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Grant and Rawlins

Discussion in 'Civil War History - General Discussion' started by Rebelrose, Oct 21, 2009.

  1. Rebelrose

    Rebelrose Private

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    :grant: Forum,

    John A. Rawlins, chosen by Ulysses S. Grant to be his chief of staff on November 1, 1862, "had to diffuse doubts about Grant's competence and sobriety", according to Peter Cozzens, author of Shenandoah 1862: Stonewall Jackson's Valley Campaign. Cozzens also suggests that Grant's victories at Missionary Ridge and Vicksburg would not have happened without Rawlins.
    (These comments were from an article in "Civil War Times", of October, 2009, entitled "General Grant's 'Living and Speaking Conscience' ").
    I don't know much about Grant, but I always thought he was considered a great commander and did his own battle strategies. Is Cozzens' theory a possibility? Just curious.

    Rebelrose
     

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  3. unionblue

    unionblue Brev. Brig. Gen'l

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    Background on U.S. Grant.

    U. S. Grant, The Myth of His Drinking.

    http://faculty.css.edu/mkelsey/usgrant/alcohol.html

    Fine website sources about U. S. Grant.

    http://www.empirenet.com/~ulysses/

    http://faculty.css.edu/mkelsey/usgrant/

    IMO Rawlins has been overblown by Cozzens and has ignored or not fully been aware of some historical references that would show Rawlins was a staff officer and had very little to do with Grant's ability to plan and win battles.

    A staff officer, yes, valuable, most likely, but not the major factor or in any way the moving force behind Grant.

    Unionblue
     
  4. Ellsworth avenger

    Ellsworth avenger Sergeant Major

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    Grant resentment?

    Peter Cozzen's point in referance to John Rawlins not being at least mentioned in Grant's memoirs,thou he had been rewarded with a corp's command and position of secretary of state,does suggest a resentment of sort, held by Grant while sitting on Mount McGregor. "It appears that mankind in this life are not agents for eternity, but that they will eternally remain agents of trail". Ethan Allen [Oracles of Man]
     
  5. Horace Porter

    Horace Porter Sergeant

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    Rawlins as a corps commander and secretary of state? Come again?

    And would you like to comment on Rawlins' investment in Cuban bonds while he was advocating US intervention there?

    Cozzens has always had an ax to grind with Grant, as befits someone enamored with the Army of the Cumberland.
     
  6. M E Wolf

    M E Wolf Brigadier General Moderator

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    Name RAWLINS, John Aaron
    Born February 13 1831, Galena IL
    Died September 6 1869, Washington DC
    Pre-War Profession Lawyer, city attorney.
    War Service August 1861, Capt., aide-de-camp and assistant adjutant to U.S. Grant, Maj., Lt. Col., August 1863 appointed Brig. Gen. of Volunteers, March 1865 Brig. Gen. in Regular Army.
    Brevet Promotions Maj. Gen. U.S.V. February 24 1865, Maj. Gen. U.S.A. April 9 1865.
    Post War Career Secretary of war (briefly).
    Notes Claimed to have kept Gen. Grant from drink. Grant's alter ego.
    On the Internet John A Rawlins
    ---------------------------------------------------
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 3 [S# 3]
    NOVEMBER 7, 1861.--Engagement at Belmont, Mo., and demonstration from Paducah upon Columbus, Ky.
    No. 1. -- Reports of Brig. Gen. U. S. Grant, U. S. Army, commanding District of Southeast Missouri, and including operations against Thompson's forces, with orders, &c.
    [excerpt]
    General McClernand was in the midst of danger throughout the engagement, and displayed both coolness and judgment. His horse was three times shot under him.
    Colonel Dougherty, Twenty-second Illinois Volunteers, commanding the Second Brigade, by his coolness and bravery entitles himself to be named among the most competent of officers for command of troops in battle. In our second engagement he was three times wounded, and fell a prisoner in the hands of the enemy.
    Among the killed was Lieut. Col. A. Wentz, Seventh Iowa Volunteers, and among the wounded were Col. J. G. Lauman and Maj. E. W. Rice, of the Seventh Iowa.
    The reports of subcommanders will detail more fully particulars of the engagement, and the conduct of both officers and men.
    To my staff, Capt. John A. Rawlins, assistant adjutant-general; Lieuts. C. B. Lagow and William S. Hillyer, aides-de-camp, and Capt. R. B. Hatch, assistant quartermaster, I am much indebted for the promptitude with which they discharged their several duties.
    Surg. J. H. Brinton, U.S. volunteers, chief medical officer, was on the field during the entire engagement, and displayed great ability and efficiency in providing for the wounded, and in organizing the medical corps.
    Maj. J. D. Webster, acting chief engineer, also accompanied me on the field, and displayed soldierly qualities of a high order.
    My own horse was shot under me during the engagement.
    [end of excerpt]
    ------------------
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 7 [S# 7]
    CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, TENNESSEE, NORTHERN ALABAMA, AND SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA FROM NOVEMBER 19, 1861, TO MARCH 4, 1862.
    UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC. --2
    For the information of that portion of this command newly attached the following list of staff officers is published:
    Capt. John A. Rawlins, assistant adjutant-general. Capt. Clark B. Lagow, aide-de-camp. Capt. William S. Hillyer, aide-de-camp.
    Maj. John Riggin, jr., volunteer aide-de-camp.
    Capt. R. B. Hatch, assistant quartermaster, U.S. Volunteers, chief quartermaster.
    Capt. W. W. Leland, commissary subsistence U.S. Volunteers, chief commissary.
    Capt. W. F. Brinck, ordnance officer.
    Surg. James Simons, U.S. Army, medical director.
    Asst. Surg. J. F. Taggart, U. S. Army, medical purveyor.
    Maj. I. N. Cooke, paymaster.
    Col. J. D. Webster, chief of staff and chief of engineers.
    By order of U.S. Grant, brigadier-general commanding:
    JNO. A. RAWLINS,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.
    -----
    Colonel J. D. Webster is 'chief of staff' for Grant--not Rawlins.
    Assistant Adjutant-General is a very important assignment as, their duties then, were to publish and write orders for the Commanding General, making written instructions, transmitting them; receving reports and returns, disposing them in their proper categories and ledgers, files-- creating tables and graphs; showing the 'state' of and position of the corps under his Commanding General, working with the details of the service as well as the administration departments, in regard to the needs of the army under his C. O. (Grant). Assisting with the establishment of camps, visiting guards and outposts, mustering and inspecting troops, guards, detachments, forming a line of battle as well as forming troops for 'parade'; he would also be busy attending the conduct and control of deserters and prisoners, checking the ground and discharging other duties that General Grant would direct him to do.

