drove the gun and carriage back 6 feet, 10 inches, on the base. The second shot, with a 125-pound charge, drove the gun back 7 feet, 5 inches, but the ball, hitting rough water, skipped only 5 times. While the Ordnance Department announced that another test would be held as soon as a hulk or ship could be found for a target, the gun was never fired again during the Civil War. The huge cannon was simply included with a battery of fifteen-inch guns as a part of the permanent defenses of New York. Another test, held in March 1867, included four shots fired with 125-, 150-, 175- and 200-pound charges, all with the gun at an elevation of 25 degrees. The maximum range attained was 8,000 yards, or a little under 5 miles. Mountain Howitzer cannon next to the 20-inch Rodman gun as a featured attraction at 1879 Centennial International Exposition - A second and slightly lighter 20-inch gun also may have been cast for the Navy in February 1864, and another was later cast in 1866. For obvious reasons, however, the guns were never much more than experimental pieces. Rodman's heaviest cannons were fantastic weapons for their time, but from a practical point of view their usefulness was extremely limited. Aiming time depended on the extent of adjustment, but it took an additional 2 minutes and 20 seconds to traverse the gun and barbette carriage 90 degrees. The 20-inch gun certainly would have required twice the loading and aiming time of the 15-incher. Hitting a fast-moving ship at any reasonable range with the one shot that could be gotten off in time would have depended largely on luck. Rodman's guns proved his theories, but the 20-inch gun was still too big to be a really effective weapon. These large guns still exist. Old "No. 1" still sits at Fort Hamilton in Brooklyn, New York, now a public park located near the Verranzano Narrows Bridge. The second 20 inch Rodman looks out over New York Harbor from Fort Hancock at Sandy Hook, in New Jersey. FOR FURTHER READING Edwin Olmstead, Wayne E. Stark, and Spencer C. Tucker, The Big Guns: Civil War Siege, Seacoast and Naval Cannon, Alexandria Bay, NY: Museum Restoration Service, 1997. Ripley, Warren, Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, Charleston, S.C.: The Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://books.google.com/books?id=s2kWAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA296#v=onepage&q&f=false https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/08/20inch-rodman-pt1/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2012/02/09/20-inch-rodmans-pt2/
Gettysburg NMP, ©Michael Kendra, Sept 2006.The 6-pounder Smoothbore Field Gun was a lightweight, mobile piece that was a favorite of the field artillery in the first half of the nineteenth century. This popular workhorse of the Mexican War era was regarded as obsolete by the Union army, but was still employed by a Confederate army that could not afford to pass on functional ordnance with it's shortage of available guns and resources. ARTILLERY PROFILE Models: 1835; 1838 "Light" or "Cavalry"; 1840; 1841 "Standard"; 1841 "Cadet Guns"; Rifled 6-pdrs. Type: Muzzleloading Smoothbore Field Gun In Service With: United States Army Confederate States Army 1841 Cadet Version: Virginia Military Institute, Arkansas Military Institute, Georgia Military Institute Purpose: Support for the infantry and cavalry forces in the field Invented By: Various Cannon Manufacturers at the request and specification of the US Army Ordnance Board in 1835 Rarity: Common to Uncommon MANUFACTURING M1838 Light 6 Pounder. - Antietam NB ©Michael Kendra, Nov 2019 Antietam NB, ©Michael Kendra, Nov 2019 Antietam NB, ©Michael Kendra, Nov 2019 US Casting Foundry: Cyrus Alger & Company (Boston), Ames Manufacturing Company (Boston), Henry N. Hooper (Boston), Revere Copper (Boston), Eagle Foundry (Cincinnati), Western Foundry (St. Louis), Benjamin Lemmon (Indianapolis) CS Casting Foundries: Tredegar (Richmond), John Clarke (New Orleans), Leeds & Company (New Orleans), Quinby & Robinson (Memphis), A.M. Paxton (Vicksburg), A.B. Reading & Brother (Vicksburg) Years of Manufacture: 1841 to 1863 Tube Composition: Bronze Cost in 1861 Dollars: $400.00 (US) Variants: Model 1835, 58 Accepted, Bore Length (Cal) 15.7, Weight 743 Lbs. Model 1838 Light or Cavalry Model, 98 Accepted, Bore Length (Cal) 14.0, Weight 690 Lbs. Model 1840, 27 Accepted, Bore Length (Cal) 14.0, Weight 812 Lbs. Standard Model 1841, 854+ Accepted, Bore Length (Cal) 15.7, Weight 880 Lbs. Model 1841 Cadet, 10 Accepted, Bore Length (Cal) 11.7, Weight 570 Lbs. Rifled 6 pounder Guns, some are cast with rifling, others were rifled after casting in the James Type I. system. No. in North America from 1861 to 1865: approx. 700 No. of Original Pieces That Are Known to have Survived Until Today: approx. 300 WEIGHTS & MEASURES Bore Diameter: 3.67 inches Tube Length: 60 inches Bore Length: 15.7 calibers, or 57.5 inches Rifling Type: None, Smoothbore Trunnion Diameter: 3.67 inches Tube Weight: 884 lbs. Carriage Type: No. 1 Field Carriage (900 lbs.), 57" wheels Total Weight (Gun & Carriage): 1784 lbs. Horses Required to Pull: 6 No. of Crew to Serve: Typical - 9, 1 Gunner, 8 Numbered Crew Positions Could operate at a reduced rate with as few as 3 Crew AMMUNITION Standard Powder Charge: 1.25 lbs. Cannon Grade Black Powder Projectiles Types & Weights: 6.15 lbs. solid round balls, 5.5 lbs. case shot, 6.8 lbs. canister Typical Number of Projectiles Per Gun: 200 rounds Loaded in four - 50 round / mixed ammo chests Cannon had one limber with chest; Caisson had one limber with chest, and carried two additional chests. As of 1850: 35 solid shot, 5 spherical case, and 10 canister rounds per limber box, 50 total As of 1862: 25 solid shot, 20 spherical case, and 5 canister rounds per limber box, 50 total PERFORMANCE Sights: Short front site on the muzzle, and a pendulum hausse rear sight centered on breach. Rate of Fire: 2 rounds per minute Muzzle Velocity: 1,439 ft/s Effective Range (at 5°): using solid shot, up to 1,523 yards or 0.86 miles Effective Range (at 4°): using spherical case, 1,200 yards or 0.68 miles Projectile Flight Time (at 4°): using spherical case, 5 seconds NOTES This gun was the main workhorse of Mexican War, but was considered obsolete by the Civil War era. It's design shows the last vestiges of the highly decorated artillery profiles that had prevailed until the beginning of the century: breech band, cascabel fillet, fillet and roundel at the throat, and an echinus on the muzzle face were also features of the M1841 12-pounder. All were dispensed with on the M1857 Napoleon that displaced both these weapons as the smoothbore of choice for both armies. Attempts to convert some of these guns to rifles, using the James system of rifling, had only marginal success. ADDITIONAL PHOTOS From: 1864 Instruction for Field Artillery From: 1864 Instruction for Field Artillery From: 1864 Instruction for Field Artillery From: 1864 Instruction for Field Artillery Tredegar cast 6 pdr. named "Edenton", made from melted plantation bells. Muzzle is marked 1531/E.B. -Shiloh NHP, NPS Photo. FOR FURTHER READING Civil War Artillery at Gettysburg, Cole, Philip M, Da Capo Press, New York, N.Y., 2002. Field Artillery Weapons of the Civil War, by Olmstead, Hazlett, & Parks, Univ of Delaware Press, 1988. Artillery and Ammunition of the Civil War, by Warren Ripley, Battery Press, 1984. ASSOCIATED LINKS https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/05/07/mexican-war-to-civil-war-the-model-1841-6-pdr-field-gun/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/05/08/6-pdr-m1841-prod-notes/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/05/02/model-1838-6-pdr-fg/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/05/14/model-1841-six-pounder-wa/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/06/05/tredegar-model-1841-6-pdrs/ https://markerhunter.wordpress.com/2011/06/04/model-1861-6-pdr/
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