    I highly doubt if Captain through Colonel John Rawlins had a lot of time being General Grant's baby-sitter, especially on how active General Grant's army was.

    I do believe, that Rawlins did have the best mentor on what it took for a civilian to become a military leader. So, like many a volunteer civilian who joined the various armies of either side; he learned on his feet next to an experienced military officer.

    Rawlins doesn't show up as Brig. General until 1863; still AAG; until Vicksburg when he is now Chief of Staff.
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXX/4 [S# 53]
    CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA, TENNESSEE, MISSISSIPPI, NORTH ALABAMA, AND NORTH GEORGIA, FROM AUGUST 11, 1863, TO OCTOBER 19, 1863.--UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ETC.(*)--#19
    HDQRS. MILITARY DIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
    Louisville, Ky., October 19, 1863.
    Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN,
    Commanding Army of the Tennessee, Iuka, Miss.:
    [excerpt]
    The general commanding will leave here to-morrow morning for Chattanooga, where he will establish for the present his headquarters, and until you can communicate with him by a more direct route you will do so there via Nashville, Tenn.
    By order of Maj. Gen. U. S. Grant:
    JOHN A. RAWLINS,
    Brigadier-General and Chief of Staff.
    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME XXXII/2 [S# 58]
    UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN KENTUCKY, SOUTHWEST VIRGINIA, TENNESSEE, MISSISSIPPI, ALABAMA, AND NORTH GEORGIA, FROM JANUARY 1, 1864, TO FEBRUARY 29, 1864.--#20
    HDQRS. MIL. DIV. OF THE MISSISSIPPI,
    Nashville, Tenn., February 27, 1864.
    The following-named officers compose the staff of the general commanding, and will be obeyed and respected accordingly:
    Brig. Gen. John A. Rawlins, chief of staff.
    Brig. Gen. W. F. Smith, chief engineer.
    Brig. Gen. W. Sooy Smith, chief of cavalry.
    Lieut. Col. T. S. Bowers, assistant adjutant-general.
    Lieut. Col. W. L. Duff, chief of artillery.
    Lieut. Col. C. B. Comstock, assistant inspector-general.
    Maj. William R. Rowley, aide-de-camp and provost-marshal-general.
    Capt. Ely S. Parker, assistant adjutant-general.
    Capt. George K. Leet, assistant adjutant-general.
    Capt. O. M. Poe, assistant chief engineer.
    Capt. B. P. Chenoweth, acting assistant inspector-general.
    Capt. S. A. Stockdale, assistant provost-marshal-general.
    Capt. Adam Badeau, additional aide-de-camp.
    Capt. P. T. Hudson, aide-de-camp.
    Capt. O. H. Ross, aide-de-camp.
    Capt. Henry W. Janes, assistant quartermaster.
    Lieut. H. A. Towner, assistant chief of artillery.
    Lieut. W. M. Dunn, jr., acting aide-de-camp.
    By order of Maj. Gen. U.S. Grant:
    T. S. BOWERS,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.
    -----
    Grant has plenty of good minds as to form a good battle plan--again Rawlins isn't the one and only man Grant has.
    --------------------
    O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLI/4 [S# 86]
    UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN LOUISIANA AND THE TRANS-MISSISSIPPI STATES AND TERRITORIES, FROM OCTOBER 16, 1864, to DECEMBER 31, 1864.(*)--#13
    SPECIAL ORDERS No. 114.
    HDQRS. ARMIES OF THE UNITED STATES,
    City Point, Va., October 29, 1864.
    * * * * * * * * * *
    III. Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, commanding Department of the Missouri, will at once order Maj. Gen. A. J. Smith, with his entire command, to proceed immediately by railroad or by marching, whichever is most practicable, to the nearest point for river transportation, and there embark and forward them with all possible dispatch to report to Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas, commanding Army and Department of the Cumberland. An immediate and prompt compliance with this order is required.
    IV. Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, commanding Department of the Missouri, will at once order Maj. Gen. J. A. Mower, with his entire command, to proceed by railroad or by marching, whichever is most practicable, to the nearest point for river transportation, and there embark and forward them with all possible dispatch to report to Maj. Gen. G. H. Thomas, commanding Army and Department of the Cumberland. An immediate and prompt compliance with this order is required.
    V. Brig. Gen. John A. Rawlins, chief of staff, will, under written instructions from the lieutenant-general commanding,(*) proceed to the headquarters of Maj. Gen. W. S. Rosecrans, commanding Department of the Missouri, and to such other points as he may deem necessary to the execution of his instructions. He will remain in the Department of the Missouri until the order or orders intrusted to him for Major-General Rosecrans are complied with, and his instructions executed; and should he deem it necessary, is authorized, as chief of staff, to issue, by command of the lieutenant-general, such orders as will secure the carrying out of the instructions he has received or may receive. The orders he is hereby, or by his instructions, authorized to issue may be directed to Major-General Rosecrans, or to the officer or officers in immediate command of the troops affected by them. Upon the execution of said instructions, General Rawlins will rejoin these headquarters.
    By command of Lieutenant-General Grant:
    T. S. BOWERS,
    Assistant Adjutant-General.
    ------------------
    Rawlins can't be in two places at once--any opportunity for Grant to drink would be in this time frame--however; Grant is a busy man--got plenty of staff officers to work with.


    I feel that Peter Cozzens is not seeing the total picture without prejudice.
    O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLVI/2 [S# 96]
    UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN NORTHERN AND SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA (JANUARY 1-31), WEST VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, AND PENNSYLVANIA, FROM JANUARY 1, 1865, TO MARCH 15, 1865.--#31
    CITY POINT, VA.,March 1, 1865.
    ADJUTANT-GENERAL U.S. ARMY,
    Washington, D.C.:
    In compliance with General Orders, No. 244, War Department, series 1863, I have the honor to report the following-named officers as composing my staff, and on duty with me as such during the past month:
    Brig. Gen. John A. Rawlins, chief of staff; Lieut. Col. T. S. Bowers, assistant adjutant-general; Bvt. Brig. Gen. C. B. Comstock, aide-de-camp, on special service with General A. H. Terry; Lieut. Col. O. E. Babcock, aide-de-camp; Lieut. Col. Horace Porter, aide-de-camp, on inspection duty h, the Department of Virginia; Lieut. Col. F. T. Dent, aide-de-camp; Brig. Gen. S. Williams, assistant inspector-general; Lieut. Col. Adam Badeau, military secretary; Lieut. Col. E. S. Parker, military secretary; Capt. George K. Leer, assistant adjutant-general, in charge of Washington office; Capt. P. T. Hudson, aide-de-camp; Capt. H. C. Robinett, aide-de-camp; Capt. Robert T. Lincoln, assistant adjutant-general, assigned to duty per Special Orders, No. 37, headquarters Armies of the United States, February 23, 1865; Lieut. William McK. Dunn, jr., aide-de-camp; Lieut. D. E. Porter, aide-de-camp; Capt. Amos Webster, assistant quartermaster.
    U.S. GRANT,
    Lieutenant-General.
    -----
    O.R.--SERIES I--VOLUME XLVI/2 [S# 96]
    UNION CORRESPONDENCE, ORDERS, AND RETURNS RELATING TO OPERATIONS IN NORTHERN AND SOUTHEASTERN VIRGINIA, NORTH CAROLINA (JANUARY 1-31), WEST VIRGINIA, MARYLAND, AND PENNSYLVANIA, FROM JANUARY 1, 1865, TO MARCH 15, 1865.--#33
    CITY POINT, VA., March 3, 1865--3 p.m.
    Hon. E. M. STANTON, Secretary of War:
    I would respectfully recommend John A. Rawlins for the appointment of brigadier-general and chief of staff under the bill which has just passed both houses of Congress. Will you please do me the favor to indorse this recommendation favorably.
    U.S. GRANT,
    Lieutenant-General.
    -----
    WAR DEPARTMENT,
    Washington, D.C., March 3, 1865--6 p.m.
    Lieutenant-General GRANT:
    The nomination of General Rawlins will be sent in immediately, and with great pleasure.
    EDWIN M. STANTON,
    Secretary of War.
    -----
    That should have been enough 'thanks' Rawlins needed--especially for an administrative position.


    Respectfully submitted for consideration,
    M. E. Wolf
     
  7. cash

    cash Colonel

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    See the John Rawlins thread. Cozzens is incorrect.

    Regards,
    Cash
     
  8. Rebelrose

    Rebelrose Private

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    M E Wolfe,

    Thank-you for the detailed posting from the Official Records. Please bear in mind I have no knowledge of military "lingo" or military positions, etc.

    I have a question re: the Assistant Adjutant-General's duties. Since this position entails the writing and publishing of orders for the Commanding General, making written instructions and transmitting them, etc., who oversees the actual written work of this position? Who catches any mistakes in these orders and instructions, etc.? It appears that whoever is the Assistant Adjutant-General must be someone the Commanding General trusts implicitly. How is the veracity of the information in the Official Records proven? I have always been curious re: this subject. Is it possible for information in the Official Records to be "slanted" to present a particular person or event in a more favorable "light" (or less favorable "light"), than might have been the true situation or event? Is there any way to know what the truth really was, if the "powers-to-be" decide to present a specific report that supports the viewpoint they want published? Perhaps there is no answer to this query, but I thought I'd ask someone who knows about the military and the Official Records.

    Rebelrose
     
  9. Rebelrose

    Rebelrose Private

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    unionblue and cash,

    Thank-you for the websites re: Grant, and the thread re: Rawlins. I'll check them out for further information.

    Rebelrose
     
  10. Ellsworth avenger

    Ellsworth avenger Sergeant Major

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    Was Warren correct?

    :thumbsup: Thanks all, I am enjoying new reads. Does general Warren have a valid point in describing John Rawlins"a personal coward in danger,but a bold liar and firm believer in the value of a lie".
     
  11. ole

    ole Brev. Brig. Gen'l Retired Moderator

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    Where did you find that, Ellsworth? The quote is new to me.

    Ole
     
  12. M E Wolf

    M E Wolf Brigadier General Moderator

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    RebelRose, ma'am;

    The Official Records of the Rebellion were gathered once hostilities ended and were taken to the War Department to be filed and cataloged.

    When General Robert E. Lee wished to gather information, as to write--Colonel Taylor came to the War Department and saw for himself that the records he signed as AAG to General Lee was not tampered with in any way. He was satisfied. This is mentioned in Taylor's book "Four Years with General Lee;" (to which my copy is loaned out at the moment).

    In addition; General Samuel Cooper--Confederate Army, Adjutant General and Inspector General, turned over the records and stayed to assist in compiling them as to create the "Official Records of the Rebellion."

    Further, General Lunsford Lomax (CSA); stayed to assist in compiling the "Official Records of the Rebellion"

    So there are two Confederate Generals working with these Civil War Records.

    O.R.-- SERIES I--VOLUME 1 [S# 1]
    PREFACE.
    By an act approved June 23, 1874, Congress made an appropriation "to enable the Secretary of War to begin the publication of the Official Records of the War of the Rebellion, both of the Union and Confederate Armies," and directed him "to have copied for the Public Printer all reports, letters, telegrams, and general orders not heretofore copied or printed, and properly arranged in chronological order."
    Appropriations for continuing such preparation have been made from time to time, and the act approved June 16, 1880, has provided "for the printing and binding, under direction of the Secretary of War, of 10,000 copies of a compilation of the Official Records (Union and Confederate) of the War of the Rebellion, so far as the same may be ready for publication, during the fiscal year"; and that "of said number, 7,000 copies shall be for the use of the House of Representatives, 2,000 copies for the use of the Senate, and 1,000 copies for the use of the Executive Departments."
    This compilation will be the first general publication of the military records of the war, and will embrace all official documents that can be obtained by the compiler, and that appear to be of any historical value.
    The publication will present the records in the following order of arrangement:
    The 1st Series will embrace the formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating specially thereto, and, as proposed, is to be accompanied by an Atlas.
    In this series the reports will be arranged according to the campaigns and several theaters of operations (in the chronological order of the events), and the Union reports of any event will, as a rule, be immediately followed by the Confederate accounts. The correspondence, not embraced in the "reports" proper will follow (first Union and next Confederate) in chronological order.
    The 2d Series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war, and (so far as the military authorities were concerned) to State or political, prisoners. [III] The 3d Series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Union authorities (embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials) not relating specially to the subjects of the first and second series. It will set forth the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments; the calls for troops, and the correspondence between the National and the several State authorities.
    The 4th Series will exhibit the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the third series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.
    ROBERT N. SCOTT,
    Major, Third Art., and Bvt. Lieut. Col.
    WAR DEPARTMENT, August 23, 1880.
    Approved:
    ALEX. RAMSEY,
    Secretary of War.


    O.R.--GENERAL INDEX [SN #130]
    PREFACE.
    he civil war, the military records of which are contained in the publication known as the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies," extended over a period of more than four years. The armies assembled by the North and South were engaged in almost incessant hostilities over a theater of operations which embraced in its vast area dense forests and cultivated plains, mountain ranges and valleys, sea-coasts and sounds, lakes and rivers, bayous and trackless swamps. The armed participants in this great struggle were numbered by millions and the regiments by thousands.

    continued
     
  13. M E Wolf

    M E Wolf Brigadier General Moderator

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    O.R.--GENERAL INDEX [SN #130]
    PREFACE. CONTINUED

    Bearing these facts in mind, some conception may be had of the voluminous character of the archives which it was necessary to examine in the course of the compilation of this publication; they embrace the records, Union and Confederate, of every company, battery, regiment, brigade, division, corps and army, as well as those of geographical military departments and divisions, and include the files of the War Department and all of its bureaus. The Union records are to a great extent complete; those of the Confederacy are in many respects deficient. The more important documents are preserved in the State, War and Navy building and in other buildings in the city of Washington, while others, not required for daily consultation, are stored elsewhere. In the prosecution of the work it was necessary to search all of these records, and it was also necessary that the search should be made by experts who were well qualified for the duty by reason of their service in the Army and in the War Department.

    The work of compiling and publishing the civil war records was projected near the close of the first Administration of President Lincoln, and has been continued during the Administrations of succeeding Presidents, under the direction of Secretaries of War Edwin M. Stanton, Ulysses S. Grant, John M. Schofield, John A. Rawlins, William T. Sherman. William W. Belknap, Alphonso Taft, James D. Cameron, George W. McCrary, Alexander Ramsey, Robert T. Lincoln, William C. Endicott, Redfield Proctor, Stephen B. Elkins, Daniel S. Lamont, Russell A. Alger and Elihu Root.
    The following table shows the number of volumes published, the number of parts or books composing each volume, the number of pages in each book, the date of commencement of issue of each, and [iv] the total number of volumes, books and pages in the entire publication:
    [ommitting extremely large table of details on volumes]
    Total number of volumes 70
    Total number of books 128
    Total number of pages 138,579
    Total number of maps and sketches in the Atlas 1,006
    The total cost of the publication has been as follows:

    For salaries $1,265,895.68
    Printing and binding l,479,447.49
    Miscellaneous 113,171.50
    Total 2,858,514.67
    The foregoing statement of cost, however, does not include the pay of the army officers detailed from time to time for duty in connection with the work.
    It is believed that with this, the final, volume of the publication a brief review of the work will be appropriate and not without interest.
    The initiative of the project of collecting for publication the official records of the civil war appears to have been taken by Congress in a joint resolution approved May 19, 1864 (13 Stat. L., 406), which directed the Secretary of War to--
    Furnish the Superintendent of Public Printing with copies of all such correspondence, by telegraph or otherwise, reports of commanding officers, and documents of every description in relation to the existing rebellion, to be found in the archives of his Department since the first day of December, eighteen hundred and sixty, to the present time, and during the continuance of said rebellion, which may be, in his opinion, proper to be published, [which] said correspondence, reports, and documents shall be arranged in their proper chronological order.
    In accordance with this resolution the work of preparing the records of the war for convenient use was begun by Col. E. D. Townsend, Assistant Adjutant-General, United States Army (then in charge of the Adjutant-General's Office and subsequently Adjutant-General), who reported October 31, 1864, that a large part of the official reports of the operations of the armies of the United States had been copied, and that the work was progressing.
    Especial attention does not appear to have been given to the subject of the Confederate records until Maj. Gen. H. W. Halleck's visit to Richmond shortly after its capture, when, on May 11, 1865, he wrote Secretary Stanton of his efforts to secure and preserve the archives of the Confederacy, and reported that over ninety large boxes had been shipped to Washington. Shortly thereafter (July 21, 1865) a division was organized in the Adjutant-General's Office "for the collection, safe-keeping and publication of the rebel archives that have come into the possession of the Government," and Dr. Francis Lieber was placed in charge of the work. In his annual report of November following, the Secretary of War reported that eight volumes of the war records, with maps and indexes, had been sent to the printer, but it appears that none of this matter was actually printed, no funds therefor having been appropriated.
    On July 27, 1866, the joint resolution of May 19, 1864, was repealed and another enacted that provided for the appointment by the Secretary of War of "a competent person to arrange and prepare for publication the official documents relating to the rebellion and the operations of the army of the United States, who shall prepare a plan for said publication and estimates of the cost thereof, to be submitted to Congress at its next session" (14 Stat. L., 369). Hon. Peter H. Watson, formerly Assistant Secretary of War, was appointed to the position thus created, but it does not appear that he rendered [vii] any service under the appointment, which expired July 27, 1868, by limitation.
    The designation of the military records, Union and Confederate, as "The Official Records of the War of the Rebellion" first appeared in the act approved June 23, 1874 (18 Stat. L., 222), which appropriated the sum of $15,000, to enable the Secretary of War to begin the publication of those records.
    Under this act the preliminary work was resumed by General Townsend. To W. T. Barnard, the private secretary of the Secretary of War, was assigned the duty of examining the telegrams sent and received by the Secretary of War and General Halleck, and the examination of papers in the Adjutant-General's Office was conducted by Joseph W. Kirkley, A. P. Tasker, S. R. Davis and N. W. King, clerks in that office, outside of office hours, in addition to their regular duties, and for a long time without additional compensation. Progress under this arrangement was so discouragingly slow that Secretary Belknap asked and obtained, by the act of March 3, 1875 (18 Stat. L., 390), a further appropriation of $50,000, which became immediately available. This act provided extra compensation for employés who should perform extra services in connection with the war records.
    A reorganization of personnel and methods was then attempted, but the work nevertheless retained a somewhat desultory and disjointed character, being still considered a species of piecework, to be performed in addition to other duties and without interference with them. The chief clerk of the War Department, H. T. Crosby, was designated to compile the records and have general superintendence of the whole work. To W. T. Barnard, who had previously been charged with the preparation of telegraphic correspondence of the Department, was assigned the selection of material from the Confederate records and Union telegrams and the superintendence of copying and printing. A number of experienced clerks in the War Department was designated to select matter from the files, and to collate and arrange it for the Public Printer. The small printing force previously employed was slightly increased, and an additional number of copyists was appointed. The energies of this force were especially directed to bringing forward the preparation of the Confederate records, so that they might be ready for publication simultaneously with the Union records.
    A further appropriation of $40,000 was made by the act, of July 31, 1876 (19 Stat. L., 119). On the 25th of the same month Mr. Barnard was directed, "in addition to his other duties," to assume charge of the compilation of the records of the War of the Rebellion, and was placed in direct control of the force of printers, copyists and other employés connected with the work. Orders were also given for the detail from various bureaus of "such clerical force as may be absolutely required for the selection and arrangement for publication of the records of those bureaus; such duty not to interfere with the regular labor of [viii] the clerks so employed." Mr. Barnard retained charge of the work less than a year, being relieved therefrom, at his own request, May 26, 1877, when Thomas J. Saunders, a clerk who was then engaged upon the work, was designated to "perform all the duties of superintendent," without additional compensation.
    By the act of March 3, 1877 (19 Stat. L., 360), another appropriation of $20,000 was made. Up to December 1, 1877, $125,000 had been appropriated for the work, which had been carried on spasmodically, without system, under different "superintendents," and with divided responsibility, so that it is not surprising that the work was still in an inchoate and unsatisfactory condition. At that time forty-seven volumes (thirty-seven relating to Union and ten to Confederate operations) had been compiled and put in type, and thirty copies of each had been printed. No attempt had been made to collate the matter so that the records relating to particular actions and events should be assembled in consecutive order. This first compilation was not regarded by those most familiar with the records, or by prominent actors in the events, as satisfactory--the Union reports respecting any battle being in one volume, the Confederate reports in another, the Union correspondence, in letter form, in a third, that in telegraphic form in a fourth, the Confederate correspondence, in letter and telegraphic form, in two more; so that in order to find all matter pertaining to any event it was necessary to consult at least six separate volumes.
    Perceiving that the work required the undivided attention of a single head, Secretary McCrary, December 14, 1877, detailed Capt. Robert N. Scott, Third United States Artillery (subsequently major and lieu-tenant-colonel, same regiment), to take charge of the work. "The Publication Office, War Records," afterward known as the "War Records Office," received its first definite organization under his charge.
    The statute of 1874, which directed that the publication be begun, also directed that the Secretary of War have prepared for the Public Printer copies of "all reports, letters, telegrams and general orders, not heretofore copied or printed." A literal interpretation of the language would have warranted the printing of a great quantity of matter of no historical interest. Secretary McCrary, therefore, approved a proposition submitted by Captain Scott January 26, 1878, to omit from the publication--
    (1) Applications for appointment, arms, contracts, discharge, special exchange, muster in, &c.
    (2) Charges of disloyalty, &c., preferred by private individuals or anonymously against officers, agents, &c.
    (3) Claims of all descriptions.
    (4) Tenders of troops or personal service by individuals.
    (5) Offers for contracts or of inventions.
    (6) Ordinary routine business of the bureaus and departments.
    (7) Unsolicited advice or suggestions from individuals.
    The sum of $40,000 was appropriated by the act of June 20, 1878 (20 Star. L., 222), and $40,490 by the act of March 3, 1879 (20 Stat. L., 388); but the act of June 16, 1880 (21 Stat. L., 269), providing for the printing, binding and distributing of 10,000 copies was the first to sanction the actual distributed of the rebellion records. This act did not in any way alter the scope of the work. The "preparation for publication" consisted as before of compiling the matter, putting it in type, and printing thirty copies of each volume. In all, seventy-nine of these preliminary volumes were printed and, as previously stated, the Union reports of operations, letters received and sent and telegrams received and sent, were all in separate volumes, the matter in each being arranged chronologically. The Confederate records were similarly arranged; and up to 1879 there appears to have been no other plan of publication decided upon, for the Secretary of War in his annual report of November 19, 1878, recommended legislation that would have circulated extensively as the "Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies" these volumes, which in later years became known as "preliminary prints." No use has ever been made of them except as printer's copy in the compilation of the later and regular official publication, although the work of compiling and patting them in type continued until a short time prior to the creation of the Board of Publication in 1889. A complete set of this preliminary and obsolete edition is in the library of the War Department.
    After he had been nearly three years in charge of the work, Major Scott, recognizing the necessity of a methodical arrangement of the matter so that the general reader could find in one volume a connected account of any military event, drew up a further plan of publication, and on August 23, 1880, this project, which has since been printed in the preface to each volume of the several series and never departed from, was approved by Secretary Ramsey. It was as follows:
    The first series will embrace the formal reports, both Union and Confederate, of the first seizures of United States property in the Southern States, and of all military operations in the field, with the correspondence, orders, and returns relating specially thereto, and, as proposed, is to be accompanied by an Atlas.
    In this series the reports will be arranged according to the campaigns and several theaters of operations (in the chronological order of events), and the Union reports of any event will, as a rule, be immediately followed by the Confederate accounts. The correspondence, &c., not embraced in the "reports" proper will follow (first Union and next Confederate) in chronological order.
    The second series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns, Union and Confederate, relating to prisoners of war, and (so far as the military authorities were concerned) to State or political prisoners.
    The third series will contain the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Union authorities (embracing their correspondence with the Confederate officials) not relating specially to the subjects of the first and second series. It will set forth the annual and special reports of the Secretary of War, of the General-in-Chief, and of the chiefs of the several staff corps and departments; the calls for troops, and the correspondence between the National and the several State authorities. [x]

    continued
     
  14. M E Wolf

    M E Wolf Brigadier General Moderator

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    The fourth series will exhibit the correspondence, orders, reports, and returns of the Confederate authorities, similar to that indicated for the Union officials, as of the third series, but excluding the correspondence between the Union and Confederate authorities given in that series.
    The publication of the records under this plan was at once begun, Volume I of Series I being distributed in July, 1881.

    From the outset of the work there was a great deficiency of Confederate records. During the last year of the war the reports rendered by Confederate officers were generally meager and incomplete. Toward the close of hostilities many papers of great historical value were intentionally destroyed by their holders, and a still greater number was concealed. Others were burned with public buildings or were carried off by relic hunters, and in various ways the official Confederate files were depleted.

    In view of the distrust with which the Southern people for a while naturally regarded the movements made by the Government with a view to the procurement of the records of the Confederacy, it is not surprising that the efforts of the Department to complete its Confederate files met at first with slight success or assistance. However, Marcus J. Wright, formerly a brigadier-general in the Confederate Army, was appointed July 1, 1878, agent for the collection of Confederate archives, and in this capacity he continued employed until the completion of the work. Through his efforts and tact the attitude of the Southern people toward the compilation became more cordial, and, as their confidence increased, records were brought out from their places of concealment and forwarded to the Department as gifts or deposited as loans. Purchases of collections of Confederate records have been made as follows:

    From Marcus J. Wright, October 28, 1875 $2,000
    From William P. Johnston, July 2, 1878 10,000
    From Thomas L. Snead, July 3, 1878 4,000
    From Thomas L. Snead, March 11, 1879 6,000
    Total 22,000


    The policy of purchasing records was soon abandoned, owing to the great expenditure it would necessitate and the unfair discrimination which such purchases would involve in respect to those who had gratuitously delivered up valuable collections to the Department; but, notwithstanding this change of policy, the war papers of many prominent Confederate as well as Union officers were subsequently donated to the Government. Among the notable collections in the possession of the War Department may be mentioned the records of the commands of the Confederate Generals R. E. Lee, Joseph E. ,Johnston, G. T. Beauregard, James Longstreet, Stephen D. Lee, Sterling Price, Leonidas Polk, E. Kirby Smith, J. B. Hood, James R. Chalmers, Samuel Jones, R. S. Ripley, A. P. Stewart and William Steele.

    As the fact of these donations became generally known and confidence in the impartiality of the publication increased, numerous and constantly increasing contributions from all parts of the country followed. The former President of the Confederate States, Jefferson Davis, during his lifetime, and his widow after his death, afforded the Government access to his papers relating to the late war, and from this source were obtained copies of archives of the greatest historical value.

    As the magnitude of the task that had been undertaken became better appreciated and larger means were provided for its prosecution, other former Confederate officers were appointed to assist in the compilation of the Confederate archives, to represent the Confederate interests and to assure impartiality. Among these were Maj. Gens. Cadmus M. Wilcox, Charles W. Field, L. L. Lomax and Henry Heth, Col. E. J. Harvie and Maj. Jed. Hotchkiss, chief topographer of the Army of Northern Virginia.

    At an early date a question arose as to the admissibility of papers prepared after the close of the war. Several requests were made by former officers, whose duty it had been to make reports of certain events, but whose reports, if made, could not be found, for permission to prepare and submit reports in lieu of the missing ones for publication. In October, 1876, George H. Gordon, formerly brigadier-general, United States Volunteers, submitted certain documents for file as a part of the official records. Secretary J. D. Cameron rejected a printed narrative thus submitted on the ground that, under the act of Congress approved June 23, 1874:, only official documents or authenticated copies thereof could be embraced in the publication. Upon being informed of this action General Gordon stated that from information received by him he understood that reports of military operations in the late war, compiled long afterward, had been filed as official documents for publication. Secretary Cameron replied that search based upon General Gordon's statement failed to disclose that any reports additional to those made within a reasonable time subsequent to the occurrences which they narrate had been incorporated or filed with such reports. Similar applications were made from time to time by other persons and were denied.

    On June 19, 1882, a bill was introduced in Congress (House bill 6528, Forty-seventh Congress, first session) authorizing the Secretary of War to--
    receive, for the period of one year from the passage of this act, from the late commanding officers of the United States troops serving in the war of the rebellion, or from the senior officer now living who participated in the actions or in the campaigns of said troops, reports of their respective commands; also from those officers who wish to correct errors in their original reports, or who can furnish additional information by more complete and detailed reports. The reports received in pursuance [x] of this act shall be arranged and prepared, under the direction of the Secretary of War, for publication in a supplemental volume to series one of the history of the war now being prepared and published.
    In its report to Congress upon this bill, December 7, 1882, the War Department invited attention to an inclosed report from Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, which pointed out the confusion and controversies to which such legislation would inevitably lead. In his report Lieutenant-Colonel Scott remarked:

    The experience of this office has demonstrated the utter unreliability of recollections of the war. I have had a Union colonel apply for permission to retract a statement never made in his report of Ball's Bluff. A general officer has complained that his report of Shiloh was garbled, but when shown his original report he acknowledged that it was correctly printed. Again, a Confederate major-general denied ever having made a report that he saw noted in our catalogue, and on inspection it was found to be in his own handwriting, and he so acknowledged. As another instance I would mention that an attempt to ascertain who commanded a certain Confederate brigade in the Gettysburg campaign has developed two claimants for the position.
    The bill was not enacted, and the Department, regarding this as an indorsement of its course, continued its previous policy of excluding post-bellum matter.
    By the act of July 31, 1886 (24 Stat. L., 195), it was directed that--
    The evidence taken by the court-martial on the trial of Fitz John Porter, and the arguments made before the court by counsel for the prosecution and defense, together with the report thereon by Judge Holt to President Lincoln and any reply thereto filed with the President before approval of sentence, shall be printed in connection with matter already printed concerning the proceedings of said court-martial.

    In accordance with this legislation the record of the Fitz John Porter trial was compiled and published as a supplement to Volume XII, Part II, of the Official Records.
    As a rule, where the publication records the dismissal of officers for alleged cowardice or other misconduct and the officers were afterward reinstated, or where it contains grave charges upon which the officers implicated were subsequently tried and acquitted or otherwise vindicated, foot-notes have been entered inviting attention to the supplementary record.

    Lieutenant-Colonel Scott died March 5, 1887. At his death twenty-five books (Volumes I to XVIII) only had been issued, but he had compiled a large amount of matter for forthcoming volumes; consequently his name as compiler was retained in all the books up to and including Volume XXXVI, although his successors had added largely to his compilation from new material found after his demise. Col. H. M. Lazelle, Twenty-third United States Infantry, was assigned to duty as the successor of Lieutenant-Colonel Scott, May 7, 1887.

    [excerpt]
    Maj. (now Brig. Gen. and Judge-Advocate-General) George B. Davis, Judge-Advocate, United States Army, was appointed military member and president of the board thus authorized, and Leslie J. Perry and Joseph W. Kirkley were appointed as the civilian members, in July, 1889.
    Shortly after the appointment of the Board of Publication efforts looking to the appointment of an officer of the late Confederate armies as a member of the board culminated in a formal request to that effect, which was embodied in a letter to the Secretary of War signed by twenty-seven United States Senators. In his reply Secretary Proctor remarked:
    The act of March 2, 1889, which created the Board of Publication, required that body to be composed of " an officer of the Army * * * and two civilian experts." The board had already been constituted under that act before the receipt of your communication.
    Maj. George B. Davis, of the Judge-Advocate-General's Department, is the military member of the board. One of the two civilian experts, Mr. Joseph W. Kirkley, was promoted from the position of chief clerk of the division of returns and battle reports of the Adjutant-General's Office. He has been identified with the undertaking from its inception, and I think it is not too much to say that his expert services in connection with the rapid publication of the work are exceedingly important. The third member, Mr. Leslie J. Perry, served as an enlisted man throughout the entire period of the war. His recommendations as to character, capacity and ability were of the highest order, and having been previously engaged in newspaper work he seemed peculiarly available for a position on the board, of which he has proved himself an efficient member.
    In considering the constitution of the board I found that three out of five Army officers on duty, the agent for the collection of the Confederate records, and over one-half of the employés of the office were from the South. These facts seemed to <xiv> warrant the conclusion that the services of the Confederate armies would be fully, adequately and fairly presented. General Marcus J. Wright, formerly of the Confederate Army, has been continued as agent for the collection of the Confederate records, and his position in the work is next in importance to a position upon the board itself.
    It may be well to observe in this connection that all Confederate matter is, and for some time has been, inserted in the volumes. Much of this is of so little importance as to warrant its rejection were it on the Union side; but the Confederate material is becoming so meager in amount, and so great is the desire of the board to present that side as fully as possible, that it has been determined to publish every scrap which can be procured which relates, even remotely, to the operations of the Confederate armies or to the workings of the Confederate Government, in its relation to the war. It will thus be seen that, as everything is published, there can be no partiality or unfairness in the presentation of that side in the volumes of the Official Records. Indeed, I have yet to learn that any charge of unfairness in this respect has ever been presented or even entertained.
    .................and it goes on and on.

    The former members of the Confederacy were always included in compiling the Official Records of the Rebellion.--It wasn't 'just' a Union effort--it was an American effort.

    Just some thoughts.

    Respectfully submitted for consideration,
    M. E. Wolf (no E on the end)
     
  15. Rebelrose

    Rebelrose Private

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    M E Wolf (no "e" on the end),

    Wow! I had no idea that the "Official Records" was such an enormous project, what with all the man hours and the total dollar cost of the project. I'm also totally amazed that they were able to include as much information on the Confederacy as they eventually did, with so much information destroyed by the war and "souvenir hunters". Of course there were probably some mistakes, but as a former government worker (officer of the court), it is impossible to avoid all human error when it comes to paperwork. The seriousness of said human errors is only realized when the paperwork is presented for scrutiny.

    Thank-you for taking so much of your time to present this information to the Forum. I had no idea that the answer to my query would be so inclusive. I am in your debt.

    Rebelrose
     
  16. Leah's Choice

    Leah's Choice Cadet

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    The following comes from Bruce Catton's "Grant Takes Command," pages 135 - 137

    There may be more about the Grant/Rawlins issue in this book....I just happened to run across this part the other day while browsing. It seems as though Wilson attached some wings to the notion that Rawlins was the REAL Grant.
     
  17. Horace Porter

    Horace Porter Sergeant

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    Given that James H. Wilson came to hate Grant, that's understandable. That happened after he stopped sleeping with Adam Badeau.
     
  18. Rebelrose

    Rebelrose Private

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    Leah,

    Fascinating stuff! It appears that the "powers-to-be" did, and still do, whatever it takes to remain in "power". Somethings never change. It certainly does make it difficult to learn the truth about our past leaders, good or bad. I've run into this type of undermining one leader by another leader to gain whatever "prize" is being sought in my study of Southern leaders, but had no idea the same type of "under-handedness" existed among Northern leaders. Thanks for sharing.

    Rebelrose
     
  19. Scribe

    Scribe Cadet

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    Take a look at the career of General John M. Schofield. He was a disloyal subordinate and an ungenerous superior.
     
  20. Severon

    Severon Cadet

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    Ha ha ha!:laugh1:
     
  21. Ellsworth avenger

    Ellsworth avenger Sergeant Major

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    Sorry Ole,should have been back to thread sooner great reads. Warren's quote on Rawlings character is given by David m. Jordan in his book "Happiness is not my companion":The life of General G.K. Warren on page 236.
     

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